thymus plant


Summary: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.

Top Publications

  1. Chen G, Yuan Y, Ai K. [Study on the essential oil components in Thymus quinquecostatus Celak]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001;36:233-4 pubmed
    ..To analyse the essential oil components of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak...
  2. Bozin B, Mimica Dukic N, Simin N, Anackov G. Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:1822-8 pubmed
    ..A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited...
  3. Behnia M, Haghighi A, Komeylizadeh H, Tabaei S, Abadi A. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:153-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica...
  4. Shin S, Kim J. In vitro inhibitory activities of essential oils from two Korean thymus species against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28:897-901 pubmed
    ..Data from the checkerboard titer test confirmed synergism between the antibiotic, norfloxacin, and T. magnus oil or thymol, particularly against the resistant strains of S. aureus...
  5. Solomakos N, Govaris A, Koidis P, Botsoglou N. The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil, nisin, and their combination against Listeria monocytogenes in minced beef during refrigerated storage. Food Microbiol. 2008;25:120-7 pubmed
    ..6% with nisin at 1000IU/g, which decreased the population of L. monocytogenes below the official limit of the European Union recently set at 2logcfu/g, during storage at 4 degrees C...
  6. Jensen C, Ehlers B. Genetic variation for sensitivity to a thyme monoterpene in associated plant species. Oecologia. 2010;162:1017-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The different responses within a species suggest that plant-plant interactions can evolve; this has implications for community dynamics and stability...
  7. Hossain M, Rai D, Brunton N, Martin Diana A, Barry Ryan C. Characterization of phenolic composition in Lamiaceae spices by LC-ESI-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnostic fragmentation patterns of the compounds during collision-induced dissociation (CID) elucidated the structural information of the compounds analyzed...
  8. Sokovic M, Glamoclija J, Marin P, Brkic D, Van Griensven L. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Molecules. 2010;15:7532-46 pubmed publisher
    ..epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components...
  9. Miura K, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N. Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:1845-51 pubmed
    ..The activity of these compounds was mainly due to the presence of ortho-dihydroxy groups. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of these compounds showed the similar result...

More Information

Publications178 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hudaib M, Speroni E, Di Pietra A, Cavrini V. GC/MS evaluation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil composition and variations during the vegetative cycle. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;29:691-700 pubmed
    ..2% and carvacrol: 4%). This latter growth period can represent the best harvest time of young thyme plants in order to obtain an essential oil with better quality and quantity...
  2. Soliman K, Badeaa R. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1669-75 pubmed
    ..The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and mycotoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oils used...
  3. Ehlers B, Thompson J. Do co-occurring plant species adapt to one another? The response of Bromus erectus to the presence of different Thymus vulgaris chemotypes. Oecologia. 2004;141:511-8 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that patterns of genetic differentiation and local adaptation may modify competitive interactions and possible facilitation effects in natural communities...
  4. Aydin S, Basaran A, Basaran N. Modulating effects of thyme and its major ingredients on oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1299-305 pubmed
    ..2 and 0.1 mM, respectively, significantly reduced the oxidative DNA damage (p < 0.001). The n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions prepared from the methanolic extracts of Thymus spicata also were found to inhibit DNA damage...
  5. Hotta M, Nakata R, Katsukawa M, Hori K, Takahashi S, Inoue H. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol...
  6. Mutluay Yayla E, Izgu N, Ozdemir L, Aslan Erdem S, Kartal M. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse reduces chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A randomized controlled pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2016;27:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This hydrosol can be recommended for clinical use as it is well tolerated and cost-effective. However, further randomized controlled trials are needed to support the study. ..
  7. Mancini E, Senatore F, Del Monte D, De Martino L, Grulova D, Scognamiglio M, et al. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils. Molecules. 2015;20:12016-28 pubmed publisher
    ..1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals. ..
  8. Akram M, Rashid A. Anti-coagulant activity of plants: mini review. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2017;44:406-411 pubmed publisher
    ..This review shows that medicinal plants should be prescribed with care to patients on anticoagulant therapy. ..
