caesalpinia

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.

Top Publications

  1. Kannur D, Hukkeri V, Akki K. Antidiabetic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella seed extracts in rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:546-9 pubmed
    The seed extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella were subjected to screening of antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced hyperglycemia...
  2. Ragasa C, Hofilena J, Rideout J. New furanoid diterpenes from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:1107-10 pubmed
    Four new cassane-type furanoditerpenoids (1-4) were isolated from the air-dried leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Their structures were elucidated by spectral data interpretation...
  3. Chiang L, Chiang W, Liu M, Lin C. In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:194-8 pubmed
    ..Pure flavonoids and aqueous extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz were used in experiments to test their influence on a series of viruses, namely ..
  4. Roach J, McLean S, Reynolds W, Tinto W. Cassane diterpenoids of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. J Nat Prod. 2003;66:1378-81 pubmed
    Five new cassane diterpenoids (1-5) were isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, along with the known isovouacapenol C (6), pulcherrimin A (11), and 6beta-cinnamoyl-7beta-hydroxyvouacapen-5alpha-ol (12)...
  5. Gupta M, Mazumder U, Kumar R, Sivakumar T, Vamsi M. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004;94:177-84 pubmed
    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice...
  6. Liu A, Shu S, Qin H, Lee S, Wang Y, Du G. In vitro anti-influenza viral activities of constituents from Caesalpinia sappan. Planta Med. 2009;75:337-9 pubmed publisher
    ..protosappanin A, 3-deoxysappanchalcone, sappanchalcone and rhamnetin, were isolated from the hearthwood of Caesalpinia sappan (Leguminosae)...
  7. Pawar C, Surana S. Optimizing conditions for gallic acid extraction from Caesalpinia decapetala wood. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010;23:423-5 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia decapetala is a wild plant found in the Sub-Himalayan tract and planted in hedges throughout in India. The bark of Caesalpinia decapetala is a rich source of tannins...
  8. Cruz Silva I, Gozzo A, Nunes V, Carmona A, Faljoni Alario A, Oliva M, et al. A proteinase inhibitor from Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil) seeds for plasma kallikrein, plasmin and factor XIIa. Biol Chem. 2004;385:1083-6 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia echinata is a tree belonging to the Leguminosae family. The red color of the trunk, looking like burning wood ('brasa' in Portuguese), is the origin of the name Brazil...
  9. Santander S, Aoki M, Hernandez J, Pombo M, Moins Teisserenc H, Mooney N, et al. Galactomannan from Caesalpinia spinosa induces phenotypic and functional maturation of human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:652-60 pubmed publisher
    ..MDDCs were stimulated with Galactomannan (GLM) from Caesalpinia spinosa and both phenotypic and functional activities were assessed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Kayano A, Lopes S, Bueno F, Cabral E, Souza Neiras W, Yamauchi L, et al. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa. Malar J. 2011;10:112 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic ..
  2. Badami S, Moorkoth S, Rai S, Kannan E, Bhojraj S. Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:1534-7 pubmed
    Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was studied both by in vitro and in vivo models...
  3. Rao Y, Fang S, Tzeng Y. Anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100:249-53 pubmed
    ..3), 2'-hydroxy-2,3,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone (4) and bonducellin (5), all of them isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima L...
  4. Ueda H, Tachibana Y, Moriyasu M, Kawanishi K, Alves S. Aldose reductase inhibitors from the fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:377-81 pubmed
    Aldose reductase inhibitors were isolated from an extract of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Leguminosae). Compound 2 was identified as ellagic acid by comparison with a reference sample...
  5. Wu S, Otero M, Unger F, Goldring M, Phrutivorapongkul A, Chiari C, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract in human chondrocytes and macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;138:364-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia sappan is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties...
  6. Castañeda D, Pombo L, Urueña C, Hernandez J, Fiorentino S. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants...
  7. Kannur D, Hukkeri V, Akki K. Adaptogenic activity of Caesalpinia bonduc seed extracts in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;108:327-31 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb...
