flax

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.

Top Publications

  1. Ogborn M, Nitschmann E, Bankovic Calic N, Weiler H, Aukema H. Effects of flaxseed derivatives in experimental polycystic kidney disease vary with animal gender. Lipids. 2006;41:1141-9 pubmed
    Flaxseed derivatives, including both oil and flax lignan, modify progression of renal injury in animal models, including Han:SPRD-cy polycystic kidney disease (PKD)...
  2. Wojtasik W, Kulma A, Kostyn K, Szopa J. The changes in pectin metabolism in flax infected with Fusarium. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:862-72 pubmed publisher
    Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum are the most common fungal pathogens of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), thus leading to the greatest losses in crop yield...
  3. Antonovics J, Thrall P, Burdon J, Laine A. Partial resistance in the Linum-Melampsora host-pathogen system: does partial resistance make the red queen run slower?. Evolution. 2011;65:512-22 pubmed publisher
    Five levels of disease expression were scored in a cross-inoculation study of 120 host and 60 pathogen lines of wild flax Linum marginale and its rust fungus Melampsora lini sampled from six natural populations...
  4. Ross K, Mazza G. Characteristics of lignin from flax shives as affected by extraction conditions. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11:4035-50 pubmed publisher
    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals...
  5. Fu Y, Peterson G. Developing genomic resources in two Linum species via 454 pyrosequencing and genomic reduction. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..A full Roche 454 GS FLX run of 16 diverse Linum samples representing cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its wild progenitor (Linum bienne Mill.) generated approximately 1...
  6. Hayat Z, Cherian G, Pasha T, Khattak F, Jabbar M. Oxidative stability and lipid components of eggs from flax-fed hens: effect of dietary antioxidants and storage. Poult Sci. 2010;89:1285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Eggs (384, 48/diet) were collected from ISA Brown layers fed diets containing corn-soy (control) with 100 g/kg of flax seed and 2 types of antioxidants [alpha-tocopherols (alpha-TOC) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)] at 0, 50, 100, ..
  7. Banik M, Duguid S, Cloutier S. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation. Genome. 2011;54:471-83 pubmed publisher
    Three genes encoding fatty acid desaturase 3 (fad3a, fad3b, and a novel fad3c) were cloned from four flax genotypes varying in linolenic acid content...
  8. Bassett C, Rodriguez Leyva D, Pierce G. Experimental and clinical research findings on the cardiovascular benefits of consuming flaxseed. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:965-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary flaxseed may also protect against ischemic heart disease by improving vascular relaxation responses and by inhibiting the incidence of ventricular fibrillation. ..
  9. Rafiqi M, Gan P, Ravensdale M, Lawrence G, Ellis J, Jones D, et al. Internalization of flax rust avirulence proteins into flax and tobacco cells can occur in the absence of the pathogen. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2017-32 pubmed publisher
    ..delivered into host cells, based on their intracellular recognition by host resistance proteins, including those of flax rust (Melampsora lini)...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Pan X, Siloto R, Wickramarathna A, Mietkiewska E, Weselake R. Identification of a pair of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases from developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed catalyzing the selective production of trilinolenin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24173-88 pubmed publisher
    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of ?-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cis)(?9,12,15)) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFAs)...
  2. Barvkar V, Pardeshi V, Kale S, Kadoo N, Giri A, Gupta V. Proteome profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed: characterization of functional metabolic pathways operating during seed development. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:6264-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are an important source of food and feed due to the presence of various health promoting compounds, making it a nutritionally and economically important plant...
  3. Christofidou Solomidou M, Tyagi S, Pietrofesa R, Dukes F, Arguiri E, Turowski J, et al. Radioprotective role in lung of the flaxseed lignan complex enriched in the phenolic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Radiat Res. 2012;178:568-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The dietary lignan complex of FS, mainly consisting of the phenolic secoisolariciresinol, is protective against radiation pneumonopathy in vivo while not hindering the tumoricidal effects of radiotherapy...
  4. Zuk M, Dymińska L, Kulma A, Boba A, Prescha A, Szopa J, et al. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;78:1080-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study...
  5. Cloutier S, Ragupathy R, Miranda E, Radovanovic N, Reimer E, Walichnowski A, et al. Integrated consensus genetic and physical maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2012;125:1783-95 pubmed publisher
    Three linkage maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were constructed from populations CDC Bethune/Macbeth, E1747/Viking and SP2047/UGG5-5 containing between 385 and 469 mapped markers each...
