senna plant


Summary: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. SENNA EXTRACT is obtained from members of this genus. Members contain ANTHRAQUINONES and have been an ingredient in laxatives (CATHARTICS). Many species of the CASSIA genus have been reclassified into this genus. This bush should not be confused with the Cassia tree (CINNAMOMUM).

Top Publications

  1. Silva C, Monteiro M, Rocha H, Ribeiro A, Caldeira de Araujo A, Leitao A, et al. Assessment of antimutagenic and genotoxic potential of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) aqueous extract using in vitro assays. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:212-8 pubmed
    ..In effect, SAE was able to avoid H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis and toxicity in Escherichia coli IC203 (uvrA oxyR) and IC205 (uvrA mutM) strains, pointing to a new antioxidant/antimutagenic action of SAE...
  2. Sakulpanich A, Gritsanapan W. Laxative anthraquinone contents in fresh and cooked Senna siamea leaves. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:835-9 pubmed
    ..siamea young leaves twice with water reduced total anthraquinone glycosides content more than 75%. This confirms the traditional use of khi lek curry as a very mild laxative drug...
  3. Wu Q, Wang Z, Fu M, Tang L, He Y, Fang J, et al. [Chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2007;30:1250-2 pubmed
    ..Compounds III, VII and VIII are isolated from the plant for the first time. ..
  4. Soyuncu S, Cete Y, Nokay A. Portal vein thrombosis related to Cassia angustifolia. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008;46:774-7 pubmed
    ..In the literature, there are reports illustrating the hepatotoxic effects of Cassia angustifolia but there is no report of portal vein thrombosis caused by Cassia Angustifolia...
  5. Khan N, Srivastava A. Antifungal activity of bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:1128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..e. FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FAB-MS data). The isolated saponin was tested for its antifungal activity, where the maximum inhibition was found in Colletotrichium dematium...
  6. Wang X, Zhong Y, Lan M, Zhang Z, Shi Y, Lu J, et al. Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:162-7 pubmed
    ..To isolate the proteins involved in pharmacologic action of senna extract (SE) from mouse gastrointestinal tract and to explore the molecular mechanism of gastrointestinal motility change induced by SE...
  7. Love A, Tandon R, Banerjee B, Babu C. Comparative study on elemental composition and DNA damage in leaves of a weedy plant species, Cassia occidentalis, growing wild on weathered fly ash and soil. Ecotoxicology. 2009;18:791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that (1) fly ash triggers genotoxic responses in plants growing naturally on fly ash basins; and (2) plant comet assay is useful for in situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity of fly ash. ..
  8. Panigrahi G, Yadav A, Mandal P, Tripathi A, Das M. Immunomodulatory potential of Rhein, an anthraquinone moiety of Cassia occidentalis seeds. Toxicol Lett. 2016;245:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Over all, the study suggests the immunomodulatory activity of Rhein and that it would be useful in understanding the immune response of CO seeds in human subjects. ..
  9. Chatni S, Peshwe H. Melanosis coli. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:548 pubmed

More Information


  1. Derbalah A. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:639854 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides. ..
  2. Guo X, Li H, Chen H. The Effects of Biochar and Intercropping on the Cd, Cr and Zn Speciation in Soils and Plant Uptake by Machilus pauhoi. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017;98:574-581 pubmed publisher
    ..pauhoi of up to 122.52% compared to the control (M. pauhoi monoculture). These results could be used as a reference for the promotion of M. pauhoi growth and the utilization of contaminated land. ..
  3. Nadal S, Calore E, Manzione C, Puga F, Perez N. Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:733-7 pubmed
  4. Branco A, Pinto A, Schripsema J, Braz Filho R. Anthraquinones from the bark of Senna macranthera. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2011;83:1159-64 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of the anthraquinones 3-5 confirms that S. macranthera is a typical representative of the genus Senna. ..
