oxytropis

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.

Top Publications

  1. Lu J, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Tu G. New flavonoids from Oxytropis myriophylla. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:276-8 pubmed
    Eight compounds were isolated from Oxytropis myriophylla...
  2. Pfister J, Stegelmeier B, Cheney C, Gardner D. Effect of previous locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis species) intoxication on conditioned taste aversions in horses and sheep. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:1836-41 pubmed
    Locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) are a serious toxic plant problem for grazing livestock. Horses and sheep have been conditioned to avoid eating locoweed using the aversive agent LiCl...
  3. Stegelmeier B, James L, Gardner D, Panter K, Lee S, Ralphs M, et al. Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (Odocoileius hemionus). Vet Pathol. 2005;42:566-78 pubmed
    ..groups of four mule deer were fed either a complete pelleted ration or a similar ration containing 15% locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). Poisoned deer lost weight and developed a scruffy, dull coat...
  4. Ashley A, Custis M, Ashley R, Strickland J. Toxicokinetic profile of swainsonine following exposure to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in naïve and previously exposed sheep. N Z Vet J. 2006;54:34-40 pubmed
    ..To determine the toxicokinetic profiles of swainsonine (SW) in sheep previously (subacute) and not previously (acute) exposed to locoweed...
  5. Chen Z, Qu M, Chen H, Liu D, Xiao Y, Chen J, et al. The studies of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and pharmacokinetics of Oxytropis falcate Bunge extraction after transdermal administration in rats. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to evaluate the activities of anti-inflammatory and analgesic of the total flavonoids extraction from Oxytropis falcate Bunge (FEO) after transdermal administration...
  6. McLain Romero J, Creamer R, Zepeda H, Strickland J, Bell G. The toxicosis of Embellisia fungi from locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii) is similar to locoweed toxicosis in rats. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:2169-74 pubmed
    ..The Embellisia fungi from locoweed can induce toxicity without the plants. Locoism management strategies need to involve management of the Embellisia fungi...
  7. Chung M, Gelembiuk G, Givnish T. Population genetics and phylogeography of endangered Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea and relatives: arctic-alpine disjuncts in eastern North America. Mol Ecol. 2004;13:3657-73 pubmed
    Fassett's locoweed (Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea, Fabaceae) is an endangered perennial endemic to Wisconsin. Patterns of genetic variation within and among six remaining populations and their relationship to other members of the O...
  8. Cook D, Gardner D, Ralphs M, Pfister J, Welch K, Green B. Swainsoninine concentrations and endophyte amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in different plant parts of Oxytropis sericea. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:1272-8 pubmed publisher
    Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations found in the above ground parts...
  9. Li Q, Hao C, Xu Y, Liang J, Yang K, Cui Z. Identification of a new locoweed (Oxytropis serioopetala) and its clinical and pathological features in poisoned rabbits. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:989-93 pubmed
    By a series of experiments, we identified a new member of the locoweed family, Oxytropis serioopetala, that produces swainsonine, a phytotoxin harmful to livestock...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Ida T, Harder L, Kudo G. Effects of defoliation and shading on the physiological cost of reproduction in silky locoweed Oxytropis sericea. Ann Bot. 2012;109:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The magnitude of the physiological costs of reproduction depends on both the factors limiting seed production (pollen, ovules or resources) and the capacity of plants to compensate for high resource demand...
  2. Jiang H, Zhan W, Liu X, Jiang S. Antioxidant activities of extracts and flavonoid compounds from Oxytropis falcate Bunge. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:1650-6 pubmed publisher
    The antioxidant properties of the various extracts and flavonoids prepared from Oxytropis falcate Bunge were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay...
  3. Taylor J, Strickland J. Appearance and disappearance of swainsonine in serum and milk of lactating ruminants with nursing young following a single dose exposure to swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea). J Anim Sci. 2002;80:2476-84 pubmed
    ..swainsonine in the milk of lactating ruminants following a single dose oral exposure to swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea) and to assess subsequent subclinical effects on the mothers and their nursing young...