  8. Zanin J, de Carvalho B, Martineli P, dos Santos M, Lago J, Sartorelli P, et al. The genus Caesalpinia L. (Caesalpiniaceae): phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics. Molecules. 2012;17:7887-902 pubmed publisher
    The genus Caesalpinia (Caesalpiniaceae) has more than 500 species, many of which have not yet been investigated for potential pharmacological activity...
  9. Min B, Cuong T, Hung T, Min B, Shin B, Woo M. Compounds from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan and their anti-inflammatory activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:7436-9 pubmed publisher
    ..caesalpiniaphenol F, 2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13), were isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry...
  10. Menezes I, Moreira I, Carvalho A, Antoniolli A, Santos M. Cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract from Caesalpinia ferrea: involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007;47:41-7 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia ferrea is a plant very used in the folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as diabetes. This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract from stem bark of C. ferrea (AECF)...
  11. Garcia I, Souza A, Barbedo C, Dietrich S, Figueiredo Ribeiro R. Changes in soluble carbohydrates during storage of Caesalpinia echinata LAM. (Brazilwood) seeds, an endangered leguminous tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Braz J Biol. 2006;66:739-45 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia echinata seeds stored in laboratory environmental conditions lose their viability in one month whilst under low temperatures germination is maintained for 18 months of storage...
  12. Kondo K, Takaishi Y, Shibata H, Higuti T. ILSMRs (intensifier of beta-lactam-susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) from Tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze]. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:209-12 pubmed
    Four quinic acid gallates were isolated from the dried pods of Tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze]. These compounds intensified the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to oxacillin...
  13. Nakamura E, Kurosaki F, Arisawa M, Mukainaka T, Okuda M, Tokuda H, et al. Cancer chemopreventive effects of constituents of Caesalpinia ferrea and related compounds. Cancer Lett. 2002;177:119-24 pubmed
    The anti-tumor promoting effects of fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea MART...
  14. Das B, Srinivas Y, Sudhakar C, Mahender I, Laxminarayana K, Reddy P, et al. New diterpenoids from Caesalpinia species and their cytotoxic activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:2847-50 pubmed publisher
    Chemical investigation on Caesalpinia crista afforded two new diterpenoids, 6beta-cinnamoyloxy-7beta-acetoxyvouacapen-5alpha-ol and 6beta,7beta-dibenzoyloxyvouacapen-5alpha-ol and on Caesalpiniapulcherrima another new diterpenoid, 12-..
  15. Cota B, de Oliveira D, de Siqueira E, Souza Fagundes E, Pimenta A, Santos D, et al. New cassane diterpenes from Caesalpinia echinata. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:969-75 pubmed publisher
    An investigation of the ethanolic extract from stems of Caesalpinia echinata Lam (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenes along with known lambertianic acid...
  16. da Silva C, Sobrinho T, e Castro V, Lima D, de Amorim E. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong from Northeastern Brazil. Molecules. 2011;16:4728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity...
  17. Sampaio F, Pereira M, Dias C, Costa V, Conde N, Buzalaf M. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius fruits against oral pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124:289-94 pubmed publisher
    In the Amazon region of Brazil, the fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius (Brazilian ironwood) are widely used as an antimicrobial and healing medicine in many situations including oral infections...
  18. Kim E, Hwang Y, Lee H, Lee S, Park M, Jeon B, et al. Caesalpinia sappan induces cell death by increasing the expression of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 in head and neck cancer cells. Am J Chin Med. 2005;33:405-14 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia sappan L. (C. sappan) has been used in Oriental medicine as an antitumor agent. The present study shows the effects of the chloroform extract of C. sappan on cell death in head and neck cancer cell lines...
  19. Kalauni S, Awale S, Tezuka Y, Banskota A, Linn T, Asih P, et al. Antimalarial activity of cassane- and norcassane-type diterpenes from Caesalpinia crista and their structure-activity relationship. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:1050-2 pubmed
    ..In the present study, 44 cassane- and norcassane-type diterpenes isolated from Caesalpinia crista of Myanmar and Indonesia were evaluated for their antimalarial activity against the malaria parasite ..