  5. Otienoburu P, Nikbakhtzadeh M, Foster W. Orientation of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) to Plant-Host Volatiles in a Novel Diffusion-Cage Olfactometer. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:237-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that the diffusion-cage olfactometer is an effective alternative to conventional wind-tunnel olfactometers, to test mosquito orientation to plant volatiles under seminatural conditions. ..
  6. Wolowski M, Freitas L. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae) in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Rev Biol Trop. 2011;59:1939-48 pubmed
  7. Barrella M, Heringer O, Cardoso P, Pimentel E, Scherer R, Lenz D, et al. Metals Content in Herbal Supplements. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017;175:488-494 pubmed publisher
    ..paraguariensis Brazilian origin, C. quadrangularis, and C. aurantium China origin, respectively. To ensure safety consumption, an adequacy of the certification of Brazilian suppliers for herbal weight loss products is indispensable. ..
  8. Suleiman M. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by communities of Northern Kordofan region, Sudan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;176:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Plants with high ICF and UV values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. ..
  9. Padumanonda T, Gritsanapan W. Barakol contents in fresh and cooked Senna siamea leaves. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37:388-93 pubmed
    ..This may explain the reason why Thai Khi Lek curry has not caused hepatotoxicity, unlike S. siamea leaves consumed as a powdered capsule. ..
  10. Vashishtha V, Kumar A, John T, Nayak N. Cassia occidentalis poisoning as the probable cause of hepatomyoencephalopathy in children in western Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Med Res. 2007;125:756-62 pubmed
    ..Consumption of C. occidentalis beans probably caused these outbreaks, described earlier as hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome. Public education has the potential to prevent future outbreaks. ..
  11. Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Di Carlo G, Izzo A, Mascolo N, et al. Senna and the formation of aberrant crypt foci and tumors in rats treated with azoxymethane. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:501-5; discussion 505 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a chronic SE use does not predispose to colon cancer. By contrast, SE might exert an anti-tumoral activity on rat colon carcinogenesis...
  12. Mao R, Xia P, He Z, Liu Y, Liu F, Zhao H, et al. Identification of seeds based on molecular markers and secondary metabolites in Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis. Bot Stud. 2017;58:43 pubmed publisher
    ..obtusifolia and S. occidentalis from molecular and secondary metabolites levels, but also provided a convenient method to identify S. obtusifolia seeds and S. occidentalis seeds effectively. ..
  13. Yadav J, Arya V, Yadav S, Panghal M, Kumar S, Dhankhar S. Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..have been isolated from this plant. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the botany, ethnopharmacologyquery, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the C.occidentalis plant. ..
  14. Vaughn S, Isbell T, Weisleder D, Berhow M. Biofumigant compounds released by field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seedmeal. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:167-77 pubmed
    ..Field pennycress seedmeal appears to offer excellent potential as a biofumigant for high-value horticultural crops for both conventional and organic growers...
  15. Fidèle N, Joseph B, Emmanuel T, Theophile D. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerogenic effect of aqueous extract leaves of Cassia. occidentalis Linn (Caesalpiniaceae) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:76 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the traditional use of the extract of this plant in the treatment of hypertension and diabetes. ..
  16. Sossai P, Nasone C, Cantalamessa F. Are herbs always good for you? A case of paralytic ileum using a herbal tisane. Phytother Res. 2007;21:587-8 pubmed
    ..We report here a case of paralytic ileum occurring in an older self-medicated patient who acquired an herbal tisane composed of Cassia angustifolia, as well as other plant products, in an herbal shop, for chronic constipation. ..
  17. Laporta C. Floral biology and reproductive system of enantiostylous Senna corymbosa (Caesalpiniaceae). Rev Biol Trop. 2005;53:49-61 pubmed
    ..These differences are reflected in the breeding system. Moreover, differential fertility and enantiostyly may diminish the effects of self-compatibility by partially reducing the contribution of geitonogamy to selfing. ..