  4. Chen W, Wang R, Shi Y. Flavonoids in the poisonous plant Oxytropis falcata. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..3), together with 30 known flavonoids (4-33), were isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Oxytropis falcata. The absolute configurations of 3 and C-3 in 1 and 2 were deduced by circular dichroism...
  5. Stegelmeier B, James L, Panter K, Gardner D, Pfister J, Ralphs M, et al. Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). J Vet Diagn Invest. 1999;11:448-56 pubmed
    Locoweed poisoning occurs when livestock consume swainsonine-containing Astragalus and Oxytropis species over several weeks...
  6. Archambault A, Stromvik M. PR-10, defensin and cold dehydrin genes are among those over expressed in Oxytropis (Fabaceae) species adapted to the arctic. Funct Integr Genomics. 2011;11:497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examine whole plantlet transcriptome differences between two arctic and two temperate Oxytropis (Fabaceae) species, grown under their respective controlled environmental conditions...
  7. Cook D, Shi L, Gardner D, Pfister J, Grum D, Welch K, et al. Influence of phenological stage on swainsonine and endophyte concentrations in Oxytropis sericea. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:195-203 pubmed publisher
    Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that cause intoxication due to the alkaloid swainsonine...
  8. Yao S, Ma Y, Tang Y, Chen J, Zhang X. [Chemical constituents of Oxytropis falcate]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:1418-21 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of Oxytropis falcate.
  9. Cook D, Gardner D, Lee S, Pfister J, Stonecipher C, Welsh S. A swainsonine survey of North American Astragalus and Oxytropis taxa implicated as locoweeds. Toxicon. 2016;118:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Swainsonine has been detected in 19 Astragalus and 2 Oxytropis species in North America by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid ..
  10. Ampomah O, Mousavi S, Lindström K, Huss Danell K. Diverse Mesorhizobium bacteria nodulate native Astragalus and Oxytropis in arctic and subarctic areas in Eurasia. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2017;40:51-58 pubmed publisher
    Rhizobia nodulating native Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. in Northern Europe are not well-studied. In this study, we isolated bacteria from nodules of four Astragalus spp. and two Oxytropis spp...
  11. Huang Y, Li W, Zhao X, Ding L, Yu G, Dong F, et al. Swainsonine differentially affects steroidogenesis and viability in caprine luteal cells in vitro. Theriogenology. 2013;80:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provided new insights into understanding the effect of SW on luteal cell steroidogenesis...
  12. Safronova V, Belimov A, Sazanova A, Chirak E, Verkhozina A, Kuznetsova I, et al. Taxonomically Different Co-Microsymbionts of a Relict Legume, Oxytropis popoviana, Have Complementary Sets of Symbiotic Genes and Together Increase the Efficiency of Plant Nodulation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2018;31:833-841 pubmed publisher
    Ten rhizobial strains were isolated from root nodules of a relict legume Oxytropis popoviana Peschkova...
  13. Long L, Li Q. The effect of alkaloid from Oxytropis ochrocephala on growth inhibition and expression of PCNA and p53 in mice bearing H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005;125:665-70 pubmed
    To study the antitumor activity of alkaloid extracted from Oxytropis ochrocephala and its possible mechanism, we observed the effect of alkaloid on tumor weight and expression of PCNA and p53 in mice bearing H(22) hepatocellular ..
  14. Ahmad M, Khan M, Mukhtar A, Zafar M, Sultana S, Jahan S. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;184:154-86 pubmed publisher
    ..28 to 0.09 while Fidelity level (FL) among plants varies from 37.5 to 100. Alternanthera sessilis, Oxytropis lapponica, Millettia pinnata and Salvia bucharica had the highest FL value (100)...
  15. Cook D, Gardner D, Roper J, Ransom C, Pfister J, Panter K. Fungicide treatment and clipping of Oxytropis sericea does not disrupt swainsonine concentrations. Toxicon. 2016;122:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Astragalus and Oxytropis that do not contain swainsonine may present a valuable food source for grazing livestock in regions where ..
