Summary: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

Top Publications

  1. Omar S, Zhang J, Mackinnon S, Leaman D, Durst T, Philogene B, et al. Traditionally-used antimalarials from the Meliaceae. Curr Top Med Chem. 2003;3:133-9 pubmed
    ..Ser. (Meliaceae) as an important antimalarial used by Kenyah Dyak healers in Indonesian Borneo...
  2. Ismail I, Ito H, Hatano T, Taniguchi S, Yoshida T. Modified limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:1345-9 pubmed
    ..Three trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins A, B and C, were isolated from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape and their structures, which are related to capensolactones, were elucidated by a detailed 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. ..
  3. Lee S, Kim M, Kim J, Takeoka G, Kim T, Park B. Antimalarial activity of anthothecol derived from Khaya anthotheca (Meliaceae). Phytomedicine. 2008;15:533-5 pubmed
    Antimalarial activity of anthothecol, a limonoid of Khaya anthotheca (Meliaceae) against Plasmodium falciparum was tested using a [(3)H]-hypoxanthine and 48h culture assay in vitro...
  4. Pudhom K, Sommit D, Nuclear P, Ngamrojanavanich N, Petsom A. Protoxylocarpins F-H, protolimonoids from seed kernels of Xylocarpus granatum. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:2188-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines...
  5. Hsieh T, Liu T, Chia Y, Chern C, Lu F, Chuang M, et al. Protective effect of methyl gallate from Toona sinensis (Meliaceae) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in MDCK cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42:843-50 pubmed
    ..The underlying mechanisms involved scavenging of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of intracellular GSH depletion...
  6. Wu J, Zhang S, Bruhn T, Xiao Q, Ding H, Bringmann G. Xylogranatins F-R: antifeedants from the Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, a new biogenetic pathway to tetranortriterpenoids. Chemistry. 2008;14:1129-44 pubmed
    ..The most potent compound tested was xylogranatin G. Its AFC(50) (concentration for 50 % antifeedant activity) values at the exposure times of 24 and 48 h were 0.31 and 0.30 mg mL(-1), respectively...
  7. Pudhom K, Sommit D, Nuclear P, Ngamrojanavanich N, Petsom A. Moluccensins H-J, 30-ketophragmalin limonoids from Xylocarpus moluccensis. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:263-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 displayed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus hominis and Enterococcus faecalis...
  8. Wang P, Tsai M, Hsu C, Wang C, Hsu H, Weng C. Toona sinensis Roem (Meliaceae) leaf extract alleviates hyperglycemia via altering adipose glucose transporter 4. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2554-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusively, T. sinensis Roem (Meliaceae) leaf possesses the hypoglycemia effect underlying an increment of insulin to mediate the adipose glucose ..
  9. Li M, Yang S, Pan J, Xiao Q, Satyanandamurty T, Wu J. Moluccensins A-G, phragmalins with a conjugated C-30 carbonyl group from a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1657-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and spectroscopic data. This is the first report of phragmalins with a conjugated C-30 carbonyl group...

More Information


  1. Diallo D, Paulsen B, Liljebäck T, Michaelsen T. The malian medicinal plant Trichilia emetica; studies on polysaccharides with complement fixing ability. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:279-87 pubmed
    ..Removal of terminal arabinofuranosides lead to a drop of the activity indicating that this structural unit may be involved in the bioactive site of the molecule...
  2. Cheng F, Zhou Y, Zou K, Wu J. [Studies on the chemical constituents of the fruit of Xylocarpus granatum]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:1220-3 pubmed
    ..To study the chemical constituents of the fruit of Xylocarpus granatum...
  3. Cui J, Deng Z, Li J, Fu H, Proksch P, Lin W. Phragmalin-type limonoids from the mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:2334-9 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as IR and MS spectroscopic data analyses...
  4. Ravangpai W, Sommit D, Teerawatananond T, Sinpranee N, Palaga T, Pengpreecha S, et al. Limonoids from seeds of Thai Xylocarpus moluccensis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:4485-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Uddin S, Shilpi J, Alam S, Alamgir M, Rahman M, Sarker S. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of the barks of Xylocarpus moluccensis in castor oil- and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101:139-43 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that Xylocarpus moluccensis could be a potential source for novel 'lead' discovery for antidiarrhoeal drug development...