  18. Arrieta Baez D, Roman R, Vazquez Duhalt R, Jimenez Estrada M. Peroxidase-mediated transformation of hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinones. Phytochemistry. 2002;60:567-72 pubmed
    ..The K(Mapp) and V(max) values for alizarin and purpurin were 97 and 95 microM, and 1.5 and 2.1 microM min(-1) mg prot(-1), respectively. The results suggest that peroxidase may participate in the biogenesis of anthraquinones. ..
  19. Guarize L, Costa J, Dutra L, Mendes R, Lima I, Scio E. Anti-inflammatory, laxative and intestinal motility effects of Senna macranthera leaves. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The HPLC profile showed the presence of the anthraquinone emodine in all tested extracts. ..
  20. Panneerselvam C, Murugan K. Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 2013;112:679-92 pubmed publisher
    ..stephensi. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. ..
  21. Teles A, Fock R, Górniak S. Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds on the hematopoietic tissue of rats. Toxicon. 2015;108:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the long-term administration of S. occidentalis seeds can promote blood toxicity. ..
  22. Araújo A, Guiguer Ã, Barbalho S, Bueno P, Lopes J, da Silva B, et al. Phytochemical Characteristics of Seeds and Its Effects on the Intestinal Motility and Toxicity of Joannesia princeps. J Med Food. 2016;19:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that the seeds of this plant have potential laxative activity, confirming the popular use and that the dose of 5 g/kg can be considered safe for consumption. ..
  23. Love A, Banerjee B, Babu C. Assessment of oxidative stress markers and concentrations of selected elements in the leaves of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on a coal fly ash basin. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:6553-62 pubmed publisher
  24. Panwar R, Kumar N. Cassia occidentalis toxicity causes recurrent outbreaks of brain disease in children in Saharanpur. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127:413-4 pubmed
  25. Arya R. Yield of Cassia angustifolia in combination with different tree species in a silvi-herbal trial under hot arid conditions in India. Bioresour Technol. 2003;86:165-9 pubmed
    ..C. angustifolia as inter-crop provides support to the farming system by way of conferring stability and generating assured income. ..
  26. Kpodar M, Karou S, Katawa G, Anani K, Gbekley H, Adjrah Y, et al. An ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat liver diseases in the Maritime region of Togo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;181:263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some plants cited by the TH have not been studied for their possible hepatoprotective effects. These plants are therefore a starting point for biological screenings. ..
  27. Vashishtha V, John T, Kumar A. Clinical & pathological features of acute toxicity due to Cassia occidentalis in vertebrates. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:23-30 pubmed
    ..occidentalis poisoning in children resemble those of animal toxicity, affecting mainly hepatic, skeletal muscle and brain tissues. The case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 per cent in children. ..
  28. Cuzzolin L, Francini Pesenti F, Zaffani S, Brocadello F, Pengo V, Bassi A, et al. Knowledges about herbal products among subjects on warfarin therapy and patient-physician relationship: a pilot study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16:1014-7 pubmed
  29. Kenny S, Irvine T, Driver C, Nunn A, Losty P, Jones M, et al. Double blind randomised controlled trial of topical glyceryl trinitrate in anal fissure. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85:404-7 pubmed
    ..However the overall fissure healing rate is high (84%) with associated reduction in pain scores, suggesting that a nurse based treatment programme can achieve a high rate of fissure healing. ..
  30. Kakino M, Tazawa S, Maruyama H, Tsuruma K, Araki Y, Shimazawa M, et al. Laxative effects of agarwood on low-fiber diet-induced constipation in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:68 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the laxative effects of an ethanol extract of agarwood leaves (EEA) in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation...
  31. Marazzi B, Conti E, Sanderson M, McMahon M, Bronstein J. Diversity and evolution of a trait mediating ant-plant interactions: insights from extrafloral nectaries in Senna (Leguminosae). Ann Bot. 2013;111:1263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study the evolution of EFN diversity is explored by focusing on the legume genus Senna, in which EFNs underwent remarkable morphological diversification and occur in over 80 % of the approx. 350 species...