  16. Obeidat B, Strickland J, Vogt M, Taylor J, Krehbiel C, Remmenga M, et al. Effects of locoweed on serum swainsonine and selected serum constituents in sheep during acute and subacute oral/intraruminal exposure. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:466-77 pubmed
  17. Peng C, Yang Z. [Studies on chemical constituents of herbs of Oxytropis microphylla]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:1007-8 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of Oxytropis microphylla...
  18. Galeas M, Zhang L, Freeman J, Wegner M, Pilon Smits E. Seasonal fluctuations of selenium and sulfur accumulation in selenium hyperaccumulators and related nonaccumulators. New Phytol. 2007;173:517-25 pubmed
    ..The related nonhyperaccumulators Astragalus sericoleucus, Oxytropis sericea and Thlaspi montanum were included for comparison...
  19. James L, Panter K, Gaffield W, Molyneux R. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:3211-30 pubmed
    ..These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).
  20. Okawa M, Yamaguchi R, Delger H, Tsuchihashi R, Nohara T, Kinjo J, et al. Five triterpene glycosides from Oxytropis myriophylla. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:1097-9 pubmed
    Four new triterpene glycosides: one cycloartane-type glycoside and three azukisapogenol glycosides were isolated together with one known oleanene bisdesmoside from the Mongolian natural medicine, Oxytropis myriophylla.
  21. Zhao X, He X, Wang J, Song Y, Geng G, Wang J. Biodegradation of Swainsonine by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain YLZZ-1 and its isolation and identification. Biodegradation. 2009;20:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The strain could degrade SW completely within 14 h when the concentration of SW was 50 mg/l. These results highlight the potential of this bacterium to be used in detoxifying of SW in livestock consuming locoweed...
  22. Xu L, Zhang Y, Deng Z, Zhao L, Wei X, Wei G. Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov., a novel species isolated from root nodule of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge in China. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013;103:559-65 pubmed publisher
    During a study of the diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of Oxytropis ochrocephala grown in the northwest of China, four strains were classified in the genus Rhizobium on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene ..
  23. Valdez Barillas J, Paschke M, Ralphs M, Child R. White locoweed toxicity is facilitated by a fungal endophyte and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Ecology. 2007;88:1850-6 pubmed
    ..The influence of a fungal endophyte alkaloid on the toxicity of a plant has been documented in Oxytropis sericea. Oxytropis sericea is a perennial legume responsible for livestock poisoning in western North America...
  24. Li X, Zhang S, Jin H, Dong F, Shan L, Zhang W. A new flavonol from Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge. Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:554-7 pubmed publisher
    ..4), (3R)-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan (5) and isoliquiritigenin (6), was isolated from Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge...
  25. Achata Böttger J, Creamer R, Gardner D. Seasonal changes in Undifilum colonization and swainsonine content of locoweeds. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:486-95 pubmed publisher
    Locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis) are leguminous plants that are toxic due to a symbiotic association with the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis...
  26. Artiukova E, Kozyrenko M. [Phylogenetic relationships of Oxytropis chankaensis Jurtz. and Oxytropis oxyphylla (Pall.) DC. (Fabaceae) inferred from the data of sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA operon and intergenic spacers of the chloroplast genome]. Genetika. 2012;48:186-93 pubmed
    The autotetraploid Oxytropis chankaensis Jurtz...
  27. Grum D, Cook D, Gardner D, Roper J, Pfister J, Ralphs M. Influence of seed endophyte amounts on swainsonine concentrations in Astragalus and Oxytropis locoweeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:8083-9 pubmed publisher
    ..swainsonine concentrations in three locoweed species: Astragalus mollissimus, Astragalus lentiginosus, and Oxytropis sericea...
  28. She G, Sun F, Liu B. Three new flavonoid glycosides from Oxytropis myriophylla. J Nat Med. 2012;66:208-12 pubmed publisher
    Three new flavonoids, myriophylloside I, II and III, were isolated from Oxytropis myriophylla (Leguminosae), together with four known flavonoid glycosides: isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-L-arabinosyl(1?6)-?-D-..