  6. Senthil Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Sehoon K. Effects of Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. (Meliaceae) extract on the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Bioresour Technol. 2006;97:2077-83 pubmed
    ..Methanol extracts of leaves from the Indian white cedar Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. (Meliaceae) were tested against mature and immature Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera) mosquitoes under laboratory ..
  7. Wu J, Zhang S, Li M, Zhou Y, Xiao Q. Xylogranatins A-D, new mexicanolides from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:1582-5 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 2D NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC and NOESY...
  8. Miranda Júnior R, Dolabela M, da Silva M, Povoa M, Maia J. Antiplasmodial activity of the andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., Meliaceae) oil and its limonoid-rich fraction. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:679-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-saponifiable fraction separated from the oil is rich in limonoids, which assigns its pharmacological effects...
  9. Zhang J, Yang S, Yang X, Li M, Feng G, Pan J, et al. Mexicanolides from the seeds of a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:552-5 pubmed
    ..The (13)C-NMR data of khayasin were reported for the first time. Khayasin was found to exhibit marked insecticidal activity against the fifth instar larvae of Brontispa longissima (GESTRO) at a concentration of 10 mg/l...
  10. Koul O, Daniewski W, Multani J, Gumulka M, Singh G. Antifeedant effects of the limonoids from Entandrophragma candolei (Meliaceae) on the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:7271-5 pubmed
    ..activity of the limonoids prieurianin and epoxyprieurianin isolated from Entandrophragma candolei (Harms) (Meliaceae) and their respective acetates was assessed using the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera:..
  11. Yin S, Wang X, Fan C, Liao S, Yue J. The first limonoid peroxide in the Meliaceae family: walsuronoid A from Walsura robusta. Org Lett. 2007;9:2353-6 pubmed
    ..Biosynthetic pathway of 2 and 3 was proposed and was chemically mimicked. Compounds 1 and 2 showed weak antimalarial activity...
  12. Agbedahunsi J, Fakoya F, Adesanya S. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and toxic effects of the stem bark of Khaya ivorensis (Meliaceae) on rats. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:504-8 pubmed
    Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. (Meliaceae) is a common feature in anti-malarial recipe prescribed by African traditional medical practitioners. Investigations have proved that Khaya species possesses some level of anti-plasmodial activity...
  13. Liu J, Yang S, Su Z, Lin B, Wu Y, Yue J. Limonoids from the stems of Toona ciliata var. henryi (Meliaceae). Phytochemistry. 2011;72:2189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..henryi (Meliaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two compounds showed strong cytotoxic activities.
  14. Li M, Yang X, Pan J, Feng G, Xiao Q, Sinkkonen J, et al. Granatumins A-G, limonoids from the seeds of a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:2110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..double bonds, and granatumins F and G are polyhydroxylated phragmalins found previously in plants of the Meliaceae. Khayasin T exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against fifth instar larvae of Brontispa longissima (Gestro)..
  15. Norghauer J, Grogan J, Malcolm J, Felfili J. Long-distance dispersal helps germinating mahogany seedlings escape defoliation by a specialist caterpillar. Oecologia. 2010;162:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..between newly germinating seedlings of a Neotropical emergent tree, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae), and caterpillars of a noctuid moth (Steniscadia poliophaea)...
  16. Rolim A, Maciel C, Kaneko T, Consiglieri V, Salgado Santos I, Velasco M. Validation assay for total flavonoids, as rutin equivalents, from Trichilia catigua Adr. Juss (Meliaceae) and Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Olacaceae) commercial extract. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:1015-9 pubmed
    ..Juss (Meliaceae) and Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Olacaceae) commercial extract...
  17. Misra S, Verma M, Mishra S, Srivastava S, Lakshmi V, Misra Bhattacharya S. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum possess antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in experimental rodent host. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..granatum contains promising in vitro and in vivo antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarial parasite B. malayi which could be attributed to the presence of two pure compounds gedunin and photogedunin...
  18. Lakshmi V, Srivastava S, Mishra S, Srivastava M, Srivastava K, Puri S. Antimalarial activity in Xylocarpus granatum (Koen). Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:1012-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Out of these only gedunin and xyloccensin-I were found to show activity equivalent to the parent active fraction in vitro model...
