plantago

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.

Top Publications

  1. Galisteo M, Sanchez M, Vera R, Gonzalez M, Anguera A, Duarte J, et al. A diet supplemented with husks of Plantago ovata reduces the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and obesity by affecting adiponectin and TNF-alpha in obese Zucker rats. J Nutr. 2005;135:2399-404 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to analyze whether consumption of a fiber-supplemented diet containing 3.5% Plantago ovata husks prevented many of the abnormalities clustered in the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidemia, ..
  2. Galisteo M, Morón R, Rivera L, Romero R, Anguera A, Zarzuelo A. Plantago ovata husks-supplemented diet ameliorates metabolic alterations in obese Zucker rats through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Comparative study with other dietary fibers. Clin Nutr. 2010;29:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of intake of diets supplemented with different dietary fibers, namely cellulose, methylcellulose or Plantago ovata husks, (insoluble, soluble non-fermentable, and soluble fermentable fiber, respectively), on the ..
  3. Schechter S, Bruns T. Serpentine and non-serpentine ecotypes of Collinsia sparsiflora associate with distinct arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblages. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, relate analysis showed a relationship between ecotype AMF assemblages and soil nutrients. This study reveals a strong relationship between AMF associates and plant adaptation to edaphic extremes...
  4. Pommerrenig B, Papini Terzi F, Sauer N. Differential regulation of sorbitol and sucrose loading into the phloem of Plantago major in response to salt stress. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:1029-38 pubmed
    ..In the Suc- and sorbitol-translocating species Plantago major, the mRNA levels of the vascular sorbitol transporters PmPLT1 and PmPLT2 are rapidly up-regulated in ..
  5. Marak H, Biere A, van Damme J. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress. Evolution. 2003;57:2519-30 pubmed
    ..glycosides (IGs), terpenoid compounds that strongly deter generalist insect herbivores, in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L...
  6. Pankoke H, Buschmann T, Muller C. Role of plant ?-glucosidases in the dual defense system of iridoid glycosides and their hydrolyzing enzymes in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major. Phytochemistry. 2013;94:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the role of plant-derived ?-glucosidases in the dual defense system of two common plantain species, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major, we determined the concentration of iridoid glycosides as well as the ?-glucosidase ..
  7. Kim B, Park K, Chang I. Elucidation of anti-inflammatory potencies of Eucommia ulmoides bark and Plantago asiatica seeds. J Med Food. 2009;12:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for the different anti-inflammatory potencies exhibited by the water extracts of Eucommia ulmoides bark and Plantago asiatica seeds, which contain various iridoids...
  8. Temperton V, Mwangi P, Scherer Lorenzen M, Schmid B, Buchmann N. Positive interactions between nitrogen-fixing legumes and four different neighbouring species in a biodiversity experiment. Oecologia. 2007;151:190-205 pubmed
    ..The four phytometer species (Festuca pratensis, Plantago lanceolata, Knautia arvensis and Trifolium pratensis) each belonged to one of the four plant functional groups ..
  9. Ramsperger Gleixner M, Geiger D, Hedrich R, Sauer N. Differential expression of sucrose transporter and polyol transporter genes during maturation of common plantain companion cells. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:147-60 pubmed
    The cDNAs of two sorbitol transporters, common plantain (Plantago major) polyol transporter (PLT) 1 and 2 (PmPLT1 and PmPLT2), were isolated from a vascular bundle-specific cDNA library from common plantain, a dicot plant transporting Suc ..

More Information

Publications73

  1. Roderick H, Tripathi L, Babirye A, Wang D, Tripathi J, Urwin P, et al. Generation of transgenic plantain (Musa spp.) with resistance to plant pathogenic nematodes. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:842-51 pubmed publisher
  2. Cho Y, Mower J, Qiu Y, Palmer J. Mitochondrial substitution rates are extraordinarily elevated and variable in a genus of flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17741-6 pubmed
    ..Substitution rates at synonymous sites vary substantially among lineages within Plantago. At the extreme, rates in Plantago exceed those in exceptionally slow plant lineages by approximately 4,000-fold...
  3. Laine A. Spatial scale of local adaptation in a plant-pathogen metapopulation. J Evol Biol. 2005;18:930-8 pubmed
    ..to infer the scale of pathogen dispersal and to identify pathogen metapopulations in the interaction between Plantago lanceolata and its specialist phytopathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis...