  29. Song S, Zheng X, Liu W, Du R, Bi L, Zhang P. 3-Hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonol glycosides from a Mongolian and Tibetan medicine, Oxytropis racemosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:1587-90 pubmed
    ..3), along with 13 known compounds, were isolated from Oxytropis racemosa TURCZ. Their structures were deduced by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence...
  30. Tan C, Zhao Y, Goto M, Hsieh K, Yang X, Morris Natschke S, et al. Alkaloids from Oxytropis ochrocephala and antiproliferative activity of sophoridine derivatives against cancer cell lines. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:1495-7 pubmed publisher
    Ten alkaloids (1-10), with sophoridine (1) as the most abundant component, were obtained from the whole plants of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge...
  31. Bagheri A, Maassoumi A, Rahiminejad M, Brassac J, Blattner F. Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of Astragalus section Hymenostegis: An analysis of a rapidly diversifying species group in Fabaceae. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14033 pubmed publisher
    ..Hymenostegis, 14 species of other Astragalus sections, and two species of Oxytropis and one Biserrula designated as outgroups...
  32. Panter K, Welch K, Gardner D, Green B. Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2013;99:223-34 pubmed publisher
  33. Wang M, Liu M, Liu W. [In vivo anti-tumor effect of Oxytropis kansuensis alkaloid fraction and its influence on immune function]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009;29:1009-11 pubmed
    To study the in vivo anti-tumor effect of Oxytropis kansuensis alkaloid fraction (OKAF) in live cancer cell line H22 and its influence on immune function in KM mice.
  34. Ralphs M, Creamer R, Baucom D, Gardner D, Welsh S, Graham J, et al. Relationship between the endophyte Embellisia spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis). J Chem Ecol. 2008;34:32-8 pubmed
    Locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine) cause widespread poisoning of livestock on western rangelands. There are 354 species of Astragalus and 22 species of Oxytropis in the US and Canada...
  35. Delaney K, Klypina N, Maruthavanan J, LANGE C, Sterling T. Locoweed dose responses to nitrogen: Positive for biomass and primary physiology, but inconsistent for an alkaloid. Am J Bot. 2011;98:1956-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied four locoweed taxa to test whether average SWA concentrations influenced SWA positive dose responses to N fertilizer...
  36. Jiang H, Hu J, Zhan W, Liu X. Screening for fractions of Oxytropis falcata Bunge with antibacterial activity. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:953-9 pubmed publisher
    Preliminary studies with the four extracts of Oxytropis falcate Bunge exhibited that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed stronger antibacterial activities against the nine tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
  37. Chen W, Qi H, Shi Y. 24-Hydroxyoleanane-type triterpenes from the aerial parts and roots of Oxytropis falcata. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1410-3 pubmed publisher
    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Oxytropis falcata led to the isolation of three new 24-hydroxyoleanane-type triterpenes (1-3), seven known analogues (4-10), and two rare sesquiterpenoids (12, 13)...
  38. Cook D, Gardner D, Welch K, Roper J, Ralphs M, Green B. Quantitative PCR method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6050-4 pubmed publisher
    A fungal endophyte ( Undifilum oxytropis ) has been implicated in the synthesis of swainsonine in Oxytropis and Astragalus species, commonly known as locoweeds...
  39. Song S, Zheng X, Liu W, Du R, Feng Z, Zhang P, et al. Rapid Identification of unstable acyl glucoside flavonoids of Oxytropis racemosa Turcz by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation/multi-stage mass spectrometry. Phytochem Anal. 2013;24:155-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Oxytropis racemosa Turcz is an important minority medicine that is used mainly to improve children's indigestion, especially in inner Mongolia and Tibet...
  40. Braun K, Romero J, Liddell C, Creamer R. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed. Mycol Res. 2003;107:980-8 pubmed
    ..from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds Astragalus mollissimus, Oxytropis lambertii, and O. sericea...
