picrorhiza

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain scrosides (CINNAMATES) and phenylethanoid glycoside. P. kurrooa is the source of picroliv (a purified iridoid glycoside fraction from the roots having hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties).

Top Publications

  1. Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Kaul V. Simultaneous determination of sugars and picrosides in Picrorhiza species using ultrasonic extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1194:257-61 pubmed publisher
    ..xylose, xylitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose) and picrosides (picroside-I and picroside-II) in two species Picrorhiza kurroa and P. scrophulariiflora. The analysis was carried out on a Zorbax amino column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d...
  2. Zou L, Zhu T, Xiang H, Yu L, Yan Z, Gan S, et al. New secoiridoid glycosides from the roots of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Molecules. 2008;13:2049-57 pubmed
    ..glycosides, named picrogentiosides A (1), B (2) and C (3), have been isolated from the underground parts of Picrorhiza Scrophulariiflora, together with the two known compounds plantamajoside (4) and plantainoside D (5)...
  3. Verma P, Basu V, Gupta V, Saxena G, Rahman L. Pharmacology and chemistry of a potent hepatoprotective compound Picroliv isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa royle ex benth. (kutki). Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009;10:641-9 pubmed
    ..naturally occurring components exerts the desired therapeutic effect, was noted in case of Picroliv or Kutkin of Picrorhiza kurroa...
  4. Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Rawat A, Mehrotra S. Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41:875-9 pubmed
    ..The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract...
  5. Gupta M, Sankhwar S, Verma S, Devi M, Samanta N, Agrawala P, et al. Whole body protection to lethally irradiated mice by oral administration of semipurified fraction of Podophyllum hexandrum and post irradiation treatment of Picrorhiza kurroa. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2008;33:6-12 pubmed
    to evaluate the radioprotective potential of alcoholic fraction of Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes (REC-2001) individually as well as in combination with Picrorhiza kurroa administered orally in lethally irradiated Swiss albino mice.
  6. Singh M, Tiwari V, Jain A, Ghoshal S. Protective activity of picroliv on hepatic amoebiasis associated with carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121:676-82 pubmed
    Picroliv, isolated from the root and rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, is known to have significant hepatoprotective activity. Its effects against Entamoeba histolytica induced liver damage are not studied...
  7. Katoch M, Fazli I, Suri K, Ahuja A, Qazi G. Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas. J Nat Med. 2011;65:578-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki, is a major ingredient of many ayurvedic preparations prescribed in the treatment of various diseases...
  8. Kawoosa T, Singh H, Kumar A, Sharma S, Devi K, Dutt S, et al. Light and temperature regulated terpene biosynthesis: hepatoprotective monoterpene picroside accumulation in Picrorhiza kurrooa. Funct Integr Genomics. 2010;10:393-404 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa) is an endangered medicinal plant with well-known hepatoprotective activity attributed to monoterpenoid picrosides...
  9. Rajkumar V, Guha G, Kumar R. Antioxidant and anti-neoplastic activities of Picrorhiza kurroa extracts. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The study concludes that P. kurroa possess diverse therapeutic potentials which might be useful in development of drugs or their precursors...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Gahlan P, Singh H, Shankar R, Sharma N, Kumari A, Chawla V, et al. De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:126 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an endangered plant species of medicinal importance. The medicinal property is attributed to monoterpenoids picroside I and II, which are modulated by temperature...
  2. Sud A, Chauhan R, Tandon C. Identification of imperative enzymes by differential protein expression in Picrorhiza kurroa under metabolite accumulating and non-accumulating conditions. Protein Pept Lett. 2013;20:826-35 pubmed
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa, an endangered medicinal plant found in the North-Western Himalayan region has a number of medicinal properties due to the presence of metabolites picroside-I and picroside-II...
  3. Pandit S, Shitiz K, Sood H, Naik P, Chauhan R. Expression pattern of fifteen genes of non-mevalonate (MEP) and mevalonate (MVA) pathways in different tissues of endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa with respect to picrosides content. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1053-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa, has become an endangered medicinal herb due to excessive utilization, therefore it necessitates the understanding of biology and molecular basis of major chemical constituents i.e...