  6. Fillat A, Colom J, Vidal T. A new approach to the biobleaching of flax pulp with laccase using natural mediators. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:4104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..PCA) were used as natural laccase mediators in combination with a laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus to bleach flax fibres...
  7. Venglat P, Xiang D, Qiu S, Stone S, Tibiche C, Cram D, et al. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:74 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz...
  8. Barvkar V, Pardeshi V, Kale S, Kadoo N, Gupta V. Phylogenomic analysis of UDP glycosyltransferase 1 multigene family in Linum usitatissimum identified genes with varied expression patterns. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:175 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L...
  9. Rodriguez Leyva D, Dupasquier C, McCullough R, Pierce G. The cardiovascular effects of flaxseed and its omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26:489-96 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present review was to identify the known cardiovascular effects of flaxseed and ALA and, just as importantly, what is presently unknown...
  10. Gan P, Rafiqi M, Ellis J, Jones D, Hardham A, Dodds P. Lipid binding activities of flax rust AvrM and AvrL567 effectors. Plant Signal Behav. 2010;5:1272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we showed that the flax rust effectors AvrM and AvrL567 are able to internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen...
  11. Kristensen M, Savorani F, Christensen S, Engelsen S, Bugel S, Toubro S, et al. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite...
  12. Day A, Fenart S, Neutelings G, Hawkins S, Rolando C, Tokarski C. Identification of cell wall proteins in the flax (Linum usitatissimum) stem. Proteomics. 2013;13:812-25 pubmed publisher
    ..LiCl) extractions were used to obtain fractions enriched in cell wall proteins (CWPs) from the stem of 60-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants...
  13. Rajwade A, Arora R, Kadoo N, Harsulkar A, Ghorpade P, Gupta V. Relatedness of Indian flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.): an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primer assay. Mol Biotechnol. 2010;45:161-70 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic relationships, using PCR-based ISSR markers, among 70 Indian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes actively utilized in flax breeding programs...
  14. Kostyn K, Czemplik M, Kulma A, Bortniczuk M, Skała J, Szopa J. Genes of phenylpropanoid pathway are activated in early response to Fusarium attack in flax plants. Plant Sci. 2012;190:103-15 pubmed publisher
    Fusarium is the most common flax pathogen causing serious plant diseases and in most cases leading to plant death...
  15. Fenart S, Ndong Y, Duarte J, Rivière N, Wilmer J, Van Wuytswinkel O, et al. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) gene expression oligo microarray. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:592 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species...
  16. Truan J, Chen J, Thompson L. Flaxseed oil reduces the growth of human breast tumors (MCF-7) at high levels of circulating estrogen. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Thus, FSO regressed estrogen receptor-positive human breast tumorigenesis at high E2 levels via downregulation of the growth factor mediated pathway, likely through its ALA content, and may explain the anti-tumorigenicity of FS...
  17. Miśta D, Króliczewska B, Zawadzki W, Pecka E, Steininger M, Hull S, et al. The effect of Linola and W92/72 transgenic flax seeds on the rabbit caecal fermentation--in vitro study. Pol J Vet Sci. 2011;14:557-64 pubmed
    The effect of W92/72 transgenic flax seeds taken from a variety of Linola on the production of SCFA, ammonia and methane by bacteria inhabiting rabbit caecum was studied...
  18. Huis R, Hawkins S, Neutelings G. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L).
  19. Bernoux M, Ve T, Williams S, Warren C, Hatters D, Valkov E, et al. Structural and functional analysis of a plant resistance protein TIR domain reveals interfaces for self-association, signaling, and autoregulation. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:200-211 pubmed publisher
    ..L6 is a TIR-NB-LRR resistance protein from flax (Linum usitatissimum) that confers resistance to the flax rust phytopathogenic fungus (Melampsora lini)...
  20. Roach M, Mokshina N, Badhan A, Snegireva A, Hobson N, Deyholos M, et al. Development of cellulosic secondary walls in flax fibers requires beta-galactosidase. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1351-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In developing bast fibers of flax (Linum usitatissimum), a galactan-enriched matrix (Gn-layer) is gradually modified into a mature cellulosic ..
  21. Lawrence G, Anderson P, Dodds P, Ellis J. Relationships between rust resistance genes at the M locus in flax. Mol Plant Pathol. 2010;11:19-32 pubmed publisher
    Genes at the M locus in flax (Linum usitatissimum) that confer resistance to flax rust (Melampsora lini) occur in complex haplotypes containing up to 15 related genes or gene fragments...