  32. Li C, Li M, Chang W, Guo B. Purification and characterization of a novel cholesterol-lowering protein from the seeds of Senna obtusifolia. Sci China C Life Sci. 2008;51:1020-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Circular dichroism (CD) signals indicated that S. obtusifolia seed protein contained 12.5% alpha-helix, 55.6% beta-sheet, and 31.9% random coil...
  33. Thilagam E, Parimaladevi B, Kumarappan C, Mandal S. ?-Glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Senna surattensis. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2013;6:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study endorses the use of this plant for further studies to determine their potential for managing type II diabetes...
  34. Varghese G, Bose L, Habtemariam S. Antidiabetic components of Cassia alata leaves: identification through ?-glucosidase inhibition studies. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cassia alata Linn. [syn. Senna alata (L.) Roxb.] (Caesalpiniaceae) is used for treating various disease conditions including diabetes but its mechanism(s) of action and active principles remain to be elucidated...
  35. Gupta A. Cassia occidentalis poisoning causes fatal coma in children in western Uttar Pradesh. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:424 pubmed
  36. Rahman M, Sultana R, Bin Emran T, Islam M, Rahman M, Chakma J, et al. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity...
  37. Hueza I, Latorre A, Raspantini P, Raspantini L, Mariano Souza D, Guerra J, et al. Effect of Senna occidentalis seeds on immunity in broiler chickens. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2007;54:179-85 pubmed
    ..It is probable that mitochondrial damage and related apoptosis may be responsible for the enhanced peroxide production and the reduced relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen...
  38. Terreaux C, Wang Q, Ioset J, Ndjoko K, Grimminger W, Hostettmann K. Complete LC/MS analysis of a Tinnevelli senna pod extract and subsequent isolation and identification of two new benzophenone glucosides. Planta Med. 2002;68:349-54 pubmed
    ..These substances were isolated and their structures elucidated as kaempferol, the naphthalene derivative tinnevellin 8-glucoside and two new carboxylated benzophenone glucosides...
  39. Babitha S, Shin J, Nguyen D, Park S, Reyes G, Caburian A, et al. A stimulatory effect of Cassia occidentalis on melanoblast differentiation and migration. Arch Dermatol Res. 2011;303:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of present study are significant in designing preclinical and clinical studies on the efficacy of C. occidentalis as a stimulant for skin repigmentation in vitiligo...
  40. Terry N, Chen Lim M, Ely E, Jatla M, Ciavardone D, Esch S, et al. Polyethylene glycol powder solution versus senna for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;56:215-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether PEG-P results in a more efficacious and safe colonoscopy preparation as compared with senna...
  41. Francisco W, Pivatto M, Danuello A, Regasini L, Baccini L, Young M, et al. Pyridine alkaloids from Senna multijuga as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..All compounds exhibited weak in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity as compared with the standard compound physostigmine...
  42. Tayel A, Moussa S, Salem M, Mazrou K, El Tras W. Control of citrus molds using bioactive coatings incorporated with fungal chitosan/plant extracts composite. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;96:1306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..digitatum and P. italicum, using in vitro qualitative and quantitative assays...
  43. Pereira R, Ferreira Silva G, Pivatto M, Santos L, Bolzani V, Chagas de Paula D, et al. Alkaloids derived from flowers of Senna spectabilis, (-)-cassine and (-)-spectaline, have antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cells for inducing cell cycle arrest in G1/S transition through ERK inactivation and downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. Toxicol In Vitro. 2016;31:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, they represent promise antitumor compounds against liver cancer and should be considered for further anticancer in vivo studies. ..