  4. Kumar V, Sood H, Sharma M, Chauhan R. A proposed biosynthetic pathway of picrosides linked through the detection of biochemical intermediates in the endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. Phytochem Anal. 2013;24:598-602 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth is an important medicinal herb used in the preparation of several herbal drug formulations due to the presence of picroside-I (P-I) and picroside-II (P-II) along with other iridoid-glucosides derivatives.
  5. Bhat W, Dhar N, Razdan S, Rana S, Mehra R, Nargotra A, et al. Molecular characterization of UGT94F2 and UGT86C4, two glycosyltransferases from Picrorhiza kurrooa: comparative structural insight and evaluation of substrate recognition. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73804 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Picrorhiza kurrooa is a highly reputed medicinal herb known for its hepato-protective properties which are attributed to a ..
  6. He L, Liang M, Hou F, Guo Z, Xie D, Zhang X. Ethanol extraction of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora prevents renal injury in experimental diabetes via anti-inflammation action. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhizomes of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (PS) are a traditional medication long used to treat inflammatory diseases...
  7. Okamura T, Okada M, Kikuchi T, Wakizaka H, Zhang M. Kinetics and metabolism of apocynin in the mouse brain assessed with positron-emission tomography. Phytomedicine. 2018;38:84-89 pubmed publisher
    Apocynin is a constituent of the medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. It is an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase...
  8. Vashisht I, Pal T, Sood H, Chauhan R. Comparative transcriptome analysis in different tissues of a medicinal herb, Picrorhiza kurroa pinpoints transcription factors regulating picrosides biosynthesis. Mol Biol Rep. 2016;43:1395-1409 pubmed
    Transcriptional regulation of picrosides biosynthesis, the iridoid glycosides of an endangered medicinal herb, Picrorhiza kurroa, is completely unknown. P...
  9. Qadri M, Deshidi R, Shah B, Bindu K, Vishwakarma R, Riyaz Ul Hassan S. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;31:1647-54 pubmed publisher
    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas...
  10. Abrigo J, Morales M, Simon F, Cabrera D, Di Capua G, Cabello Verrugio C. Apocynin inhibits the upregulation of TGF-β1 expression and ROS production induced by TGF-β in skeletal muscle cells. Phytomedicine. 2015;22:885-93 pubmed publisher
    Pure apocynin, which can be traditionally isolated and purified from several plant species such as Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), acts as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (..
  11. Gimenes R, Gimenes C, Rosa C, Xavier N, Campos D, Fernandes A, et al. Influence of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018;17:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Apocynin, a drug isolated from the herb Picrorhiza kurroa, is considered an antioxidant agent by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and improving ROS scavenging...
  12. Agarwal K, Varma R. Ethnobotanical study of antilithic plants of Bhopal district. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;174:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Papilionaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (Plantaginaceae) and Piper longum L...
  13. Pathania S, Ramakrishnan S, Bagler G. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants. Database (Oxford). 2015;2015: pubmed publisher
    ..Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic ..
  14. Zahiruddin S, Khan W, Nehra R, Alam M, Mallick M, Parveen R, et al. Pharmacokinetics and comparative metabolic profiling of iridoid enriched fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa - An Ayurvedic Herb. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;197:157-164 pubmed publisher
    Picrosides I, II and apocynin are the main active principles present in the roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth (Kutki)...
  15. Yang X, Gao W, Wang B, Wang X, Guo H, Xiao Y, et al. Picroside II Inhibits RANKL-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis by Attenuating the NF-κB and MAPKs Signaling Pathway In Vitro and Prevents Bone Loss in Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Mice. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:4479-4486 pubmed publisher
    Picroside II, one of the major components isolated from the seed of natural plant picrorhiza, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine...
  16. Sultan P, Jan A, Pervaiz Q. Phytochemical studies for quantitative estimation of iridoid glycosides in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle. Bot Stud. 2016;57:7 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa Royle commonly known as 'Kutki or Kutaki' is an important medicinal plant in Ayurvedic system of medicine and has traditionally been used to treat disorders of the liver and upper respiratory tract...