  22. Chantreau M, Grec S, Gutierrez L, Dalmais M, Pineau C, Demailly H, et al. PT-Flax (phenotyping and TILLinG of flax): development of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) mutant population and TILLinG platform for forward and reverse genetics. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:159 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an economically important fiber and oil crop that has been grown for thousands of years...
  23. Long S, Deng X, Wang Y, Li X, Qiao R, Qiu C, et al. Analysis of 2,297 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library of flax (Linum ustitatissimum L.) bark tissue. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6289-96 pubmed publisher
    Bast fibre crops are the second most important natural fibre crops following cotton. Of these, flax (Linum ustitatissimum L.) is the most widely planted in the world, with its fibre used for high quality linen textile...
  24. Plancot B, Santaella C, Jaber R, Kiefer Meyer M, Follet Gueye M, Leprince J, et al. Deciphering the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to pathogen-derived elicitors. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:1584-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as "border-like cells...
  25. Razi S, Latif M, Li X, Afthinos J, Ippagunta N, Schwartz G, et al. Dietary flaxseed protects against lung ischemia reperfusion injury via inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation in a murine model. J Surg Res. 2011;171:e113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary flaxseed (FS) is a rich source of naturally occurring antioxidants and has been shown to reduce lung IRI in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of FS in IRI remain to be determined...
  26. West S, Krick A, Klein L, Zhao G, Wojtowicz T, McGuiness M, et al. Effects of diets high in walnuts and flax oil on hemodynamic responses to stress and vascular endothelial function. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:595-603 pubmed
    ..In a previous article, we showed significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and several markers of inflammation with increasing intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from walnuts and flax.
  27. Ander B, Edel A, McCullough R, Rodriguez Leyva D, Rampersad P, Gilchrist J, et al. Distribution of omega-3 fatty acids in tissues of rabbits fed a flaxseed-supplemented diet. Metabolism. 2010;59:620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Arachidonic acid and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were decreased in all tissues obtained from the flax-supplemented group...
  28. Wang Z, Hobson N, Galindo L, Zhu S, Shi D, McDill J, et al. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads. Plant J. 2012;72:461-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds...
  29. Kumar S, You F, Cloutier S. Genome wide SNP discovery in flax through next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:684 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a significant fibre and oilseed crop...
  30. Hyun T, Kumar D, Cho Y, Hyun H, Kim J. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax. Gene. 2013;515:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly ..
  31. Soto Cerda B, Diederichsen A, Ragupathy R, Cloutier S. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:78 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop...
  32. Catanzariti A, Dodds P, Ve T, Kobe B, Ellis J, Staskawicz B. The AvrM effector from flax rust has a structured C-terminal domain and interacts directly with the M resistance protein. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The AvrM effector from flax rust is a small secreted protein that is recognized by the M resistance protein in flax...
  33. Klubicová K, Danchenko M, Skultety L, Miernyk J, Rashydov N, Berezhna V, et al. Proteomics analysis of flax grown in Chernobyl area suggests limited effect of contaminated environment on seed proteome. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate plant adaptation, seeds of a local flax (Linum usitatissimum) variety Kyivskyi were sown in radio-contaminated and control fields of the Chernobyl region...
  34. Lindahl G, Saarinen N, Abrahamsson A, Dabrosin C. Tamoxifen, flaxseed, and the lignan enterolactone increase stroma- and cancer cell-derived IL-1Ra and decrease tumor angiogenesis in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2011;71:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A diet with high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as flaxseed (Flax), genistein (GEN), and the mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), may affect breast cancer progression in a similar ..
  35. Hradilová J, Rehulka P, Rehulková H, Vrbová M, Griga M, Brzobohaty B. Comparative analysis of proteomic changes in contrasting flax cultivars upon cadmium exposure. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..approach for removing pollutants from contaminated soils, and a crop with significant phytoremediation potential is flax. However, significant differences in Cd accumulation and tolerance were previously found among commercial flax ..
  36. Haliga R, Mocanu V, Păduraru I, Stoica B, Oboroceanu T, Luca V. Effects of dietary flaxseed supplementation on renal oxidative stress in experimental diabetes. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2009;113:1200-4 pubmed
    ..Previous results demonstrate that experimental diabetes mellitus is accompanied by increased oxidant stress within glomeruli. Evidence are emerging that dietary flaxseed supplementation can have beneficial effects on oxidative stress...