  19. Du S, Wang M, Zhu W, Qin Z. A new fungicidal lactone from Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:1316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..At a concentration of 20 microg mL(-1), the new lactone gave a 67.4% inhibition rate against wheat powdery mildew...
  20. Duminil J, Kenfack D, Viscosi V, Grumiau L, Hardy O. Testing species delimitation in sympatric species complexes: the case of an African tropical tree, Carapa spp. (Meliaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;62:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have addressed species delimitation of sympatric tropical tree species that belong to Carapa spp. (Meliaceae) in Central Africa...
  21. Muellner A, Schaefer H, Lahaye R. Evaluation of candidate DNA barcoding loci for economically important timber species of the mahogany family (Meliaceae). Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11:450-60 pubmed publisher
    ..8S-ITS2) in a group of land plants belonging to the mahogany family, Meliaceae. Across these samples, only ITS showed high levels of resolvability...
  22. Li J, Li M, Feng G, Zhang J, Karonen M, Sinkkonen J, et al. Moluccensins R-Y, limonoids from the seeds of a mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:1277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The most potent compound tested was 2-hydroxyfissinolide (4), with an AFC(50) (concentration for 50% antifeedant activity) value of 94 ?g/mL at 24 h...
  23. Rhoden S, Garcia A, Rubin Filho C, Azevedo J, Pamphile J. Phylogenetic diversity of endophytic leaf fungus isolates from the medicinal tree Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae). Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:2513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae) is a native tree that grows abundantly in several regions of Brazil...
  24. Costa Silva J, Lima C, Silva E, Araújo A, Fraga M, Ribeiro e Ribeiro A, et al. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:495-500 pubmed publisher
    Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as Andiroba in Brazil, has been used by Amazon Rainforest indigenous communities for treatment of coughs, convulsions, skin diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, ear infections, to heal wounds and bruises ..
  25. Yin S, Wang X, Fan C, Lin L, Ding J, Yue J. Limonoids from the seeds of the marine mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:682-5 pubmed
    ..The structure of xyloccensin U (4a) was revised as 4b by comparison with granaxylocarpin D (4). The cytotoxicity of these isolates was evaluated against the P-388 and A-549 tumor cell lines...
  26. Kamadyaapa D, Gondwe M, Moodley K, Ojewole J, Musabayane C. Cardiovascular effects of Ekebergia capensis Sparrm (Meliaceae) ethanolic leaf extract in experimental animal paradigms. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2009;20:162-7, 169 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the hypotensive effect of EKE was in part mediated via modulation of total peripheral resistance of the vascular smooth muscles...
  27. Zhou Y, Cheng F, Wu J, Zou K. Polyhydroxylated phragmalins from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:1083-5 pubmed
    ..The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods...
  28. Sarker S, Uddin S, Shilpi J, Rouf R, Ferdous M, Nahar L. Neuropharmacological properties of Xylocarpus moluccensis. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:107-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both the bark and pneumatophore extracts possess CNS depressant activity, the pneumatophore extract being more potent than the bark extract...
  29. Norghauer J, Nock C, Grogan J. The importance of tree size and fecundity for wind dispersal of big-leaf mahogany. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17488 pubmed publisher
    ..seed dispersal by the endangered neotropical timber species big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon at 25 relatively isolated trees using multiple 1-m wide belt transects extended 100 m ..
  30. Uddin S, Nahar L, Shilpi J, Shoeb M, Borkowski T, Gibbons S, et al. Gedunin, a limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum, inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line in vitro. Phytother Res. 2007;21:757-61 pubmed
    Xylocarpus granatum J. König (Meliaceae), commonly known as 'dhundul', is a Bangladeshi mangrove tree, and well distributed in a number of other countries of south-east Asia, Australia and east Africa. Traditionally, X...
  31. Qi S, Wu D, Zhang S, Luo X. Constituents of Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae). Pharmazie. 2004;59:488-90 pubmed
    ..Among them 1 was new, 2 was firstly isolated from nature, and 3-9 were obtained from this plant for the first time...