  17. Zhang H, Zhai L, Wang T, Li S, Guo Y. Picroside II Exerts a Neuroprotective Effect by Inhibiting the Mitochondria Cytochrome C Signal Pathway Following Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2017;61:267-278 pubmed publisher
    ..Picroside II, the principal active component of Picrorhiza, is a traditional Chinese medicine...
  18. Shen B, Zhao C, Chen C, Li Z, Li Y, Tian Y, et al. Picroside II Protects Rat Lung and A549 Cell Against LPS-Induced Inflammation by the NF-κB Pathway. Inflammation. 2017;40:752-761 pubmed publisher
    Picroside II is the main active ingredient in the root department of Chinese medicine Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora which has been proved to have beneficial effects on health, such as ameliorating the cerebral ischemia and protecting the ..
  19. Tandon N, Yadav S. Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of Medicinal plants/Traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;197:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..in experimental studies an iridoid glycosides fraction isolated from root/rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (designated as Picroliv) for viral hepatitis...
  20. Wang H, Ye W, Xiong F, Zhao S. [Phenylethanoid glycosides from root of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:531-4 pubmed
    To study the phenylethanoid glycosides from root of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora...
  21. Piao X, Liu B, Guo L, Meng F, Gao L. Picroside II Shows Protective Functions for Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats by Preventing NF-κB-Dependent Autophagy. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:7085709 pubmed publisher
    Picroside II, from the herb Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its function on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and molecular mechanism remains unknown...
  22. Sharma S, Sharma P, Kulurkar P, Singh D, Kumar D, Patial V. Iridoid glycosides fraction from Picrorhiza kurroa attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced renal toxicity and peripheral neuropathy via PPAR-γ mediated inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis. Phytomedicine. 2017;36:108-117 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa Royle (Scrophulariaceae) is an important medicinal herb being widely used in variety of ailments...
  23. K N, G P, Y C, Kr A. Evaluation of Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-Induced Liver Oxidative Stress and Ameliorative Effect of Picrorhiza kurroa Extract in Wistar Albino Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018;184:154-164 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to assess the protective effect of Picrorhiza kurroa hydroalcoholic extract (PCK), a glycoside-rich extract, against potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced liver oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats...
  24. Russo R, Pucci L, Giorgetti L, Árvay J, Vizzarri F, Longo V, et al. Polyphenolic characterisation of plant mixture (Lisosan® Reduction) and its hypocholesterolaemic effect in high fat diet-fed mice. Nat Prod Res. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..produced from powder of fermented Triticum aestivum (Lisosan® G), Desmodium adscendens, Malus domestica, Picrorhiza kurroa and Hordeum vulgare...
  25. Upadhyay D, Anandjiwala S, Padh H, Nivsarkar M. In vitro - In vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetics of picroside I and II using LC-ESI-MS method. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;254:83-92 pubmed publisher
    Picroside I and II, iridoid glycosides, are the major active markers of roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa (family: Scrophulariaceae). The rhizomes of P...
  26. Gaikwad P, Bhope S, Kuber V, Patil M. Validated TLC method for simultaneous quantitation of kutkoside and picroside-I from Kutki extract. Phytochem Anal. 2011;22:36-41 pubmed publisher
    The two iridoid glycosides kutkoside and picroside-I are the active hepatoprotective principles of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki...
  27. Lee H, Ahn H, Ku S. Hypolipemic effect of water extracts of Picrorrhiza rhizoma in PX-407 induced hyperlipemic ICR mouse model with hepatoprotective effects: a prevention study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;105:380-6 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, it is concluded that water extract of PR has a relatively good favorable preventive effect on the PX-407 inducing hyperlipemia with favorable hepatoprotective effect...
  28. Thomas M, Sheran J, Smith N, Fonseca S, Lee A. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC Pulm Med. 2007;7:4 pubmed
    ..The encapsulated botanical mixture AKL1 has anecdotal evidence of effectiveness in asthma...
  29. Wang H, Ye W, Jiang R, Wu J, Mak T, Zhao S, et al. Three new cyclopentanoid monoterpenes from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Planta Med. 2004;70:382-4 pubmed
    Three new cyclopentanoid monoterpenes, named piscrocins A , B and C, were isolated from the roots of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Scrophulariaceae)...