  9. Griffin A, Cabot P, Wallwork B, Panizza B. Alternative therapies for chronic rhinosinusitis: A review. Ear Nose Throat J. 2018;97:E25-E33 pubmed
    ..However, higher levels of evidence gleaned from large, well-designed, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed before any of these therapies can be recommended. ..
  10. Abid M, Ashfaq M, Sharif M, Rauf K, Mahmood W, Khan I, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30:2147-2150 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments...
  11. Cutillas A, Carrasco A, Martinez Gutierrez R, Tomás V, Tudela J. Thyme essential oils from Spain: Aromatic profile ascertained by GC-MS, and their antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities. J Food Drug Anal. 2018;26:529-544 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the potential use of Thymus sp. EOs as natural food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients. ..
  12. El Obeid T, Yehia H, Sakkas H, Lambrianidi L, Tsiraki M, Savvaidis I. Shelf-life of smoked eel fillets treated with chitosan or thyme oil. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;114:578-583 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of our study show thyme or chitosan (singly, or in combination) inhibit the growth of mesophilic bacteria and extend the shelf-life of smoked eel. ..
  13. Hagmüller W, Jugl Chizzola M, Zitterl Eglseer K, Gabler C, Spergser J, Chizzola R, et al. The use of Thymi Herba as feed additive (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) in weanling piglets with assessment of the shedding of haemolysing E. coli and the detection of thymol in the blood plasma. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;119:50-4 pubmed
    ..Three days after withdrawal of the feed additive no thymol levels were detected. The study results did not reveal any effects on haemolysing E. coli in the gut. ..
  14. Alizadeh A, Sharaifi R, Javan Nikkhah M, Sedaghat N. Survey of Thymus migricus essential oil on aflatoxin inhibition in Aspergillus flavus. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2010;75:769-76 pubmed
    ..63 ppm aflatoxin production. In other word, Th. migricus oil can suppress aflatoxin production in concentrations lower than EC50 for mycelium growth. ..
  15. Carrión Granda X, Fernández Pan I, Jaime I, Rovira J, Maté J. Improvement of the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat peeled shrimps (Penaeus vannamei) by the use of chitosan coatings. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;232:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work demonstrates the effectiveness of chitosan enriched coatings, offering a promising alternative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms on peeled shrimps during refrigeration storage. ..
  16. Rasooli I, Rezaei M, Allameh A. Ultrastructural studies on antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:236-41 pubmed
    ..monocytogenes at low concentrations, could be considered as preservative materials for some kinds of foods; they could find an application as additives to foodstuffs in storage to protect them from listerial contamination. ..
  17. Pinto E, Pina Vaz C, Salgueiro L, Gonçalves M, Costa de Oliveira S, Cavaleiro C, et al. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:1367-73 pubmed
    ..The present study indicates that T. pulegioides essential oil has considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications. ..
  18. Dawidowicz A, Rado E, Wianowska D, Mardarowicz M, Gawdzik J. Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L. Talanta. 2008;76:878-84 pubmed publisher
  19. Undeger U, Basaran A, Degen G, Basaran N. Antioxidant activities of major thyme ingredients and lack of (oxidative) DNA damage in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells at low levels of carvacrol and thymol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2037-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study indicate a lack of clastogenic activity for thymol and carvacrol at biologically relevant concentrations, and a moderate antioxidant activity in vitro. ..
  20. Fadli M, Chevalier J, Bolla J, Mezrioui N, Hassani L, Pages J. Thymus maroccanus essential oil, a membranotropic compound active on Gram-negative bacteria and resistant isolates. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:1120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that T. maroccanus EO can restore antibiotic activity by targeting the two bacterial membranes and would be attractive candidates for developing new adjuvants for combating resistant Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  21. Uyttendaele M, Neyts K, Vanderswalmen H, Notebaert E, Debevere J. Control of Aeromonas on minimally processed vegetables by decontamination with lactic acid, chlorinated water, or thyme essential oil solution. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004;90:263-71 pubmed
  22. Hassannejad S, Bernard F, Mirzajani F, Gholami M. SA improvement of hyperhydricity reversion in Thymus daenensis shoots culture may be associated with polyamines changes. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;51:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..daenensis. ..