  4. Sekmen A, Türkan I, Takio S. Differential responses of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation to salt stress in salt-tolerant Plantago maritima and salt-sensitive Plantago media. Physiol Plant. 2007;131:399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..and antioxidant system in relation to the tolerance to salt stress were investigated in salt-tolerant Plantago maritima and salt-sensitive Plantago media. The 60 days old P. maritima and P...
  5. Khalifeh M, Hananeh W, Al Rukibat R, Okour O, Boumezrag A. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of MDP/collagen induced arthritis rat model (MCIA) after treatment with Urtica dioica, plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture. Exp Anim. 2008;57:101-10 pubmed
    This study was done to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture in the MCIA rat model. In addition, a new pathological and clinical arthritis lesion assessment was developed...
  6. Augustynowicz J, Grosicki M, Hanus Fajerska E, Lekka M, Waloszek A, Kołoczek H. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by aquatic macrophyte Callitriche cophocarpa Sendtn. Chemosphere. 2010;79:1077-83 pubmed publisher
    ..w. Our results point to Callitriche cophocarpa as a very promising species to be used in the investigation of chromium(VI) phytoremediation mechanisms as well as a good candidate for wastewaters remediation purpose...
  7. Harput U, Genç Y, Saracoglu I. Cytotoxic and antioxidative activities of Plantago lagopus L. and characterization of its bioactive compounds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:1554-9 pubmed publisher
    Bioactivity guided isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Plantago lagopus L. were performed to give a new insight into the usage of Plantago species in traditional medicine...
  8. Lankinen A, Armbruster W. Pollen competition reduces inbreeding depression in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). J Evol Biol. 2007;20:737-49 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that intermittent inbreeding, which leads to self-fertilization in plants with genetic loads, may select for traits that enhance pollen competition...
  9. Singh N, Lal R, Shasany A. Phenotypic and RAPD diversity among 80 germplasm accessions of the medicinal plant isabgol (Plantago ovata, Plantaginaceae). Genet Mol Res. 2009;8:1273-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Plantago ovata, popularly known as isabgol, has great commercial and medicinal importance due to thin rosy white membranous seed husk. Isabgol seeds and husks have emollient, demulcent and laxative properties...
  10. Tollenaere C, Laine A. Investigating the production of sexual resting structures in a plant pathogen reveals unexpected self-fertility and genotype-by-environment effects. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:1716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..across 86 natural populations of fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis (Ascomycota) naturally infecting Plantago lanceolata in the Åland archipelago, southwestern Finland...
  11. Koelewijn H. Variation in restorer genes and primary sexual investment in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus: the trade-off between male and female function. Proc Biol Sci. 2003;270:1939-45 pubmed
  12. Chiang L, Chiang W, Chang M, Lin C. In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31:225-34 pubmed
    b>Plantago major linn. and P. asiatica Linn. (Plantaginaceae) are commonly used as folk medicine in Taiwan for treating infectious diseases related to the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts...
  13. Samuelsen A, Cohen E, Paulsen B, Brüll L, Thomas Oates J. Structural studies of a heteroxylan from Plantago major L. seeds by partial hydrolysis, HPAEC-PAD, methylation and GC-MS, ESMS and ESMS/MS. Carbohydr Res. 1999;315:312-8 pubmed
    The seed mucilage from Plantago major L. contains acidic heteroxylan polysaccharides...
  14. Calabozo B, Barber D, Polo F. Purification and characterization of the main allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:322-30 pubmed
    English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen is an important cause of pollinosis in the temperate regions of North America, Australia and Europe. However, very little is known about its allergen composition...
  15. Juarranz M, Calle Purón M, González Navarro A, Regidor Poyatos E, Soriano T, Martinez Hernandez D, et al. Physical exercise, use of Plantago ovata and aspirin, and reduced risk of colon cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002;11:465-72 pubmed
    ..980 (0.898-0.999). These results were obtained after adjusting all the ORs for diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history and socio-demographic factors such as marital status and educational level...
  16. Renker C, Weishuhn K, Kellner H, Buscot F. Rationalizing molecular analysis of field-collected roots for assessing diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: to pool, or not to pool, that is the question. Mycorrhiza. 2006;16:525-531 pubmed publisher
    ..After DNA extraction from 50 root samples of Plantago lanceolata grown on monoculture plots at a former arable field site, (1) DNAs were amplified separately by nested ..
  17. Lankinen A, Kiboi S. Pollen donor identity affects timing of stigma receptivity in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): a sexual conflict during pollen competition?. Am Nat. 2007;170:854-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of pollen donors to influence the timing of stigma receptivity might reflect a conflict between the sexual functions in C. heterophylla...