  37. Jhala A, Bhatt H, Topinka K, Hall L. Pollen-mediated gene flow in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): can genetically engineered and organic flax coexist?. Heredity (Edinb). 2011;106:557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L...
  38. Makni M, Sefi M, Fetoui H, Garoui E, Gargouri N, Boudawara T, et al. Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2407-12 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture on the kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats...
  39. Babu P, Rao K, Reddy V. Structural organization and classification of cytochrome P450 genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Gene. 2013;513:156-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax CYPome analysis resulted in the identification of 334 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes in the cultivated flax genome...
  40. Bergfjord C, Karg S, Rast Eicher A, Nosch M, Mannering U, Allaby R, et al. Comment on "30,000-year-old wild flax fibers". Science. 2010;328:1634; author reply 1634 pubmed publisher
    Kvavadze et al. (Brevia, 11 September 2009, p. 1359) identified fiber samples as 30,000-year-old flax based on a comparison with modern flax fibers analyzed by compound microscope and on the presence of dislocations/nodes in the fibers...
  41. Neutelings G, Fenart S, Lucau Danila A, Hawkins S. Identification and characterization of miRNAs and their potential targets in flax. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1754-66 pubmed publisher
    ..in public databases allowed the identification of 20 conserved miRNAs belonging to 13 different families in flax (Linum usitatissimum). Most of the miRNAs were 21 nucleotides-long and carried a uracil at the 5' end...
  42. Cloutier S, Miranda E, Ward K, Radovanovic N, Reimer E, Walichnowski A, et al. Simple sequence repeat marker development from bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences and expressed sequence tags of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2012;125:685-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax is an important oilseed crop in North America and is mostly grown as a fibre crop in Europe. As a self-pollinated diploid with a small estimated genome size of ~370 Mb, flax is well suited for fast progress in genomics...
  43. Smykal P, Bačová Kerteszová N, Kalendar R, Corander J, Schulman A, Pavelek M. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers. Theor Appl Genet. 2011;122:1385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus...
  44. Singh K, Mridula D, Rehal J, Barnwal P. Flaxseed: a potential source of food, feed and fiber. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51:210-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper presents a review of literature on the nutritional composition of flaxseed, its health benefits, and disease-prevention qualities, utilization of flaxseed for food, feed, and fiber, and processing of flaxseed...
  45. Ragupathy R, Rathinavelu R, Cloutier S. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:217 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material...
  46. Huis R, Morreel K, Fliniaux O, Lucau Danila A, Fenart S, Grec S, et al. Natural hypolignification is associated with extensive oligolignol accumulation in flax stems. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1893-915 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems contain cells showing contrasting cell wall structure: lignified in inner stem xylem tissue and hypolignified in outer stem bast fibers...
  47. Adolphe J, Whiting S, Juurlink B, Thorpe L, Alcorn J. Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flax lignans may also reduce cancer risk by preventing pre-cancerous cellular changes and by reducing angiogenesis and ..
  48. Thambugala D, Duguid S, Loewen E, Rowland G, Booker H, You F, et al. Genetic variation of six desaturase genes in flax and their impact on fatty acid composition. Theor Appl Genet. 2013;126:2627-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids praised for their health benefits...
  49. Christofidou Solomidou M, Tyagi S, Tan K, Hagan S, Pietrofesa R, Dukes F, et al. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:269 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT). However, flaxseed's therapeutic usefulness in mitigating radiation effects post-exposure has never been evaluated...
  50. Chechi K, Yasui N, Ikeda K, Yamori Y, K Cheema S. Flax oil-mediated activation of PPAR-? correlates with reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation in obese spontaneously hypertensive/NDmcr-cp rats, a model of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:1313-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax oil feeding has been proposed to have beneficial effects on the outcome of the metabolic syndrome due to the high n-3 fatty acid content of flax oil; however, the mechanisms of its action remain largely unknown...
  51. Williams S, Sornaraj P, deCourcy Ireland E, Menz R, Kobe B, Ellis J, et al. An autoactive mutant of the M flax rust resistance protein has a preference for binding ATP, whereas wild-type M protein binds ADP. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:897-906 pubmed publisher
    ..understand the molecular mechanism of R protein activation, we undertook a phenotypic and biochemical study of the flax nucleotide binding (NB)-ARC leucine-rich repeat protein, M...