  23. Koc S, Oz E, Aydin L, Cetin H. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1863-5 pubmed
    ..1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae. ..
  24. Olmo Vidal J. <i>Prionotropis</i> <i>ancosae</i>, a new species of Thrinchinae (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae) from the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. Zootaxa. 2017;4258:287-293 pubmed publisher
    ..This new species is compared to the similar species P. flexuosa (Serville, 1838). In Catalonia two species of genera Prionotropis Fieber, 1853 are present, P. flexuosa and P. ancosae n. sp. ..
  25. Karabagias I, Badeka A, Kontominas M. Shelf life extension of lamb meat using thyme or oregano essential oils and modified atmosphere packaging. Meat Sci. 2011;88:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of TEO and 21-22 days for MAP packaged samples containing 0.1% TEO. ..
  26. Jeong E, Lim J, Kim H, Lee H. Acaricidal activity of Thymus vulgaris oil and its main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite. J Food Prot. 2008;71:351-5 pubmed
    ..vulagaris oil against the stored food mite, although it only constitutes 14.2% of the oil. From this point of view, carvacrol and thymol can be very useful as potential control agents against stored food mite. ..
  27. Aguilar O, Hernández Brenes C. Use of Modified Phenolic Thyme Extracts (Thymus vulgaris) with Reduced Polyphenol Oxidase Substrates as Anthocyanin Color and Stability Enhancing Agents. Molecules. 2015;20:22422-34 pubmed publisher
  28. Oliviero M, Romilde I, Beatrice M, Matteo V, Giovanna N, Consuelo A, et al. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;256:125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals. ..
  29. Cao T, Yang S, Song K. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry. ..
  30. Lugemwa F. Extraction of betulin, trimyristin, eugenol and carnosic acid using water-organic solvent mixtures. Molecules. 2012;17:9274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..5:4.5:1, v/v/v) was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h. ..
  31. Krause S, Köllner T, Asbach J, Degenhardt J. Stereochemical mechanism of two sabinene hydrate synthases forming antipodal monoterpenes in thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;529:112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on comparative models of TPS6 and TPS7 protein structures with the GPP substrate docked in the active site pocket, the influence of this amino acid residue on the reaction mechanism is discussed. ..
  32. Niu F, Pan W, Su Y, Yang Y. Physical and antimicrobial properties of thyme oil emulsions stabilized by ovalbumin and gum arabic. Food Chem. 2016;212:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..0. These results provided useful information for developing protection and delivery systems for essential oil using biopolymer. ..
  33. Afonso A, Pereira O, Neto R, Silva A, Cardoso S. Health-Promoting Effects of Thymus herba-barona, Thymus pseudolanuginosus, and Thymus caespititius Decoctions. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this work is an important contribution for the phytochemical characterization and the potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of these three Thymus species, which have been poorly explored. ..
  34. Khalil N, Fekry M, Bishr M, El Zalabani S, Salama O. Foliar spraying of salicylic acid induced accumulation of phenolics, increased radical scavenging activity and modified the composition of the essential oil of water stressed Thymus vulgaris L. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018;123:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..GC/MS analysis of oil samples revealed that the Thymol content increased with drought stress, while that of p-cymene decreased. However, an increase of p-cymene was witnessed as a result of SA spraying. ..
  35. Fan M, Chen J. [Studies on antimicrobial activity of extracts from thyme]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2001;41:499-504 pubmed
    ..The results show that all antimicrobial agents used have strong inhibition activity against Staphalococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli. ..
  36. Ait Ouazzou A, Loran S, Bakkali M, Laglaoui A, Rota C, Herrera A, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:2643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study reports on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco...
  37. Nikkhah M, Hashemi M, Habibi Najafi M, Farhoosh R. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;257:285-294 pubmed publisher
    ..cinerea and P. expansum respectively, in 10days at 25°C. Results also showed that double combination of thyme/cinnamon (78, 156?g/mL) has more inhibitory effect than single EO treatments. ..