  18. Garcia J, Fernandez N, Calle A, Diez M, Sahagun A, Sierra M. Effects of Plantago ovata husk on levodopa (with Carbidopa) bioavailability in rabbits with autonomic gastrointestinal disorders. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:1434-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated whether or not the hydrosoluble fiber Plantago ovata husk is useful in improving levodopa pharmacokinetics in rabbits with autonomic gastrointestinal disorders ..
  19. Laine A. Evolution of host resistance: looking for coevolutionary hotspots at small spatial scales. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:267-73 pubmed
  20. Tollenaere C, Susi H, Nokso Koivisto J, Koskinen P, Tack A, Auvinen P, et al. SNP design from 454 sequencing of Podosphaera plantaginis transcriptome reveals a genetically diverse pathogen metapopulation with high levels of mixed-genotype infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52492 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims at developing molecular tools for Podosphaera plantaginis, an obligate fungal pathogen of Plantago lanceolata...
  21. López J, Villanueva R, Martinez Hernandez D, Albaladejo R, Regidor E, Calle M. Plantago ovata consumption and colorectal mortality in Spain, 1995-2000. J Epidemiol. 2009;19:206-11 pubmed
    Consumption of Plantago ovata may protect against colorectal cancer...
  22. Gálvez M, Martín Cordero C, Houghton P, Ayuso M. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts obtained from Plantago species. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1927-33 pubmed
    Antioxidative activities of methanol extracts from five Plantago species (P. afra, P. coronopus, P. lagopus, P. lanceolata, and P...
  23. Reardon W, Fitzpatrick D, Fares M, Nugent J. Evolution of flower shape in Plantago lanceolata. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;71:241-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Plantago lanceolata produces small actinomorphic (radially symmetric), wind-pollinated flowers that have evolved from a zygomorphic, biotically pollinated ancestral state...
  24. Beara I, Orcić D, Lesjak M, Mimica Dukić N, Peković B, Popović M. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry study of anti-inflammatory activity of plantain (Plantago L.) species. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52:701-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of selected Plantago species (P. lanceolata L. and P. major L.) an optimized in vitro test for determination of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) inhibition potency was undertaken...
  25. Gálvez M, Martín Cordero C, López Lázaro M, Cortés F, Ayuso M. Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:125-30 pubmed
    Methanolic extracts from seven Plantago species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer, were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA)...
  26. Pommerrenig B, Feussner K, Zierer W, Rabinovych V, Klebl F, Feussner I, et al. Phloem-specific expression of Yang cycle genes and identification of novel Yang cycle enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1904-19 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana...
  27. Lankinen A, Maad J, Armbruster W. Pollen-tube growth rates in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): one-donor crosses reveal heritability but no effect on sporophytic-offspring fitness. Ann Bot. 2009;103:941-50 pubmed publisher
  28. Laine A. Temperature-mediated patterns of local adaptation in a natural plant-pathogen metapopulation. Ecol Lett. 2008;11:327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..sympatric populations against allopatric populations of a fungal pathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis, on its host Plantago lanceolata, across a temperature gradient...
  29. Barton K. Ontogenetic patterns in the mechanisms of tolerance to herbivory in Plantago. Ann Bot. 2013;112:711-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to dramatic shifts in plant size, resource acquisition, stored reserves and growth, it was predicted that tolerance and related underlying mechanisms would differ among ontogenetic stages...
  30. Branquinho C, Serrano H, Pinto M, Martins Loução M. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements. Environ Pollut. 2007;146:437-43 pubmed
    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P...
  31. Mower J, Stefanovic S, Young G, Palmer J. Plant genetics: gene transfer from parasitic to host plants. Nature. 2004;432:165-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings complement the discovery that genes can be transferred in the opposite direction, from host to parasite plant...
  32. Unsicker S, Baer N, Kahmen A, Wagner M, Buchmann N, Weisser W. Invertebrate herbivory along a gradient of plant species diversity in extensively managed grasslands. Oecologia. 2006;150:233-46 pubmed
    ..Herbivory was measured in transects through the plant communities, and in individuals of Plantago lanceolata and Trifolium pratense that were transplanted into each meadow...
  33. van Damme J, Hundscheid M, Ivanovic S, Koelewijn H. Multiple CMS-restorer gene polymorphism in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus. Heredity (Edinb). 2004;93:175-81 pubmed
    ..In this study, it is shown that in the gynodioecious species Plantago coronopus two new CMS-restorer polymorphisms exist in addition to the two that were already known, which means ..