  32. Yin S, Fan C, Wang X, Lin L, Ding J, Yue J. Xylogranatins A-D: novel tetranortriterpenoids with an unusual 9,10-seco scaffold from marine mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Org Lett. 2006;8:4935-8 pubmed
  33. Rouf R, Uddin S, Shilpi J, Alamgir M. Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109:539-42 pubmed
    ..m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine...
  34. Cui J, Wu J, Deng Z, Proksch P, Lin W. Xylocarpins A-I, limonoids from the Chinese mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:772-8 pubmed
    ..The structure of xyloccensin U was revised to be 6-dehydroxyxylocarpin D on the basis of 2D spectroscopic data...
  35. Asase A, Kokubun T, Grayer R, Kite G, Simmonds M, Oteng Yeboah A, et al. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Ghana: Cassia sieberiana, Haematostaphis barteri, Mitragyna inermis and Pseudocedrela kotschyi. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1013-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Anacardiaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms (Meliaceae), from Ghana were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas syringae and Cladosporium herbarum using TLC ..
  36. Zhang H, Tan J, VanDerveer D, Wang X, Wargovich M, Chen F. Khayanolides from African mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae): A revision. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..E 4, 6-dehydroxylkhayanolide E 5) were isolated from the stem bark of African mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae)...
  37. Wu J, Xiao Q, Huang J, Xiao Z, Qi S, Li Q, et al. Xyloccensins O and P, unique 8,9,30-phragmalin ortho esters from Xylocarpus granatum. Org Lett. 2004;6:1841-4 pubmed
    ..They are a new type of ortho ester of phragmalin. The structures were determined by spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The biogenetic pathway to these new phragmalins was also proposed. [structure: see text]..
  38. Nayak B, Kanhai J, Milne D, Swanston W, Mayers S, Eversley M, et al. Investigation of the wound healing activity of Carapa guianensis L. (Meliaceae) bark extract in rats using excision, incision, and dead space wound models. J Med Food. 2010;13:1141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The weight and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue were significantly increased compared to controls. These observations support the use of C. guianensis is in the management of wound healing...
  39. Lakshmi V, Singh N, Shrivastva S, Mishra S, Dharmani P, Mishra V, et al. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease...
  40. Zaridah M, Idid S, Omar A, Khozirah S. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78:79-84 pubmed
    ..e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (..
  41. Sanogo R, Germano M, D Angelo V, Forestieri A, Ragusa S, Rapisarda A. Trichilia roka Chiov. (Meliaceae): pharmacognostic researches. Farmaco. 2001;56:357-60 pubmed
    The dried aqueous extract of Trichilia roka Chiov. (Meliaceae) root was evaluated for its potential antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats...
  42. Lemes M, Brondani R, Grattapaglia D. Multiplexed systems of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae), a threatened neotropical timber species. J Hered. 2002;93:287-90 pubmed
    Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]) is the most valuable hardwood species in the neotropics. Its conservation status has been the subject of increasing concern due to overexploitation and habitat destruction...
  43. Zhang H, Chen F, Wang X, Wu D, Chen Q. Complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR data for rings A,B-seco limonoids from the seed of Aphanamixis polystachya. Magn Reson Chem. 2007;45:189-92 pubmed
    ..The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including DEPT, HSQC, 1H--1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. ..
  44. McPherson H, van der Merwe M, Delaney S, Edwards M, Henry R, McIntosh E, et al. Capturing chloroplast variation for molecular ecology studies: a simple next generation sequencing approach applied to a rainforest tree. BMC Ecol. 2013;13:8 pubmed publisher
    ..The chloroplast genome of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae), 159,514 base pairs long, was assembled from shotgun sequencing on the Illumina platform using de novo assembly ..
  45. Yang M, Wang J, Luo J, Wang X, Kong L. Tetranortriterpenoids from Chisocheton paniculatus. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:2014-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytotoxic activity of compounds 1-7 was evaluated using HeLa and SMMC-7721 tumor cell lines. ..
  46. Prophiro J, da Silva M, Kanis L, da Silva B, Duque Luna J, da Silva O. Evaluation of time toxicity, residual effect, and growth-inhibiting property of Carapa guianensis and Copaifera sp. in Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide new information for a better understanding in using C. guianensis and Copaifera sp. oils with a potential to be used as a natural insecticide. ..