  52. Vila C, Barneto A, Fillat A, Vidal T, Ariza J. Use of thermogravimetric analysis to monitor the effects of natural laccase mediators on flax pulp. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:6554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the natural laccase mediators gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, on the enzymatic bleaching of flax pulp were compared...
  53. Aracri E, Fillat A, Colom J, Gutierrez A, Del Río J, Martinez A, et al. Enzymatic grafting of simple phenols on flax and sisal pulp fibres using laccases. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:8211-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Flax and sisal pulps were treated with two laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, PcL and Trametes villosa, TvL, respectively), in the presence of different phenolic compounds (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and p-coumaric acid in the ..
  54. Ibrügger S, Kristensen M, Mikkelsen M, Astrup A. Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake. Appetite. 2012;58:490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flax drink; and (II) Flax drink vs. Flax tablets...
  55. Aliani M, Ryland D, Pierce G. Effect of flax addition on the flavor profile and acceptability of bagels. J Food Sci. 2012;77:S62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Grain/flax aroma and flavor were significantly higher for the flax bagels compared to the nonflax bagels...
  56. Leyva D, Zahradka P, Ramjiawan B, Guzman R, Aliani M, Pierce G. The effect of dietary flaxseed on improving symptoms of cardiovascular disease in patients with peripheral artery disease: rationale and design of the FLAX-PAD randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011;32:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility that a supplementation of the diet with foods rich in alpha-linolenic acid, antioxidants and fiber (like flaxseed) has not been investigated...
  57. Zuk M, Prescha A, Stryczewska M, Szopa J. Engineering flax plants to increase their antioxidant capacity and improve oil composition and stability. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:5003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Since flax seeds are the richest source of polyunsaturated acids, their consumption might be beneficial for human health...
  58. Ravensdale M, Nemri A, Thrall P, Ellis J, Dodds P. Co-evolutionary interactions between host resistance and pathogen effector genes in flax rust disease. Mol Plant Pathol. 2011;12:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensive studies of the flax-flax rust pathosystem have led to the postulation of the gene-for-gene model, a genetic paradigm describing ..
  59. Mani U, Mani I, Biswas M, Kumar S. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus. J Diet Suppl. 2011;8:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Several functional foods have been shown to possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Flax seed (FS) is a functional food that is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants and is low in carbohydrates...
  60. Del Río J, Rencoret J, Gutierrez A, Nieto L, Jimenez Barbero J, Martinez A. Structural characterization of guaiacyl-rich lignins in flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:11088-99 pubmed publisher
    The structural characteristics of the lignins from flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives were studied. Significant differences in the content and composition of the lignin from both parts were observed. The lignin contents were 3...
  61. Richter D, Abarzua S, Chrobak M, Scholz C, Kuhn C, Schulze S, et al. Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from flax on estradiol production and ER/PR expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:1695-9 pubmed
    In this study, we tested the effects of crude extracts from flax (Linum usitatissimum) on the production of estradiol and expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in human breast cancer MCF7 cells.
  62. Ravensdale M, Bernoux M, Ve T, Kobe B, Thrall P, Ellis J, et al. Intramolecular interaction influences binding of the Flax L5 and L6 resistance proteins to their AvrL567 ligands. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003004 pubmed publisher
    L locus resistance (R) proteins are nucleotide binding (NB-ARC) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum) that provide race-specific resistance to the causal agent of flax rust disease, Melampsora lini...
  63. Skórkowska Telichowska K, Zuk M, Kulma A, Bugajska Prusak A, Ratajczak K, Gasiorowski K, et al. New dressing materials derived from transgenic flax products to treat long-standing venous ulcers--a pilot study. Wound Repair Regen. 2010;18:168-79 pubmed
    A new flax dressing product was developed based on three components (fibers, oil emulsion, and seedcake extract) from genetically engineered flax plants that were obtained by plant transformation using three genes controlling the ..
  64. Khadake R, Khonde V, Mhaske V, Ranjekar P, Harsulkar A. Functional and bioinformatic characterisation of sequence variants of Fad3 gene from flax. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:2689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors have previously isolated several sequence variants of ?15 desaturase from flax while attempting to clone that gene...
  65. Thrall P, Laine A, Ravensdale M, Nemri A, Dodds P, Barrett L, et al. Rapid genetic change underpins antagonistic coevolution in a natural host-pathogen metapopulation. Ecol Lett. 2012;15:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data strongly support reciprocal coevolution maintaining balanced resistance and infectivity polymorphisms, and highlight the importance of characterising spatial and temporal dynamics in antagonistic interactions...