  44. Ueda M, Manabe Y, Mukai M. The high performance of 3XFLAG for target purification of a bioactive metabolite: a tag combined with a highly effective linker structure. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:1359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..3XFLAG, a tag combined with a linker moiety of charged amino acids, gave the best results and was most useful for IP purification of the molecular target...
  45. Takahashi M, Miyazawa M, Sakurai K, Watabe K, Kojima T. [Study on processed senna found in health teas]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2009;50:297-303 pubmed
    ..There may be possible health risks, including diarrhea...
  46. Vashishtha V, Kumar A, John T, Nayak N. Cassia occidentalis poisoning causes fatal coma in children in western Uttar Pradesh. Indian Pediatr. 2007;44:522-5 pubmed
    ..Nine children died within 4-5 days. There appears to be an etiological association between consumption of Cassia occidentalis beans and acute hepato-myo-encephalopathy...
  47. Morinaga O, Uto T, Sakamoto S, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total sennosides using anti-sennside A and anti-sennoside B monoclonal antibodies. Fitoterapia. 2009;80:28-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Total sennosides concentration in rhubarb and senna samples determined by newly developed assay system showed good agreement with those analyzed by ELISA using anti-SA MAb and anti-SB MAb, respectively...
  48. Panichayupakaranant P, Sakunpak A, Sakunphueak A. Quantitative HPLC determination and extraction of anthraquinones in Senna alata leaves. J Chromatogr Sci. 2009;47:197-200 pubmed
    ..It was found that a solution of 5% hydrochloric acid (v/v), 5% ferric chloride (w/v), and 15% water in methanol (v/v) was capable of increasing the anthraquinone content in the leaf extract up to 1.67% (w/w)...
  49. Hennebelle T, Weniger B, Joseph H, Sahpaz S, Bailleul F. Senna alata. Fitoterapia. 2009;80:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The laxative activity is supported by scientific findings. In contrast the dermatologic use requires further investigation. The species can be considered as safe for short-term or topical use...
  50. Sreejith G, Latha P, Shine V, Anuja G, Suja S, Sini S, et al. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:494-8 pubmed
    ..Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity...
  51. Taglioli V, Bilia A, Ghiara C, Mazzi G, Mercati V, Vincieri F. Evaluation of the dissolution behaviour of some commercial herbal drugs and their preparations. Pharmazie. 2001;56:868-70 pubmed
  52. Haraguchi M, Dagli M, Raspantini P, Gorniak S. The effects of low doses of Senna occidentalis seeds on broiler chickens. Vet Res Commun. 2003;27:321-8 pubmed
    ..Besides this, degenerative changes were found in the striated skeletal muscle in the chest, in the myocardium and in the liver in the animals that received the higher concentrations of So seeds...
  53. Singh H, Batish D, Kaur S, Arora K, Kohli R. alpha-Pinene inhibits growth and induces oxidative stress in roots. Ann Bot. 2006;98:1261-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alpha-pinene on root growth and generation of reactive oxygen species, as indicators of oxidative stress and changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes...
  54. Lekhooa M, Walubo A, Du Plessis J, Matsabisa M. Evaluation of traditional medicines II: the use of metabolite peak-kinetics to monitor PHELA in rat plasma. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012;9:73-80 pubmed
  55. Lekhooa M, Walubo A, Du Plessis J, Matsabisa M. Evaluation of traditional medicines III: the mechanism of immune modulation by PHELA. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012;9:47-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PHELA is an immune-stimulant to a compromised immune system. ..
  56. Kierkus J, Horvath A, Szychta M, Woynarowski M, Wegner A, Wiernicka A, et al. High- versus low-volume polyethylene glycol plus laxative versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus low-volume PEG combined with bisacodyl (BPEG) versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children...
  57. Ueda M, Nakamura Y. Chemical basis of plant leaf movement. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:900-7 pubmed
    ..A membrane fraction of pluvini contains proteins of 210 and 180 kDa that bind to a leaf-opening factor of Cassia mimosoides. The molecular identification of these proteins is underway...