  38. Kasmi M, Aourach M, El Boukari M, Barrijal S, Essalmani H. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco]. C R Biol. 2017;340:386-393 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. ..
  39. van den Hoven R, Zappe H, Zitterl Eglseer K, Jugl M, Franz C. Study of the effect of Bronchipret on the lung function of five Austrian saddle horses suffering recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Vet Rec. 2003;152:555-7 pubmed
  40. Prieto J, Bader A, Martini F, Rios J, Morelli I. Screening of some rare endemic Italian plants for inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:725-7 pubmed
    ..The methanol extracts of pods of Cytisus aeolicus and aerial parts of Thymus richardii were the most active extracts, inhibiting almost completely the leukotriene B4 production at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively...
  41. Del Pozo Insfran D, Del Follo Martinez A, Talcott S, Brenes C. Stability of copigmented anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in muscadine grape juice processed by high hydrostatic pressure. J Food Sci. 2007;72:S247-53 pubmed
    ..Addition of partially purified copigments increased muscadine grape juice color, antioxidant activity and also reduced phytochemical losses during HHP processing and storage. ..
  42. Kostaki M, Giatrakou V, Savvaidis I, Kontominas M. Combined effect of MAP and thyme essential oil on the microbiological, chemical and sensory attributes of organically aquacultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets. Food Microbiol. 2009;26:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..As regards sensory evaluation, the presence of thyme oil proved to improve the sensory quality of sea bass fillets when used in combination with MAP2, providing a shelf life of 17 days as compared to 6 days of the control samples...
  43. Bellete B, Raberin H, Flori P, El Akssi S, Tran Manh Sung R, Taourirte M, et al. Antifungal effect of the essential oil of Thymus broussonetii Boiss endogenous species of Morocco. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:1692-6 pubmed publisher
    ..All the dermatophytes tested were inhibited by 3?µL (0.00075?mL?mL?¹) of EOT; the latter has the potential to be a good alternative to the conventional antifungal drugs which are usually expensive and with high toxicity...
  44. Kim Y, Lee S, Hwang J, Kim E, Kim S, Kim E, et al. In vitro protective effects of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak extracts on t-BHP-induced cell damage through antioxidant activity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results described above, it is suggested that TQC has the potential to protect liver on t-BHP-induced cell damage and should be considered as a prospective functional food...
  45. Mihailovic Stanojevic N, Belščak Cvitanović A, Grujic Milanovic J, Ivanov M, Jovović D, Bugarski D, et al. Antioxidant and antihypertensive activity of extract from Thymus serpyllum L. in experimental hypertension. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013;68:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Given dose of TE did not show significant nitric oxide-scavenging activity in vivo. Our results indicate that TE may protect against hypertension in experimental model of essential hypertension. ..
  46. de Oliveira J, Figueira L, Sper F, Meccatti V, Camargo S, de Oliveira L. Thymus vulgaris L. and thymol assist murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) in the control of in vitro infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Immunol Res. 2017;65:932-943 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa by RAW 264.7 Plant products provided immunoregulation of inflammatory cytokines Production of nitric oxide was improved with the treatments in bacterial infections. ..
  47. Linhart Y, Keefover Ring K, Mooney K, Breland B, Thompson J. A chemical polymorphism in a multitrophic setting: thyme monoterpene composition and food web structure. Am Nat. 2005;166:517-29 pubmed
    ..We thus document differential selection by aphids among thyme chemotypes and the influence of Bromus on the strength of these negative effects of aphids. ..
  48. Silva J, Almeida J, Quintans J, Gopalsamy R, Shanmugam S, Serafini M, et al. Enhancement of orofacial antinociceptive effect of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in oregano and thyme oils, by ?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:454-461 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the encapsulation of carvacrol in ?-cyclodextrin can acts as a considerable therapeutic agent with pharmacological interest for the orofacial pain management. ..
