spinacia oleracea

Summary

Summary: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)

Top Publications

  1. Sather D, Golenberg E. Duplication of AP1 within the Spinacia oleracea L. AP1/FUL clade is followed by rapid amino acid and regulatory evolution. Planta. 2009;229:507-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We report on the isolation of three AP1/FUL genes from cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L...
  2. Glotzbach B, Schmelz S, Reinwarth M, Christmann A, Heinz D, Kolmar H. Structural characterization of Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitor III (SOTI-III). Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to most trypsin inhibitors, those from garden four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) do not share sequence similarity and have been proposed to form the new Mirabilis serine protease inhibitor ..
  3. Lopez Velasco G, Welbaum G, Boyer R, Mane S, Ponder M. Changes in spinach phylloepiphytic bacteria communities following minimal processing and refrigerated storage described using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:1203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the changes in bacterial diversity on fresh spinach phyllosphere associated with storage at refrigeration temperatures...
  4. Koh E, Charoenprasert S, Mitchell A. Effect of organic and conventional cropping systems on ascorbic acid, vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 varieties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that organic cropping systems result in spinach with lower levels of nitrates and higher levels of flavonoids and ascorbic acid...
  5. Frankel L, Sallans L, Limbach P, Bricker T. Identification of oxidized amino acid residues in the vicinity of the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster of Photosystem II: implications for the identification of oxygen channels within the Photosystem. Biochemistry. 2012;51:6371-7 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed within the context of a number of computational studies which have identified putative oxygen channels within the photosystem...
  6. Díaz Sánchez A, González Segura L, Mújica Jiménez C, Rudiño Piñera E, Montiel C, Martínez Castilla L, et al. Amino acid residues critical for the specificity for betaine aldehyde of the plant ALDH10 isoenzyme involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of ?-primary or ?-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the ..
  7. Chen K, Fessehaie A, Arora R. Dehydrin metabolism is altered during seed osmopriming and subsequent germination under chilling and desiccation in Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale: possible role in stress tolerance. Plant Sci. 2012;183:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..e. chilling and desiccation) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale) seeds...
  8. Lopez Velasco G, Tydings H, Boyer R, Falkinham J, Ponder M. Characterization of interactions between Escherichia coli O157:H7 with epiphytic bacteria in vitro and on spinach leaf surfaces. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;153:351-7 pubmed publisher
  9. McKellar R, Delaquis P. Development of a dynamic growth-death model for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed leafy green vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;151:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..By incorporating variability, the resulting model is an improvement over existing ones, and is suitable for QRA applications...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Raphael E, Wong L, Riley L. Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase gene sequences in gram-negative saprophytes on retail organic and nonorganic spinach. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1601-7 pubmed publisher
  2. Chen J, Wu F, Wang W, Zheng C, Lin G, Dong X, et al. Hydrogen sulphide enhances photosynthesis through promoting chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthetic enzyme expression, and thiol redox modification in Spinacia oleracea seedlings. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:4481-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, the role of H(2)S in modulating photosynthesis of Spinacia oleracea seedlings was investigated. The main results are as follows...
  3. Pavlík M, Pavlíková D, Staszková L, Neuberg M, Kaliszová R, Szakova J, et al. The effect of arsenic contamination on amino acids metabolism in Spinacia oleracea L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:1309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The changes of its concentrations could be affected by changes of pH in plant cell or induction of alanine aminotransferase by hypoxia...
  4. Yadav D, Kruk J, Sinha R, Pospisil P. Singlet oxygen scavenging activity of plastoquinol in photosystem II of higher plants: electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1807-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations reveal that plastoquinol exogenously added to PQ-depleted PSII membranes serves as efficient scavenger of ¹O?...
  5. Sato A, Takeda H, Oyanagi W, Nishihara E, Murakami M. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost. J Hazard Mater. 2010;181:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)...
  6. Daum B, Nicastro D, Austin J, McIntosh J, Kuhlbrandt W. Arrangement of photosystem II and ATP synthase in chloroplast membranes of spinach and pea. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1299-312 pubmed publisher
    ..Grana formation is likely to result from electrostatic interactions between these complexes across the stromal gap...
  7. Gonec T, Bobal P, Sujan J, Pesko M, Guo J, Kralova K, et al. Investigating the spectrum of biological activity of substituted quinoline-2-carboxamides and their isosteres. Molecules. 2012;17:613-44 pubmed publisher
    ..tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts...
  8. Khorobrykh S, Khorobrykh A, Yanykin D, Ivanov B, Klimov V, Mano J. Photoproduction of catalase-insensitive peroxides on the donor side of manganese-depleted photosystem II: evidence with a specific fluorescent probe. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These ROOH forms, likely including several species derived from lipid peroxides, may mediate the donor side-induced photoinhibition of PSII via protein modification...