  58. Chowhan N, Singh H, Batish D, Kaur S, Ahuja N, Kohli R. ?-Pinene inhibited germination and early growth involves membrane peroxidation. Protoplasma. 2013;250:691-700 pubmed publisher
  59. Ulbricht C, Conquer J, Costa D, Hamilton W, Higdon E, Isaac R, et al. An evidence-based systematic review of senna (Cassia senna) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Diet Suppl. 2011;8:189-238 pubmed publisher
    ..An evidence-based systematic review, including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing...
  60. Baez D, Vallejo G, Sánchez P, Valle M, Chilpa R, Estrada M. Use of the SOS-chromotest spot assay as a screening system for detecting genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts. Altern Lab Anim. 2002;30:87-92 pubmed
    ..skinneri. The SOS-chromotest spot assay proved to be useful for activity- guided fractionation at the beginning of screening for genotoxic compounds in crude plant extracts...
  61. Alemayehu G, Adane L, Abegaz B. A new bianthracene C-arabinopyranoside from Senna septemtrionalis. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:747-50 pubmed
    ..The structures of these secondary metabolites were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, especially from NMR spectra in conjunction with COSY, HMQC, HMBC and TOCSY...
  62. Patel M, Schimpf M, O Sullivan D, LaSala C. The use of senna with docusate for postoperative constipation after pelvic reconstructive surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:479.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to compare time to first bowel movement (BM) after surgery in subjects randomized to placebo or senna with docusate...
  63. Harry O kuru R, Wu Y, Evangelista R, Vaughn S, Rayford W, Wilson R. Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) seed processing and potential utilization. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:4784-7 pubmed
    ..Each class of isolate was spectroscopically identified...
  64. Mitchell J, Mengs U, McPherson S, Zijlstra J, Dettmar P, Gregson R, et al. An oral carcinogenicity and toxicity study of senna (Tinnevelly senna fruits) in the rat. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80:34-44 pubmed
    ..Based upon these data, it is concluded that senna is not carcinogenic even after daily administration for 2 years at dosages of up to 300 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley rats...
  65. Siddique I, Anis M, Aref I. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:2067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 70% survival rate. The plants showed normal morphological characteristics similar to the field grown plants...
  66. Aragão T, Lyra M, Silva M, Andrade B, Ferreira P, Ortega L, et al. Toxicological reproductive study of Cassia occidentalis L. in female Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:163-6 pubmed publisher
  67. Silva G, Zeraik M, de Oliveira C, Teles H, Trevisan H, Pfenning L, et al. Lactone Derivatives Produced by a Phaeoacremonium sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:1674-1678 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 2 and 4 were active against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. This is the first report of metabolites produced by an Phaeoacremonium sp., associated with S. spectabilis...
  68. Kumar A. Cassia poisoning behind mysterious disease in children in Uttarakhand. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:423 pubmed
  69. Vitalone A, Di Giacomo S, Di Sotto A, Franchitto A, Mammola C, Mariani P, et al. Cassia angustifolia extract is not hepatotoxic in an in vitro and in vivo study. Pharmacology. 2011;88:252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless people use its preparations as self-medication, often for long periods, to treat chronic constipation thus exposing themselves to adverse reactions. Most reactions were associated with hepatotoxicity...
  70. Edwin U, Nyiutaha I, Essien A, Nnamdi O, Sunday E. Larvicidal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna alata on Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013;26:561-6 pubmed
    ..Results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and stem extracts of S. alata possess a promising larvicidal potential which can be exploited in mosquito vector control...
  71. Graham J, Zhang H, Pendland S, Santarsiero B, Mesecar A, Cabieses F, et al. Antimycobacterial Naphthopyrones from Senna obliqua. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:225-7 pubmed
    ..Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis...