  49. Ehsani A, Mahjani M, Hosseini M, Safari R, Moshrefi R, Mohammad Shiri H. Evaluation of Thymus vulgaris plant extract as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel 304 in acidic solution by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical noise analysis and density functional theory. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2017;490:444-451 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the used techniques showed positive effect of green inhibitor with increasing inhibitor concentration. ..
  50. Kumari P, Mishra R, Arora N, Chatrath A, Gangwar R, Roy P, et al. Antifungal and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Essential Oil Active Components against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2161 pubmed publisher infection model suggesting that these two can be further exploited as cost-effective and non-toxic anti-cryptococcal drugs...
  51. Park J, Kim S, Kim N, Lee S, Jeun Y, Hong J. Differential Inhibitory Activities of Four Plant Essential Oils on In Vitro Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Causing Fusarium Wilt in Strawberry Plants. Plant Pathol J. 2017;33:582-588 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underpin that volatile plant essential oils could be used in eco-friendly integrated disease management of Fusarium wilt in strawberry fields...
  52. Dorman H, Bachmayer O, Koşar M, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species grown in Turkey. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:762-70 pubmed
    ..All the extracts contained Folin-Ciocalteu reagent-reactive substances, which was confirmed by the presence of polar phenolic analytes (i.e., hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonoids)...
  53. Cross D, Acamovic T, McDevitt R. Effects of the inclusion of Thymus vulgaris L. oil in diets with and without enzymes, on nutrient digestibility in broilers. Br Poult Sci. 2004;45 Suppl 1:S22-3 pubmed
  54. Watanabe J, Shinmoto H, Tsushida T. Coumarin and flavone derivatives from estragon and thyme as inhibitors of chemical mediator release from RBL-2H3 Cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1-6 pubmed
    ..It was also found that coumarin derivatives inhibited an earlier step than intracellular calcium release and proteinkinase C activation, while flavones inhibited a later step or both earlier and later steps. ..
  55. Fadli M, Saad A, Sayadi S, Chevalier J, Mezrioui N, Pages J, et al. Antibacterial activity of Thymus maroccanus and Thymus broussonetii essential oils against nosocomial infection - bacteria and their synergistic potential with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further investigations are needed to assess the potential for therapeutic application. ..
  56. Beena -, Kumar D, Rawat D. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of thymol and carvacrol based Schiff bases. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:641-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-four most active compounds were also screened by ABTS method and showed 60-90% inhibition at 5 ?g/mL concentration. ..
  57. Carezzano M, Sotelo J, Primo E, Reinoso E, Paletti Rovey M, Demo M, et al. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2017;19:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of diseases caused by P. syringae...
  58. Yu Y, Wu J, Stahler M, Pestemer W. Residual dynamics of thiacloprid in medical herbs marjoram, thyme, and camomile in soil. J Environ Sci (China). 2007;19:205-9 pubmed
    ..5 and 3.6 d. The results indicated that thiacloprid dissipates rapidly and does not accumulate in the tested herbs and in soil. ..
  59. Begrow F, Engelbertz J, Feistel B, Lehnfeld R, Bauer K, Verspohl E. Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance. Planta Med. 2010;76:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results the standardization on thymol alone appears not to be justified. ..
  60. Dussault D, Vu K, Lacroix M. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham. Meat Sci. 2014;96:514-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. ..
  61. Jia P, Liu H, Gao T, Xin H. Glandular trichomes and essential oil of Thymus quinquecostatus. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:387952 pubmed publisher
    ..The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. ..
  62. Ballester Costa C, Sendra E, Fernández López J, Pérez Álvarez J, Viuda Martos M. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties on Meat Homogenates of Essential Oils Obtained from Four Thymus Species Achieved from Organic Growth. Foods. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..In general terms, the antibacterial activity of all EOs assayed was higher in the medium made with minced beef than with the medium elaborated with cooked ham or dry-cured sausage. ..
  63. Santoro K, Maghenzani M, Chiabrando V, Bosio P, Gullino M, Spadaro D, et al. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold. Foods. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. ..
  64. Mohammed M, Al Bayati F. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, antibacterial compounds from both plants were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed individually and combined...