  41. Artyukova E, Kozyrenko M, Kholina A, Zhuravlev Y. High chloroplast haplotype diversity in the endemic legume Oxytropis chankaensis may result from independent polyploidization events. Genetica. 2011;139:221-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Oxytropis chankaensis Jurtz. (Fabaceae) is an endangered perennial tetraploid species endemic to the Khanka Lake coast. In Russia, O. chankaensis is distributed across a very restricted zone along the western shore of this lake...
  42. Shao S, Zheng B. The biogeochemistry of selenium in Sunan grassland, Gansu, Northwest China, casts doubt on the belief that Marco Polo reported selenosis for the first time in history. Environ Geochem Health. 2008;30:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..number of farm animals had suffered from intoxication and died as a result of grazing poisonous grasses, mostly Oxytropis DC, Stellera chamaejasme, and Achnatheru inebrians...
  43. Li M, Lan Z, He X, Zhang R, Jia Z, Du Q, et al. [Study on the ultraviolet protective effects of the cream of the total flavonoids from Oxytropis falcata]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:415-20 pubmed
    To study the protective effects of the cream of the total flavonoids from Oxytropis falcata on the destructed skin of mice induced by moderate-wave ultraviolet (UVB) irradiation.
  44. Li W, Chen Z, Qu M, Liu D, Xiao Y, Cai B. [Study on the pharmacokinetics Oxytropis falcate total flavonoids ointment in rats]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:1396-8 pubmed
    To study the pharmacokinetics of Oxytropis falcate total flavonoids ointment after transdermal administration in rats.
  45. Cook D, Grum D, Gardner D, Welch K, Pfister J. Influence of endophyte genotype on swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea. Toxicon. 2013;61:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..is a toxic syndrome of livestock caused by the ingestion of a subset of legumes belonging to the Astragalus and Oxytropis genera known as "locoweeds"...
  46. Cano R, Amaya Chavez A, Roa Morales G, Barrera Díaz C, Ureña Núñez F. An integrated electrocoagulation-phytoremediation process for the treatment of mixed industrial wastewater. Int J Phytoremediation. 2010;12:772-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of Al in the roots of plants in the system indicates that the aluminum present in the test solution could be absorbed...
  47. Mukherjee S, Dawe A, Creamer R. Potential role for saccharopine reductase in swainsonine metabolism in endophytic fungus, Undifilum oxytropis. Fungal Biol. 2012;116:902-9 pubmed publisher
    Locoweed plants in the southwestern United States often harbour a slow-growing endophytic fungus, Undifilum oxytropis (Phylum: Ascomycota; Order: Pleosporales), which produces a toxic alkaloid, swainsonine. Consumption of U...
  48. Chen X, Yang G, Zhang F, Wang M, He Y, Cai B. [Study on apoptosis of SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells induced by Oxytropis falcata and its preliminary mechanism]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:1362-5 pubmed
    To examine apoptosis of SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells induced by total flavonoids of Oxytropis falcata (TFOF) and its preliminary mechanism.
  49. Yang G, Zhang F, Wang D, He Y, Tong L, Cai B. [Influences of Oxytropis falcata on proliferation of SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells and expression of MMP-2]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:1227-30 pubmed
    To investigate the influences of extracts of Oxytropis falcata on proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells and expression of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2).
  50. Archambault A, Stromvik M. The Y-segment of novel cold dehydrin genes is conserved and codons in the PR-10 genes are under positive selection in Oxytropis (Fabaceae) from contrasting climates. Mol Genet Genomics. 2012;287:123-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes with a likely functional or evolutive role for arctic Oxytropis (Fabaceae) were previously discovered given a sharp differential expression between arctic and temperate species,..
  51. Wang S, Zhang X, Que S, Tu G, Wan D, Cheng W, et al. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavonol glycosides from Oxytropis falcata. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:1359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..oxytroflavosides F and G (6 and 7) were isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an EtOH extract of Oxytropis falcata together with seven known kaempferol glycosides (8-14), of which six were isolated from the genus ..
  52. Liu X, Shan L, Li Y, He M. [Study on tissue culture and rapid propagation of Oxytropis myriophylla]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:1661-3 pubmed
    ..To study the plant tissue culture and rapid proagation of O. myriophylla...