  72. Srivastava S, Kesarwani S, Keshri G, Singh M. Evaluation of contraceptive activity of a mineralo-herbal preparation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Contraception. 2005;72:454-8 pubmed
  73. Arun B, Gopinath B, Sharma S. Plant growth promoting potential of bacteria isolated on N free media from rhizosphere of Cassia occidentalis. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:2849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The study opens up possibilities for utilization of this property of weeds in plant growth promotion, and subsequent enhancement of yield for agricultural crops...
  74. Owolabi A, Proll E. A mosaic disease of Senna hirsuta induced by a potyvirus in Nigeria. Acta Virol. 2001;45:73-9 pubmed
    ..The virus, tentatively designated as Senna mosaic virus (SeMV), seems to differ from other viruses previously described from Senna species in the literature and indeed other legume potyviruses in Nigeria...
  75. Kondoh S, Yahata H, Nakashizuka T, Kondoh M. Interspecific variation in vessel size, growth and drought tolerance of broad-leaved trees in semi-arid regions of Kenya. Tree Physiol. 2006;26:899-904 pubmed
  76. Arya V, Yadav S, Kumar S, Yadav J. Antioxidant activity of organic and aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia occidentalis L. in relation to their phenolic content. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9396) and to a lesser extent to NOS activity (R²?=?0.5819) and the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay (R²?=?0.8213). The data obtained in the in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of leaf extracts of C. occidentalis...
  77. Serrano M, Pivatto M, Francisco W, Danuello A, Regasini L, Lopes E, et al. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory pyridine alkaloids of the leaves of Senna multijuga. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:482-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, in comparison with the standard compound physostigmine...
  78. Waltenberger B, Avula B, Ganzera M, Khan I, Stuppner H, Khan S. Transport of sennosides and sennidines from Cassia angustifolia and Cassia senna across Caco-2 monolayers--an in vitro model for intestinal absorption. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:373-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the general understanding that the laxative effects of Senna are explainable mainly by metabolites and not by the natively present dianthrones...
  79. Souza D, Pereira M, Bernardo L, Carmo F, Fonseca A, Bernardo Filho M. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:483-6 pubmed
    ..Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na??mTcO? are conducted in patients who are using senna extract...
  80. Kumar J, Alok A, Kumar J, Tuli R. Senna leaf curl virus: a novel begomovirus identified in Senna occidentalis. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2609-12 pubmed publisher
    ..No other begomovirus or satellites were detected in the suspected plants. We propose to name the virus "senna leaf curl virus" (SenLCuV). ..
  81. Barbosa Ferreira M, Pfister J, Gotardo A, Maiorka P, Gorniak S. Intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in pregnant goats: prenatal and postnatal evaluation. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011;63:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No relevant alterations in body morphometry were observed. This study suggests that 4% S. occidentalis seeds is toxic for pregnant goats, but levels of seeds less than 4% have little impact on fetal and post birth body development...
  82. Barbosa Ferreira M, Dagli M, Maiorka P, Górniak S. Sub-acute intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005;43:497-503 pubmed
    ..Moderate to severe degeneration and spongiosis in the central nervous system, especially in cerebellum. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial lesions in all analyzed tissues...
  83. Silva F, Silva M, Feng D, de Freitas R. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of iso-6-cassine isolated from Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Schrad) in mice. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest possible depressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice that need further investigation...
  84. Budzynska K, Gardner Z, Dugoua J, Low Dog T, Gardiner P. Systematic review of breastfeeding and herbs. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:489-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation...
  85. Lekhooa M, Walubo A, Du Plessis J, Matsabisa M, Molefe D. Evaluation of traditional medicines I: identification of PHELA using different chromatographic techniques. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012;9:27-39 pubmed
  86. Wu Q, Wang Z, Tang L, Fu M, He Y, Fang J, et al. [Determination of five primary chemical constituents in Cassia angustifolia by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:363-5 pubmed
    ..To establish a method for determining the content of primary chemical constituents in the leaves of Cassia angustifolia...