  47. Baldissera M, Da Silva A, Oliveira C, Zimmermann C, Vaucher R, Santos R, et al. Trypanocidal activity of the essential oils in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms: in vitro tests. Exp Parasitol. 2013;134:356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi in vitro, leading to the suggestion that these oils may be applied as an alternative treatment for this disease. ..
  48. Dahiya N, Chianese G, Abay S, Taglialatela Scafati O, Esposito F, Lupidi G, et al. In vitro and ex vivo activity of an Azadirachta indica A.Juss. seed kernel extract on early sporogonic development of Plasmodium in comparison with azadirachtin A, its most abundant constituent. Phytomedicine. 2016;23:1743-1752 pubmed publisher
    NeemAzal® (NA) is a quantified extract from seed kernels of neem, Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae), with a wide spectrum of biological properties, classically ascribed to its limonoid content...
  49. Cernusak L, Winter K, Turner B. Physiological and isotopic (delta(13)C and delta(18)O) responses of three tropical tree species to water and nutrient availability. Plant Cell Environ. 2009;32:1441-55 pubmed publisher
    ..grandis. Results suggest inter-specific variation among tropical tree species in relationships between stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(18)O) and the gas exchange processes thought to affect them...
  50. Luo J, Li Y, Wang J, Kong L. D-ring-opened phragmalin-type limonoids from Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8:2261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7) cell line with IC(50) values of 15.3±0.6, 13.0±0.5, and 17.1±0.7 ?M, respectively. ..
  51. Wang X, Fan C, Yin S, Gan L, Yue J. Structural elucidation of limonoids and steroids from Trichilia connaroides. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:1319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. ..
  52. Jerjomiceva N, Seri H, Yaseen R, de Buhr N, Setzer W, Naim H, et al. Guarea kunthiana Bark Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Human and Bovine Neutrophils. Nat Prod Commun. 2016;11:767-70 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data strongly suggest that G. kunthiana bark extract boosts the antimicrobial activities of neutrophils as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. ..
  53. Luo X, Wu D, Cai X, Kennelly E. New antioxidant phenolic glycosides from Walsura yunnanensis. Chem Biodivers. 2006;3:224-30 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated spectroscopically and by chemical transformation (hydrolysis). The new compounds 1, 2, and 4 displayed significant antioxidant activities, with IC(50) values in the range of ca. 42 to 49 microg/ml. ..
  54. Hseu Y, Chang W, Chen C, Liao J, Huang C, Lu F, et al. Antioxidant activities of Toona Sinensis leaves extracts using different antioxidant models. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:105-14 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that T. sinensis may act as a chemopreventative agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from atherogenesis. ..
  55. Cespedes M, Gutierrez M, Holbrook N, J Rocha O. Restoration of genetic diversity in the dry forest tree Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) after pasture abandonment in Costa Rica. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:3201-12 pubmed
    ..The impact of these findings for the design of conservation strategies for tropical dry forests trees is discussed. ..
  56. Gaoue O, Ticktin T. Effects of harvest of nontimber forest products and ecological differences between sites on the demography of African mahogany. Conserv Biol. 2010;24:605-14 pubmed publisher
  57. Abdelgaleil S, Hashinaga F, Nakatani M. Antifungal activity of limonoids from Khaya ivorensis. Pest Manag Sci. 2005;61:186-90 pubmed
    Chemical investigation of the diethyl ether extract of the stem bark of Khaya ivorensis A Chev (Meliaceae) afforded ten limonoids of angolensates, ring D-opened limonoids and mexicanolides...
  58. Morellato L. Phenology, sex ratio, and spatial distribution among dioecious species of Trichilia (Meliaceae). Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2004;6:491-7 pubmed
    The flowering, sex ratio, and spatial distribution of four dioecious species of Trichilia (Meliaceae) were studied in a semi-deciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. All reproductive trees (T. clausseni, T. pallida and T...
  59. Sobeh M, Mahmoud M, Sabry O, Adel R, Dmirieh M, El Shazly A, et al. HPLC-PDA-MS/MS Characterization of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Turraea fischeri Bark Extract and Its Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities In Vivo. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, T. fischeri is apromising candidate for health-promoting and for pharmaceutical applications. ..