  53. Lu F, Xu X. [Studies on flavonoids of Oxytropis falcata]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:318-20 pubmed
    ..To investigate the flavonoids of Oxytropisfalcata...
  54. Yu Y, Zhao Q, Wang J, Wang J, Wang Y, Song Y, et al. Swainsonine-producing fungal endophytes from major locoweed species in China. Toxicon. 2010;56:330-8 pubmed publisher
    Locoweeds including the toxic species of Astragalus spp and Oxytropis spp. are widely distributed in the western region of China and result in a chronic neurological disease known as locoism in animals...
  55. Bu R. [A herbalogical study on traditional Mongolian medicine dakesha]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2000;23:714-5 pubmed
    ..used by Mongolia doctors mainly contains 17 species from 3 genus of 3 family, but "Dakesha" in Inner Mongolia Standard of Medicinal Materials only contains 2 species which are Oxytropis myriophylla and O. hirta.
  56. Yao S, Ma Y, Tang Y, Chen J, Zhang X. [Chemical constituents of Oxytropis chiliophylla]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1660-2 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of Oxytropis chiliophylla.
  57. Gardner D, Cook D. A comparison of alternative sample preparation procedures for the analysis of swainsonine using LC-MS/MS. Phytochem Anal. 2011;22:124-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most recently swainsonine has been analysed by LC-MS/MS after sample extraction and preparation from ion-exchange resins...
  58. Lou C, Wang M, Yang G, Cai H, Li Y, Zhao F, et al. Preliminary studies on anti-tumor activity of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone isolated from Herba Oxytropis in human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:906-10 pubmed publisher
    2',4'-Dihydroxychalcone (TFC), one of the main components in Herba Oxytropis, belongs to the flavonoid group, which is known to have anti-tumor activity in vitro...
  59. Whittet K, Encinias H, Strickland J, Taylor J, Graham J, Clayshulte A, et al. Effect of lonophore supplementation on selected serum constituents of sheep consuming locoweed. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44:136-40 pubmed
    ..2). Lasalocid treatment had no effect on any serum constituent measured. Use of lasalocid in grazing animals should not increase the likelihood of locoweed intoxication...
  60. Strickland J, Custis M, Ashley A, Smith L, Klotz J, Krehbiel C. Clearance of para-aminohippuric acid in wethers consuming locoweed. N Z Vet J. 2005;53:288-92 pubmed
    ..To validate the use of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) as a marker for measuring blood flow in wethers consuming a mixed diet of locoweed and blue grama hay...
  61. Tong D, Mu P, Dong Q, Zhao B, Liu W, Zhao J, et al. Immunological evaluation of SW-HSA conjugate on goats. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007;58:61-7 pubmed
    ..The poisoning control group, immune poisoning groups I and II were then fed with 10.0 g/kg BW/day dry powder of Oxytropis kansuensis Bunge everyday morning. The immune control group was supplied with an alfalfa-based diet...
  62. Lu H, Zhang L, Wang S, Wang W, Zhao B. The study of the Oxytropis kansuensis-induced apoptotic pathway in the cerebrum of SD rats. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:217 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals can develop locoism, a chronic neurological disease, after grazing on locoweeds. Oxytropis kansuensis is a variety of locoweed that contains swainsonine as its main toxic ingredient...
  63. Grum D, Cook D, Baucom D, Mott I, Gardner D, Creamer R, et al. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endophyte in the host Swainsona canescens. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:1984-8 pubmed publisher
    Legumes belonging to the Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Swainsona genera have been noted by ranchers in the Americas, Asia, and Australia to cause a neurologic disease often referred to as locoism or peastruck...
  64. Zhao M, Gao X, Wang J, He X, Han B. A review of the most economically important poisonous plants to the livestock industry on temperate grasslands of China. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..the literature to obtain general information on poisonous species but focus on locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.), drunken horse grass [Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng ex Tzvelev] and langdu (Stellera chamaejasme L...