  20. Jabbar A, Zaman M, Iqbal Z, Yaseen M, Shamim A. Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium album (L) and Caesalpinia crista (L) against trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;114:86-91 pubmed
    The present study was carried out to determine the anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia crista (L.) (Fabaceae) seed kernel and Chenopodium album (L...
  21. Bhattacharyya A, Rai S, Babu C. A trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor from Caesalpinia bonduc seeds: isolation, partial characterization and insecticidal properties. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:169-77 pubmed
    ..study illustrates the isolation and bioinsecticidal potency of a serine proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (CbTI), inhabiting Great Nicobar Island, India...
  22. Sgariglia M, Soberón J, Cabanes A, Sampietro D, Vattuone M. Anti-inflammatory properties of phenolic lactones isolated from Caesalpinia paraguariensis stem bark. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:63-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia paraguariensis (D. Parodi) Burkart stem bark infusion (CPBI) is traditionally used in Argentina because their "vulnerary" properties.
  23. Fu L, Huang X, Lai Z, Hu Y, Liu H, Cai X. A new 3-benzylchroman derivative from Sappan Lignum (Caesalpinia sappan). Molecules. 2008;13:1923-30 pubmed
    ..Among these known compounds, this is the first time that (+)-(8S,8'S)-bisdihydrosiringenin was obtained from the family Caesalpiniaceae...
  24. Chakrabarti S, Biswas T, Rokeya B, Ali L, Mosihuzzaman M, Nahar N, et al. Advanced studies on the hypoglycemic effect of Caesalpinia bonducella F. in type 1 and 2 diabetes in Long Evans rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:41-6 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia bonducella, widely distributed throughout the coastal region of India and used ethnically by the tribal people of India for controlling blood sugar was earlier reported by us to possess hypoglycemic activity in animal model...
  25. Linn T, Awale S, Tezuka Y, Banskota A, Kalauni S, Attamimi F, et al. Cassane- and norcassane-type diterpenes from Caesalpinia crista of Indonesia and their antimalarial activity against the growth of Plasmodium falciparum. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:706-10 pubmed
    The CH2Cl2 extract of the seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista, which exhibited promising antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice in vivo, was examined and resulted in the isolation of seven new furanocassane-type ..
  26. Gaur R, Sahoo M, Dixit S, Fatma N, Rastogi S, Kulshreshtha D, et al. Antifilarial activity of Caesalpinia bonducella against experimental filarial infections. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:65-70 pubmed
    ..We undertook this study to assess the antifilarial activity of Caesalpinia bonducella-seed kernel against rodent filarial parasite in experimental model.
  27. Shukla S, Mehta A, John J, Singh S, Mehta P, Vyas S. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1848-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds as a natural antioxidant...
  28. Lai W, Wang H, Chen G, Yang J, Korinek M, Hsieh C, et al. Using the pER8:GUS reporter system to screen for phytoestrogens from Caesalpinia sappan. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1698-706 pubmed publisher
    ..The MeOH extract of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited significant bioactivity in this assay, and subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ..
  29. Yodsaoue O, Karalai C, Ponglimanont C, Tewtrakul S, Chantrapromma S. Potential anti-inflammatory diterpenoids from the roots of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1756-64 pubmed publisher
    Anti-inflammatory assay-guided separation of extracts from the roots of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk...
  30. Chakrabarti S, Biswas T, Seal T, Rokeya B, Ali L, Azad Khan A, et al. Antidiabetic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella F. in chronic type 2 diabetic model in Long-Evans rats and evaluation of insulin secretagogue property of its fractions on isolated islets. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:117-22 pubmed
    b>Caesalpinia bonducella F., is a shrub widely distributed throughout the coastal region of India and is ethnically used by the tribal people of Andaman and Nicober Island as a remedy of symptoms of diabetes mellitus...
  31. Lira C, Cardoso S, Ferreira P, Cardoso M, Provan J. Long-term population isolation in the endangered tropical tree species Caesalpinia echinata Lam. revealed by chloroplast microsatellites. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:3219-25 pubmed
    ..chloroplast microsatellite markers to analyse genetic diversity in populations of the endangered tropical tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. representing the entire extant range of the species...