  30. Zeng S, Wang D, Cao Y, An N, Zeng F, Han C, et al. Immunopotentiation of Caffeoyl Glycoside from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora on activation and cytokines secretion of immunocyte in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:1707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..isolated a 1,6-di-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, monomer named Caffeoyl Glycoside (CG) from the roots of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Kutki)...
  31. Zhang Y, DeWitt D, Murugesan S, Nair M. Novel lipid-peroxidation- and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory tannins from Picrorhiza kurroa seeds. Chem Biodivers. 2004;1:426-41 pubmed
    From the AcOEt extract of the seeds of Picrorhiza kurroa were isolated picrorhiza acid (1), picrorhizoside A (2), picrorhizoside B (3), picrorhizoside C (4), (-)-shikimic acid (5), gallic acid (6), ellagic acid (7), isocorilagin (8), 1-O-..
  32. Lee H, Keum K, Ku S. Effects of Picrorrhiza rhizoma water extracts on the subacute liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride. J Med Food. 2007;10:110-7 pubmed
    ..Thus oral administration of PR extracts significantly reduced CCl(4)-induced subacute hepatic damage in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular necrosis via its free radical scavenging ability...
  33. Marín M, Giner R, Rios J, Recio M. Protective effect of apocynin in a mouse model of chemically-induced colitis. Planta Med. 2013;79:1392-400 pubmed publisher
    Apocynin, a constituent of Picrorhiza kurroa, successfully inhibits NADPH oxidase and shows promise as an anti-inflammatory drug...
  34. Sharma N, Sharma B. Cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, an indigenous endangered medicinal plant, through vitrification. Cryo Letters. 2003;24:181-90 pubmed
    The cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (IC 266698), an endangered medicinal plant of India was investigated...
  35. Wang H, Sun Y, Ye W, Xiong F, Wu J, Yang C, et al. Antioxidative phenylethanoid and phenolic glycosides from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:615-7 pubmed
    One new phenylenthanoid glycoside, scroside D (2), was isolated from the roots of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Scrophulariaceae), together with nine known phenylethanoid and phenolic glycosides: 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-beta-D-..
  36. Sun M, Fan H, Ma H, Zhu Q. [Protective effect of total glucosides of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora against oxidative stress in glomerular mesangial cells induced by high glucose]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:381-5 pubmed
    Total glucosides of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (TGP) is the active principal in Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora which has antioxidant effect...
  37. Sharafkhaneh A, Velamuri S, Badmaev V, Lan C, Hanania N. The potential role of natural agents in treatment of airway inflammation. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2007;1:105-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an overview of the literature related to the anti-inflammatory effects of some of the natural agents which have potential value in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases...
  38. Lee H, Ku S. Effect of Picrorrhiza rhizoma extracts on early diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food. 2008;11:294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, an aqueous extract of PR has relatively good inhibitory effects on STZ-induced diabetes with early diabetic nephropathy with a similar efficacy to an equal dose of captopril...
  39. Tiwari S, Pandey M, Srivastava S, Rawat A. TLC densitometric quantification of picrosides (picroside-I and picroside-II) in Picrorhiza kurroa and its substitute Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora and their antioxidant studies. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:61-8 pubmed publisher
    Picroside-I and picroside-II are known bioactive metabolites in Picrorhiza species...
  40. Gupta A, Khajuria A, Singh J, Bedi K, Satti N, Dutt P, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from Picrorhiza kurroa. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1543-9 pubmed
    ..The biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 was isolated and purified from the rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa. We evaluated the effects of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from P...
  41. Yu J, Song Y, Cheng Y. [Quantitative determination of vanillic acid in rhizoma Picrorhizae by TLC-scanning]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999;24:102-3, 126-7 pubmed
    ..To establish a method to determine the content of vanillic acid in Rhizoma Picrorhizae...
  42. Wang W, Wang L, Zou L, Li G, Ye B. A novel voltammetric sensor based on poly(l-Citrulline)/SWCNTs composite film modified electrode for sensitive determination of picroside II. Talanta. 2016;150:346-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, the proposed sensor was used for the determination of picroside II in real sample with satisfactory results. This work promoted the potential applications of amino acid materials and SWCNTs in electro-chemical sensors. ..