  34. Laine A. Pathogen fitness components and genotypes differ in their sensitivity to nutrient and temperature variation in a wild plant-pathogen association. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:2371-8 pubmed
  35. Biere A, Marak H, van Damme J. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?. Oecologia. 2004;140:430-41 pubmed
    ..We tested whether aucubin and catalpol, two iridoid glycosides present in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), confer in vivo resistance to both the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the ..
  36. Soubeyrand S, Laine A, Hanski I, Penttinen A. Spatiotemporal structure of host-pathogen interactions in a metapopulation. Am Nat. 2009;174:308-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis, infects its host plant, Plantago lanceolata, in a metapopulation setting where the presence of the pathogen has been recorded annually for 6 years ..
  37. Davey M, Bryant D, Cummins I, Ashenden T, Gates P, Baxter R, et al. Effects of elevated CO2 on the vasculature and phenolic secondary metabolism of Plantago maritima. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:2197-204 pubmed
    ..the effect of elevated CO2 on the vasculature and phenolic secondary metabolism on clones of the maritime plant Plantago maritima (L.)...
  38. Fontana A, Reichelt M, Hempel S, Gershenzon J, Unsicker S. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on direct and indirect defense metabolites of Plantago lanceolata L. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..how the principal direct defenses (iridoid glycosides) and indirect defenses (volatile organic compounds) of Plantago lanceolata L. are affected by insect herbivory and mechanical wounding...
  39. Grubesić R, Vukovic J, Kremer D, Vladimir Knežević S. Spectrophotometric method for polyphenols analysis: prevalidation and application on Plantago L. species. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;39:837-42 pubmed
    ..it was successfully applied for determination of total polyphenols and tannins in leaves, stems and flowers of Plantago L. species growing in Croatia...
  40. Reynolds H, Hartley A, Vogelsang K, Bever J, Schultz P. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi do not enhance nitrogen acquisition and growth of old-field perennials under low nitrogen supply in glasshouse culture. New Phytol. 2005;167:869-80 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that AMF do not promote plant N acquisition at low N supply, and our results are consistent with other research showing that AMF can act as a parasitic carbon drain when phosphorus availability is relatively high...
  41. De Deyn G, Biere A, van der Putten W, Wagenaar R, Klironomos J. Chemical defense, mycorrhizal colonization and growth responses in Plantago lanceolata L. Oecologia. 2009;160:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..between inherent plant chemical defense and belowground mutualism with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Plantago lanceolata L...
  42. Wong C, Murray B. Variable changes in genome size associated with different polyploid events in Plantago (Plantaginaceae). J Hered. 2012;103:711-9 pubmed publisher
    The genus Plantago (Plantaginaceae) in New Zealand comprises species that can be difficult to delimit and contains a wide range of ploidy levels from diploid to 16-ploid...
  43. Samuelsen A. The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;71:1-21 pubmed
    b>Plantago major L. leaves have been used as a wound healing remedy for centuries in almost all parts of the world and in the treatment of a number of diseases apart from wound healing...
  44. Oto G, Ekin S, Ozdemir H, Demir H, Yasar S, Levent A, et al. Plantago major protective effects on antioxidant status after administration of 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:531-5 pubmed
    The present study was designed to evaluate effects of Plantago major extract on oxidative status in Wistar albino rats administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA).
  45. Wang G, Han J, Faiia A, Tan W, Shi W, Liu X. Experimental measurements of leaf carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in the progenies of Plantago depressa and Setaria viridis collected from a wide altitudinal range. Physiol Plant. 2008;134:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes an experiment in which seeds of Plantago depressa (C3 species) and Setaria viridis (C4 species) collected from a wide altitudinal range were grown in the ..
  46. Albach D. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms and sequence data in the phylogenetic analysis of polyploids: multiple origins of Veronica cymbalaria (Plantaginaceae). New Phytol. 2007;176:481-98 pubmed
    ..The study reveals multiple origins of a Mediterranean polyploid species. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the analysis of a complex marker system such as AFLP fingerprints using only one type of analysis can easily be misleading...
  47. Barua C, Pal S, Roy J, Buragohain B, Talukdar A, Barua A, et al. Studies on the anti-inflammatory properties of Plantago erosa leaf extract in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:62-6 pubmed publisher
    Leaves of Plantago erosa ex Roxb are used traditionally in Northeast India in different illnesses which include wounds, cuts, bruises, insect bites, poison-ivy rashes, minor sores and snakebite, etc.
  48. Nadwodnik J, Lohaus G. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens. Planta. 2008;227:1079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery)...
  49. Orłowska E, Godzik B, Turnau K. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L. Environ Pollut. 2012;168:121-30 pubmed publisher
    The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P...