  65. Figueiredo A, Barroso J, Pedro L. Volatiles from Thymbra and Thymus species of the western Mediterranean basin, Portugal and Macaronesia. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1465-76 pubmed
    ..The present work gives an overview of the chemical composition of the volatiles from the taxa of these two genera occurring in the above geographic area. ..
  66. Amad A, Manner K, Wendler K, Neumann K, Zentek J. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2011;90:2811-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further...
  67. Yvon Y, Raoelison E, Razafindrazaka R, Randriantsoa A, Romdhane M, Chabir N, et al. Relation between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and antihypertensive activity for six essential oils. J Food Sci. 2012;77:H184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the literature, no study has been reported until now of correlation between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity. Natural EOs can find its interest and application in a medicinal area. ..
  68. Ghaedi M, Montazerozohori M, Nazari E, Nejabat R. Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the solid-phase extraction of silver, cadmium, palladium, zinc, manganese and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013;32:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..95). The procedure was applied for the analytes determination in the food samples with satisfactory results (recoveries >95% and relative standard deviation's (RSD) lower than 4%). ..
  69. Wienkötter N, Begrow F, Kinzinger U, Schierstedt D, Verspohl E. The effect of thyme extract on beta2-receptors and mucociliary clearance. Planta Med. 2007;73:629-35 pubmed
    ..4) Thyme extract has an indirect (modulatory) effect on the beta (2)-receptor system. 5) Mucociliary clearance is improved in vivo. Its mechanism has still to be elucidated. ..
  70. Hanlidou E, Lazari D. Essential oils of Thymus leucospermus Hartvig, a Greek endemic rich in phenolic monoterpenes. Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:1800-3 pubmed publisher
    ..6% and carvacrol 26.4%). Our results show that T. leucospermus is a high-quality thyme species, with respect to both oil content and composition. ..
  71. Bekut M, Brkic S, Kladar N, Dragovic G, Gavarić N, Bozin B. Potential of selected Lamiaceae plants in anti(retro)viral therapy. Pharmacol Res. 2018;133:301-314 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible reduction of side effects of diseases and conventional drug therapy are also some aspects worth further investigations. ..
  72. Shanmugavelu S, Acamovic T, Cowieson A. Effect of thyme oil and garlic powder on the nutritive value of soybean meal. Br Poult Sci. 2004;45 Suppl 1:S54-5 pubmed
  73. Gutierrez J, Barry Ryan C, Bourke P. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components. Food Microbiol. 2009;26:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that EOs might be more effective against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria when applied to foods containing a high protein level at acidic pH, as well as moderate levels of simple sugars. ..
  74. Nair S, Meddah B, Aoues A. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys. Foods. 2013;2:83-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin. ..
  75. Thompson J, Chalchat J, Michet A, Linhart Y, Ehlers B. Qualitative and quantitative variation in monoterpene co-occurrence and composition in the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes. J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:859-80 pubmed
    ..The latter result suggests that a plant with dominant genes is responsible for the production of different monoterpenes can produce several molecules. ..
  76. Gao M, Feng L, Jiang T. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment. Food Chem. 2014;149:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. ..
  77. Li X, Yang L, Xu S, Li J, Cheng Z, Dang J. [Extraction and analysis of chemical components of essential oil in Thymus vulgaris of tissue culture]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:1544-8 pubmed
    ..and only had a slight difference in the relative content. This study provides important theoretical foundation and data reference for further study on production of essential oil in thyme by tissue culture technology. ..
  78. Cerda A, Martínez M, Soto C, Poirrier P, Pérez Correa J, Vergara Salinas J, et al. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent. Food Chem. 2013;139:138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT. ..
  79. Farràs M, Fernández Castillejo S, Rubió L, Arranz S, Catalán Ã, Subirana I, et al. Phenol-enriched olive oils improve HDL antioxidant content in hypercholesterolemic subjects. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, controlled trial. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;51:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementary phenol-enriched olive oil could be a useful dietary tool for improving HDL richness in antioxidants. ..