  32. Chanda S, Baravalia Y. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima aerial parts, antimicrobial activity and characterisation of isolated active fractions. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1955-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz. is an ornamental plant, shrub or a small tree belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin diseases and so on...
  33. Sudhakar M, Rao C, Rao P, Raju D, Venkateswarlu Y. Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:378-80 pubmed
    The ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta and flowers of Asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity...
  34. Hu C, Kang J, Lee C, Li C, Liao J, Cheng Y. Induction of vasorelaxation through activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells by brazilin. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;468:37-45 pubmed
    The vasorelaxant activity of Caesalpinia sappan L., a traditional Chinese medicine, and its major component brazilin were investigated in isolated rat aorta and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In isolated rat aorta, C. sappan L...
  35. Santana D, Santos C, Santos A, Nogueira P, Thomazzi S, Estevam C, et al. Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis on the inflammatory response and abdominal hyperalgesia in rats with acute pancreatitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:445-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae) is a plant found in the Northeast of Brazil that is popularly used to treat inflammation. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease for which abdominal pain is a relevant symptom...
  36. Li M, Zhang C, Chong L. [Studies on chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2002;25:794-5 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents from Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston.
  37. Urueña C, Mancipe J, Hernandez J, Castañeda D, Pombo L, Gomez A, et al. Gallotannin-rich Caesalpinia spinosa fraction decreases the primary tumor and factors associated with poor prognosis in a murine breast cancer model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:74 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of complex natural products is an excellent therapeutic alternative widely used by Chinese, Hindu, Egyptian, and ancestral Latin-American Indian populations...
  38. Wu Z, Huang J, Li W, Wu L, Gao H. Three new cassane diterpenes from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010;12:781-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and 12?-ethoxyl-1?,6?,7?-triacetoxy-5?,14?-dihydroxy-cass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide (3), were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance. Their structures were established on the basis of HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.
  39. Srinivasan R, Chandrasekar M, Nanjan M, Suresh B. Antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia digyna root. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113:284-91 pubmed
    The antioxidant properties of three successive extracts of Caesalpinia digyna Rottler root and the isolated compound, bergenin, were tested using standard in vitro and in vivo models...
  40. Pranithanchai W, Karalai C, Ponglimanont C, Subhadhirasakul S, Chantrapromma K. Cassane diterpenoids from the stem of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:300-4 pubmed publisher
    ..pulcherrimin E, pulcherrimin C, alpha-cadinol, 7-hydroxycadalene, teucladiol and bonducellin were isolated from the stem of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data.
  41. Moon H, Chung I, Seo S, Kang E. Protective effects of 3'-deoxy-4-O-methylepisappanol from Caesalpinia sappan against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells. Phytother Res. 2010;24:463-5 pubmed publisher
    To examine the neuroprotective effects of Caesalpinia sappan L., we tested its protection against the glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultured neurons...
  42. Das B, Thirupathi P, Ravikanth B, Aravind Kumar R, Sarma A, Basha S. Isolation, synthesis, and bioactivity of homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009;57:1139-41 pubmed
    ..bonducellin, sappanone A, 2'-methoxybonducellin and 7-O-methylbonducellin were isolated from aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima...
  43. Promsawan N, Kittakoop P, Boonphong S, Nongkunsarn P. Antitubercular cassane furanoditerpenoids from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Planta Med. 2003;69:776-7 pubmed
    Activity-guided fractionation of a root extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima led to the isolation of two cassane-furanoditerpenoids, 6 beta-benzoyl-7 beta-hydroxyvouacapen-5 alpha-ol (1) and 6 beta-cinnamoyl-7beta-hydroxyvouacapen-5 alpha-..
  44. Pereira L, da Silva R, Bringel P, da Silva K, Assreuy A, Pereira M. Polysaccharide fractions of Caesalpinia ferrea pods: potential anti-inflammatory usage. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;139:642-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia ferrea (Caesalpinioideae), known as pau-ferro or juca, has been used in the traditional medicine in North and Northeast of Brazil in inflammatory disorder, among others...