  50. Kardel F, Wuyts K, Babanezhad M, Vitharana U, Wuytack T, Potters G, et al. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:788-94 pubmed publisher
    ..urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L...
  51. Beara I, Lesjak M, Jovin E, Balog K, Anackov G, Orcić D, et al. Plantain (Plantago L.) species as novel sources of flavonoid antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:9268-73 pubmed publisher
    To examine the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of selected Plantago species (P. argentea Chaix., P. holosteum Scop., P. major L., P. maritima L., and P. media L...
  52. Umbach A, Lacey E, Richter S. Temperature-sensitive alternative oxidase protein content and its relationship to floral reflectance in natural Plantago lanceolata populations. New Phytol. 2009;181:662-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, leaf and spike (flower cluster) AOX protein content and spike/floral reflectance of genotypes from European Plantago lanceolata populations found in regions differing in reproductive season temperatures were measured...
  53. Reudler Talsma J, Biere A, Harvey J, van Nouhuys S. Oviposition cues for a specialist butterfly--plant chemistry and size. J Chem Ecol. 2008;34:1202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of plant secondary chemistry (the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol) and aspects of size of the plant Plantago lanceolata, on the oviposition behavior of the specialist butterfly Melitaea cinxia...
  54. Ozaslan M, Didem Karagöz I, Kalender M, Kilic I, Sari I, Karagoz A. In vivo antitumoral effect of Plantago major L. extract on Balb/C mouse with Ehrlich ascites tumor. Am J Chin Med. 2007;35:841-51 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of Plantago major L. extract in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing Balb/C mice in vivo...
  55. Gálvez M, Martín Cordero C, Houghton P, Ayuso M. Antioxidant activity of Plantago bellardii All. Phytother Res. 2005;19:1074-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Plantago bellardii All. aerial parts...
  56. Fernandez N, Carriedo D, Sierra M, Diez M, Sahagun A, Calle A, et al. Hydrosoluble fiber (Plantago ovata husk) and levodopa II: experimental study of the pharmacokinetic interaction in the presence of carbidopa. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;15:505-9 pubmed
    ..b>Plantago ovata husk (water-soluble fiber) improves levodopa absorption conditions, but when this drug is administered with ..
  57. Barth I, Meyer S, Sauer N. PmSUC3: characterization of a SUT2/SUC3-type sucrose transporter from Plantago major. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1375-85 pubmed
    ..detailed functional characterization and cellular localization of PmSUC3, the orthologous transporter from the Plantago major transporter family...
  58. Holland B, Clarke A, Meudt H. Optimizing automated AFLP scoring parameters to improve phylogenetic resolution. Syst Biol. 2008;57:347-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This is true not only when AFLP data are used for phylogenetics, but also for other applications, including linkage mapping and population genetics...
  59. Mraja A, Unsicker S, Reichelt M, Gershenzon J, Roscher C. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28055 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena ..
  60. Onoda Y, Schieving F, Anten N. Effects of light and nutrient availability on leaf mechanical properties of Plantago major: a conceptual approach. Ann Bot. 2008;101:727-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to understand phenotypic changes of leaf mechanical properties with respect to dry mass allocation and anatomy...
  61. Barton K, Bowers M. Neighbor species differentially alter resistance phenotypes in Plantago. Oecologia. 2006;150:442-52 pubmed
    ..We conducted a greenhouse experiment with Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major (Plantaginaceae) in which each species served as focal plants as well as neighbors ..
  62. Wegener T, Kraft K. [Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.): anti-inflammatory action in upper respiratory tract infections]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1999;149:211-6 pubmed
    Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is used for the therapy of infections of the upper respiratory airways. While only few clinical data are available, results of experimental research confirm e.g...
  63. Diez M, Garcia J, Prieto C, Fernandez N, Sahagun A, Sierra M. The hydrosoluble fiber Plantago ovata husk improves levodopa (with carbidopa) bioavailability after repeated administration. J Neurol Sci. 2008;271:15-20 pubmed publisher
    The influence of treatment duration (7 or 14 days) with Plantago ovata husk/levodopa/carbidopa in the bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of levodopa were evaluated in rabbits...
  64. Chiang L, Ng L, Chiang W, Chang M, Lin C. Immunomodulatory activities of flavonoids, monoterpenoids, triterpenoids, iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds of Plantago species. Planta Med. 2003;69:600-4 pubmed
    A number of Plantago spp. especially P. major has long been used in the treatment of diseases such as infection, inflammation and cancer...