  43. Parkash J, Vaidya T, Kirti S, Dutt S. Translation initiation factor 5A in Picrorhiza is up-regulated during leaf senescence and in response to abscisic acid. Gene. 2014;542:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we have cloned and analysed a gene (eIF5a) encoding eIF5A from Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.) a medicinal plant of the western Himalayan region...
  44. Guo Z, Hou F, Liu S, Tian J, Zhang W, Xie D, et al. Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora improves accelerated atherosclerosis through inhibition of redox-sensitive inflammation. Int J Cardiol. 2009;136:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhizome of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (PS) has long been used to treat inflammatory diseases as a traditional medication...
  45. Shen Q, Dong W, Wang Y, Gong L, Dai Z, Cheung H. Pipette tip solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based rapid analysis of picrosides from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;80:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..for extraction and purification of bioactive compounds, picroside-I, II and III, in crude herbal extracts from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (P. scrophulariiflora)...
  46. Lee H, Yoo C, Ku S. Hypolipemic effect of water extracts of Picrorrhiza kurroa in high fat diet treated mouse. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:579-84 pubmed
    ..On the contrary, serum HDL level seems not affected by P. kurroa water extract...
  47. Zhu T, Huang K, Deng X, Zhang Y, Xiang H, Gao H, et al. Three new caffeoyl glycosides from the roots of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Molecules. 2008;13:729-35 pubmed
    From the underground parts of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, three new caffeoyl glycosides, scrocaffeside A-C (1-3), together with two caffeic acid derivates, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (4) and 4-methoxy caffeic acid (5) and a ..
  48. Singh A, Sharma A, Warren J, Madhavan S, Steele K, Rajeshkumar N, et al. Picroliv accelerates epithelialization and angiogenesis in rat wounds. Planta Med. 2007;73:251-6 pubmed
    ..Earlier, we have shown that picroliv, a natural product obtained from the roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa, up-regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human umbilical vein endothelial ..
  49. Cao X, Qiao J, Wang L, Ye X, Zheng L, Jiang N, et al. Screening of glycoside isomers in P. scrophulariiflora using ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated the capabilities of ILUAE combined with UPLC/ESI-QTOFMS(n) for the rapid screening of glycosides in P. scrophulariiflora. This method offers an approach to similar studies on other natural plants...
  50. Lee H, Kim H, Ku S. Hepatoprotective effects of Artemisiae capillaris herba and Picrorrhiza rhizoma combinations on carbon tetrachloride-induced subacute liver damage in rats. Nutr Res. 2008;28:270-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Narayanan P, Akamanchi K. Colorimetric estimation of total iridoid content of Picrorhiza kurrooa. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2003;5:105-11 pubmed
    ..method has been developed for the selective analysis of the total iridoid content of the rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurrooa in terms of catalpol...
  52. Khajuria A, Gupta A, Singh S, Malik F, Singh J, Suri K, et al. RLJ-NE-299A: a new plant based vaccine adjuvant. Vaccine. 2007;25:2706-15 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a new plant based product RLJ-NE-299A from Picrorhiza kurroa reported for its immunostimulatory activity, has been explored for its potential as an alternative ..
  53. Feng J, Li H, Liu Z, Zhou Z, Tian J, Liang M. [Effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora on the progression of chronic kidney disease in a rat remnant kidney model]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:1505-8 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (EPS) on renal function and tissue damage in a rat remnant kidney model.
  54. Kumar D, Kumar R, Singh B, Ahuja P. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2016;19:200-15 pubmed
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver ..
  55. Irshad S, Mannan A, Mirza B. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011;24:589-91 pubmed
    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan...
  56. Patil A, Sachin B, Shinde D, Wakte P. Supercritical CO?assisted extraction and LC-MS identification of picroside I and picroside II from Picrorhiza kurroa. Phytochem Anal. 2013;24:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..kurroa rhizomes. This is the first report of picroside I and picroside II extraction using the supercritical carbon dioxide assisted extraction technique...
  57. Meng F, Hou Z, Li Y, Yang Y, Yu B. The protective effect of picroside II against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1226-32 pubmed publisher
    Picroside II, an iridoid glucoside found in the root of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (Scrophulariaceae), has been demonstrated to possess potent antioxidant activity...