  45. Ochieng C, Owuor P, Mang uro L, Akala H, Ishola I. Antinociceptive and antiplasmodial activities of cassane furanoditerpenes from Caesalpinia volkensii H. root bark. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:74-80 pubmed publisher
    The chloroform and ethyl acetate extract (100mg/kg) of Caesalpinia volkensii H. exhibited significant (P ? 0...
  46. Yodsaoue O, Cheenpracha S, Karalai C, Ponglimanont C, Tewtrakul S. Anti-allergic activity of principles from the roots and heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan on antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release. Phytother Res. 2009;23:1028-31 pubmed publisher
    The dichloromethane extract of the roots and heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited potent inhibitory activity against beta-hexosaminidase release as marker of degranulation in rat basophilic leukemic (RBL-2H3) cells, with inhibition ..
  47. Pawar C, Mutha R, Landge A, Jadhav R, Surana S. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima wood. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009;46:198-200 pubmed
    Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima wood were studied in in vitro models...
  48. Wang Y, Sun S, Zhou Y. Extract of the dried heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;136:271-8 pubmed publisher
    To confirm the anti-arthritic effect and explore the potential mechanism of the dried heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. (HCS) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis.
  49. Bae I, Min H, Han A, Seo E, Lee S. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by brazilin in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;513:237-42 pubmed
    Brazilin (7,11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d]pyran-3,6a,9,10 (6H)-tetrol) isolated from Caesalpinia sappan has been known as a natural red pigment...
  50. Jeong G, Lee D, Kwon T, Lee H, An R, Kim Y. Cytoprotective constituents of the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan on glutamate-induced oxidative damage in HT22 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:945-9 pubmed
    The bioassay-guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L...
  51. Moraes R, Bulbovas P, Furlan C, Domingos M, Meirelles S, Delitti W, et al. Physiological responses of saplings of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a Brazilian tree species, under ozone fumigation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006;63:306-12 pubmed
    ..by long-term (30 day) and short-term (6h) exposures to ozone on the physiological parameters in young plants of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a Brazilian tree species, were determined...
  52. Shukla S, Mehta A, Mehta P, Vyas S, Shukla S, Bajpai V. Studies on anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:61-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) plant is well known for its medicinal and therapeutic values in Indian Ayurveda. However, to be clinically useful, more scientific data are needed...
  53. Kiem P, Minh C, Huong H, Lee J, Kim Y. Caesaldecan, a cassane diterpenoid from the leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005;53:428-30 pubmed
    A new cassane diterpenoid, caesaldecan, was isolated from Caesalpinia decapetala with eight known compounds, spathulenol, 4,5-epoxy-8(14)-caryophyllene, squalene, lupeol, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, astragalin, and stigmasterol...
  54. Zamble A, Martin Nizard F, Sahpaz S, Hennebelle T, Staels B, Bordet R, et al. Vasoactivity, antioxidant and aphrodisiac properties of Caesalpinia benthamiana roots. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:112-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia benthamiana (=Mezoneuron benthamianum) (Fabaceae) is an African tropical plant whose roots are used in traditional medicine as an aqueous decoction for many purposes, especially for erection impairment but its action ..
  55. Pudhom K, Sommit D, Suwankitti N, Petsom A. Cassane furanoditerpenoids from the seed kernels of Caesalpinia bonduc from Thailand. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1542-4 pubmed
    ..together with 13 known cassane diterpenes ( 4- 16), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the seed kernels of Caesalpinia bonduc. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, mainly NMR and MS...
  56. Maheswara M, Siddaiah V, Venkata Rao C. Two new homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:1193-5 pubmed
    ..3) and (E)-7-hydroxy-3-(2',4'-dimethoxybenzylidene)chroman-4-one (4) were isolated from the whole plant of Caesalpinia pulcherrima...
  57. Ribeiro A, Diniz P, Estevam C, Pinheiro M, Albuquerque Júnior R, Thomazzi S. Gastroprotective activity of the ethanol extract from the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:383-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), known as "catingueira", has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of various disorders such as gastritis, heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ache...