  80. De Feo V, Bruno M, Tahiri B, Napolitano F, Senatore F. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thymus spinulosus Ten. (Lamiaceae). J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3849-53 pubmed
  81. El Nekeety A, Mohamed S, Hathout A, Hassan N, Aly S, Abdel Wahhab M. Antioxidant properties of Thymus vulgaris oil against aflatoxin-induce oxidative stress in male rats. Toxicon. 2011;57:984-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be concluded that the essential oil of T. vulgaris has a potential antioxidant activity and a protective effect against AFs toxicity and this protection was dose dependent. ..
  82. Wojtowicz E, Zawirska Wojtasiak R, Adamiec J, Wasowicz E, Przygoński K, Remiszewski M. Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME. J Food Sci. 2010;75:S441-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality. ..
  83. Rastegar H, Ahmadi Ashtiani H, Aghaei M, Ehsani A, Barikbin B. Combination of herbal extracts and platelet-rich plasma induced dermal papilla cell proliferation: involvement of ERK and Akt pathways. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013;12:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of PRP and herbal extracts combination in order to identify potential stimulants of hair growth...
  84. Rodopoulou M, Tananaki C, Dimou M, Liolios V, Kanelis D, Goras G, et al. The determination of the botanical origin in honeys with over-represented pollen: combination of melissopalynological, sensory and physicochemical analysis. J Sci Food Agric. 2017;: pubmed publisher
  85. Angelini L, Carpanese G, Cioni P, Morelli I, Macchia M, Flamini G. Essential oils from Mediterranean lamiaceae as weed germination inhibitors. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:6158-64 pubmed
    ..Monoterpene compounds also present in the essential oils mainly represented the volatile fraction released from the crops and their residues into the soil...
  86. Yamamoto J, Yamada K, Naemura A, Yamashita T, Arai R. Testing various herbs for antithrombotic effect. Nutrition. 2005;21:580-7 pubmed
    ..Some herbs possess antithrombotic effects in experimental models of thrombosis. The mechanism of the antithrombotic effect of common thyme and rosemary may involve a direct inhibitory effect on platelets. ..
  87. Roldán Gutiérrez J, Ruiz Jimenez J, Luque de Castro M. Ultrasound-assisted dynamic extraction of valuable compounds from aromatic plants and flowers as compared with steam distillation and superheated liquid extraction. Talanta. 2008;75:1369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The extraction time of the proposed method is 176-165 min shorter than steam distillation and 31-20 min shorter than superheated liquid extraction, depending on the target compound. ..
  88. Lu Y, Wu C. Reduction of Salmonella enterica contamination on grape tomatoes by washing with thyme oil, thymol, and carvacrol as compared with chlorine treatment. J Food Prot. 2010;73:2270-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, 0.4 mg/ml thymol has great potential to be an alternative to chlorine-based washing solution for fresh produce. ..
  89. Ozudogru E, Kaya E. Cryopreservation of Thymus cariensis and T. vulgaris shoot tips: comparison of three vitrification-based methods. Cryo Letters. 2012;33:363-75 pubmed
    ..Post-thaw recovery was significantly lower when the same procedure was applied to T. cariensis shoot tips; however also here 90 min PVS2 treatment produced the highest survival (25 percent) and recovery (25 percent) levels. ..
  90. Marco Medina A, Casas J. RAPD and phytochemical analysis of Thymus moroderi plantlets after cryopreservation. Cryo Letters. 2013;34:119-27 pubmed
    ..5 percent), camphor (5.9 percent) and borneol (5.2 percent) were the major components. Both data confirmed the suitability of the cryopreservation protocol applied. ..
  91. Kemmerich B, Eberhardt R, Stammer H. Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2006;56:652-60 pubmed
    ..Severe or serious AEs were not reported. Oral treatment of acute bronchitis with thyme-ivy combination for about 11 days was superior to pla- ..
  92. Alissandrakis E, Tarantilis P, Harizanis P, Polissiou M. Comparison of the volatile composition in thyme honeys from several origins in Greece. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:8152-7 pubmed
    ..These results are promising to establish a discrimination model for these geographical regions. This is crucial for local beekeeper corporations on their effort to produce honey with geographical origin label. ..