  58. Zhang D, Yu J, Li Y, Wei L, Yu Y, Feng Y, et al. A Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, picroliv, attenuates the development of dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:751629 pubmed publisher
    ..Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect...
  59. Upadhyay D, Dash R, Anandjiwala S, Nivsarkar M. Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of picrosides I and II from kutkin, Picrorhiza kurroa extract and its formulation in rats. Fitoterapia. 2013;85:76-83 pubmed publisher
    Picrosides I and II are the active chemical constituents, present in the roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle (family: Scrophulariaceae)...
  60. Huang S, Zhou Y, Nie Q, Ding L, Peng S. Two new iridoid glucosides from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006;8:259-63 pubmed
    ..with nine known iridoid glucosides and three known cucurbitacin glucosides, were isolated from the stems of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora...
  61. Zhang Y, DeWitt D, Murugesan S, Nair M. Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory triterpenoids from Picrorhiza kurroa seeds. Life Sci. 2005;77:3222-30 pubmed
    A bioassay guided phytochemical study of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of Picrorhiza kurroa afforded a new triterpenoid, 2alpha, 3beta, 19beta, 23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), along with five known ..
  62. Gangola M, Parkash J, Ahuja P, Dutt S. Components of antioxidant system of Picrorhiza kurrooa exhibit different spatio-temporal behavior. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:6593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant system of picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa)...
  63. Wang H, Zhao W, Choomuenwai V, Andrews K, Quinn R, Feng Y. Chemical investigation of an antimalarial Chinese medicinal herb Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:5915-8 pubmed publisher
    An antimalarial medicinal plant Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora was chemically investigated as part of our ongoing research in traditional chinese medicines (TCM)...
  64. Gao H, Zhou Y. Inhibitory effect of picroside II on hepatocyte apoptosis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:729-36 pubmed
    ..To investigate the influence of picroside II on hepatocyte apoptosis and its mechanism...
  65. Rawat J, Rawat B, Mehrotra S. Plant regeneration, genetic fidelity, and active ingredient content of encapsulated hairy roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. Biotechnol Lett. 2013;35:961-8 pubmed publisher
    Among five hairy root lines of Picrorhiza kurrooa that were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes, one (H7) was selected for encapsulation due to high accumulation of picrotin and picrotoxinin (8.3 and 47.6 ?g/g DW, respectively)...
  66. Singh H, Gahlan P, Kumar S. Cloning and expression analysis of ten genes associated with picrosides biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurrooa. Gene. 2013;515:320-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an economically important medicinal plant known to yield picrosides which have high medicinal value. Picroside I and picroside II are major picrosides associated with various bioactivities...
  67. An N, Wang D, Zhu T, Zeng S, Cao Y, Cui J, et al. Effects of scrocaffeside A from Picrorhiza Scrophulariiflora on immunocyte function in vitro. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009;31:451-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora is a traditionally used herb for the treatment of various diseases, including tumors and liver infections...
  68. Banerjee D, Maity B, Nag S, Bandyopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay S. Healing potential of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrofulariaceae) rhizomes against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration: a mechanistic exploration. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008;8:3 pubmed publisher
    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the rhizomes of the Indian medicinal plant, Picrorhiza kurroa in healing indomethacin-induced acute stomach ulceration in mice and examine its capacity to modulate oxidative ..
  69. Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Ahuja P. Online HPLC-DPPH method for antioxidant activity of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. and characterization of kutkoside by ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:323-8 pubmed
    b>Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., is widely used in the Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various liver ailments...
  70. Zou X, Liao X, Ding L, Peng S. Phenyl and phenylethyl glycosides from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007;9:443-8 pubmed
    ..with three known phenylethyl glycosides, scroside A (3), plantainoside D (4), and plantamajoside (5), were isolated from the stems of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.
  71. Gupta S, Ramesh S, Srivastava V. Efficacy of picroliv in combination with miltefosine, an orally effective antileishmanial drug against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 2005;94:41-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the efficacy of this combination was as good as the curative dose of miltefosine alone. Thus, this combination appears to offer a fruitful strategy for treatment of VL...