  60. Silva O, Romão P, Blazius R, Prohiro J. The use of andiroba Carapa guianensis as larvicide against Aedes albopictus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2004;20:456-7 pubmed
    ..5 to 4% of C. guianensis induced mortality after 24 hours with LC50 of 1.81 (1.39-2.22%), and an LC50 of 1.82 (1.57-2.07%) to the 4th instar. This is the 1st report of the larvicidal effect of C. guianensis on mosquitoes. ..
  61. Doe M, Shibue T, Haraguchi H, Morimoto Y. Structures, biological activities, and total syntheses of 13-hydroxy- and 13-acetoxy-14-nordehydrocacalohastine, novel modified furanoeremophilane-type sesquiterpenes from Trichilia cuneata. Org Lett. 2005;7:1765-8 pubmed
  62. Luo J, Wang J, Wang L, Kong L. [Two new phragmalin-type limonoid orthesters from Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2011;46:183-7 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D spectroscopic analyses which included HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments and HR-ESI-MS. ..
  63. Mayanti T, Tjokronegoro R, Supratman U, Mukhtar M, Awang K, Hadi A. Antifeedant triterpenoids from the seeds and bark of Lansium domesticum cv Kokossan (Meliaceae). Molecules. 2011;16:2785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Triterpenoids 1-5 exhibited moderate to strong antifeedant activity against the fourth instar larvae of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata. ..
  64. Karan M, Evans D, Reilly D, Schulte K, Wright C, Innes D, et al. Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher levels of genetic diversity were found in material from western Africa. This suggests that new seed collections from this region may yield more diverse genotypes than those originating from Sudan and Uganda in eastern Africa. ..
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    Crude extracts from different parts (leaf, bark and seed) of Swietenia mahagony (Family: Meliaceae) were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 Gram positive and 8 Gram negative bacteria...
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    ..i>Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) is used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of liver related diseases and has been studied ..
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    ..The ability of compounds 1-5 to inhibit the growth of the A549 and K562 tumor cell lines was evaluated. ..
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    An investigation of the seeds of the Madagascan Meliaceae Quivisia papinae has yielded five mexicanolide group limonoids, together with two known mexicanolide limonoids and two known triterpenoids...
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    ..Therefore, the identification of alternative therapeutic tools for the treatment of depression is still needed...
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    ..macrophylla. Our findings suggest a relatively complex Mesoamerican biogeographic history and lead to the prediction that other Central American trees will show similar patterns of regional differentiation...
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    ..The structure of 1 was established using spectroscopic methods. Compound 2 exhibited significant antifeeding activity, and 1 exhibited moderate activity, whereas 3 and 4 showed negative activity against Pieris brassicae L...
  80. Gomes R, de Paulo L, Bonato Panizzon C, Neves C, Cordeiro B, Zanoni J, et al. Anti-Diabetic Effects of the Ethyl-Acetate Fraction of Trichilia catigua in Streptozo-tocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1087-1097 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, our group demonstrated that the ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T. catigua has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of EAF in type 1 diabetic rats...
  81. Jayanegara A, Marquardt S, Wina E, Kreuzer M, Leiber F. In vitro indications for favourable non-additive effects on ruminal methane mitigation between high-phenolic and high-quality forages. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:615-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, using mixtures of high-quality plants and high-phenolic plants could be one approach to CH? mitigation; however, this awaits in vivo confirmation...
  82. Kamdem J, Waczuk E, Kade I, Wagner C, Boligon A, Athayde M, et al. Catuaba (Trichilia catigua) prevents against oxidative damage induced by in vitro ischemia-reperfusion in rat hippocampal slices. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:2826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the translation to a real in vivo situation of I/R is difficult to be done, the results indicated that T. catigua should be used as preventive and not as a curative agent against brain damage...
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    ..Compounds 1, 14, 16, and 17 exhibited significant fungicidal activities; 1 and 25 in particular showed good insecticidal activities. The ?,?-unsaturated lactone and 14,15-epoxy ring moieties were essential for the insecticidal activity. ..
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    ..grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar...
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    ..Selected compounds (2-8) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities and compounds 5 and 7 showed weak antimicrobial activities against MRSA 92(#) and MRSA 98(#)...