  9. Sklensky D, Davies P. Resource partitioning to male and female flowers of Spinacia oleracea L. in relation to whole-plant monocarpic senescence. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:4323-36 pubmed publisher
  10. Otevrel J, Mandelova Z, Pesko M, Guo J, Kralova K, Sersen F, et al. Investigating the spectrum of biological activity of ring-substituted salicylanilides and carbamoylphenylcarbamates. Molecules. 2010;15:8122-42 pubmed publisher
    ..tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. Moreover, their site of action in the photosynthetic apparatus was determined...
  11. Kopecký V, Kohoutová J, Lapkouski M, Hofbauerová K, Sovova Z, Ettrichová O, et al. Raman spectroscopy adds complementary detail to the high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of photosynthetic PsbP from Spinacia oleracea. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46694 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins in solution and in crystals is explored here with extrinsic protein PsbP of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea. In the high-resolution (1...
  12. Onodera Y, Yonaha I, Masumo H, Tanaka A, Niikura S, Yamazaki S, et al. Mapping of the genes for dioecism and monoecism in Spinacia oleracea L.: evidence that both genes are closely linked. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:965-71 pubmed publisher
    ..SO4 will enable breeders to efficiently select highly male monoecious plants for preferential use as the pollen parent for hybrid seed production...
  13. Fajkusova D, Pesko M, Keltosova S, Guo J, Oktabec Z, Vejsova M, et al. Anti-infective and herbicidal activity of N-substituted 2-aminobenzothiazoles. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:7059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts...
  14. Chen K, Arora R. Dynamics of the antioxidant system during seed osmopriming, post-priming germination, and seedling establishment in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Plant Sci. 2011;180:212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Spinach seeds (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale) were primed with -0.6 MPa PEG at 15°C for 8 d, and dried at room temperature for 2 d...
  15. Dreaden T, Chen J, Rexroth S, Barry B. N-formylkynurenine as a marker of high light stress in photosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:22632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactive oxygen species reactions lead to oxidative damage of the reaction center, D1 protein turnover, and inhibition of electron transfer. Our results are consistent with a role for the CP43 NFK modification in photoinhibition...
  16. Kukulski W, Schenk A, Johanson U, Braun T, de Groot B, Fotiadis D, et al. The 5A structure of heterologously expressed plant aquaporin SoPIP2;1. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:611-6 pubmed
    ..This crystal packing arrangement provides access to the phosphorylated C terminus as well as the loop B phosphorylation site for studies of channel gating. ..
  17. Kawade K, Ishizaki T, Masuda K. Differential expression of ribosome-inactivating protein genes during somatic embryogenesis in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Physiol Plant. 2008;134:270-81 pubmed publisher
    Root segments from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Jiromaru) seedlings form embryogenic callus (EC) that responded to exogenous GA(3) by accumulating a 31-kDa glycoprotein [BP31 or S. oleracea ribosome-inactivating protein (EC 3.2.2...
  18. Kirchhoff H, Lenhert S, Büchel C, Chi L, Nield J. Probing the organization of photosystem II in photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy. Biochemistry. 2008;47:431-40 pubmed
    ..The functional consequences for lateral migration processes are discussed...
  19. Vollmar M, Schlieper D, Winn M, Büchner C, Groth G. Structure of the c14 rotor ring of the proton translocating chloroplast ATP synthase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Reprotonation of Glu(61) by a conserved arginine in the adjacent a subunit returns the carboxylate to its initial conformation...
  20. Wendel A, Johnson D, Sharapov U, Grant J, Archer J, Monson T, et al. Multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with consumption of packaged spinach, August-September 2006: the Wisconsin investigation. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection often causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome...
  21. Ifuku K, Nakatsu T, Shimamoto R, Yamamoto Y, Ishihara S, Kato H, et al. Structure and function of the PsbP protein of photosystem II from higher plants. Photosynth Res. 2005;84:251-5 pubmed
    ..The possible N-terminal residues of PsbP that would be involved in this interaction are discussed...
  22. Posp sil P, Snyrychov I, Kruk J, Strza ka K, Naus J. Evidence that cytochrome b559 is involved in superoxide production in photosystem II: effect of synthetic short-chain plastoquinones in a cytochrome b559 tobacco mutant. Biochem J. 2006;397:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings it is suggested that short-chain PQs stimulate O2*- production via a mechanism that involves electron transfer from Pheo- (pheophytin) to LP cyt b559 and subsequent auto-oxidation of LP cyt b559...
  23. Veerman J, McConnell M, Vasil ev S, Mamedov F, Styring S, Bruce D. Functional heterogeneity of photosystem II in domain specific regions of the thylakoid membrane of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Biochemistry. 2007;46:3443-53 pubmed
  24. Sparla F, Zaffagnini M, Wedel N, Scheibe R, Pupillo P, Trost P. Regulation of photosynthetic GAPDH dissected by mutants. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:2210-9 pubmed
    ..The latter residue is thus distracted from binding the 2'-phosphate of NADP, with the final effect that the enzyme relaxes to a conformation leading to a slower NADPH-dependent catalytic activity...
  25. Törnroth Horsefield S, Wang Y, Hedfalk K, Johanson U, Karlsson M, Tajkhorshid E, et al. Structural mechanism of plant aquaporin gating. Nature. 2006;439:688-94 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a molecular gating mechanism which appears conserved throughout all plant plasma membrane aquaporins...
  26. Komayama K, Khatoon M, Takenaka D, Horie J, Yamashita A, Yoshioka M, et al. Quality control of Photosystem II: cleavage and aggregation of heat-damaged D1 protein in spinach thylakoids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:838-46 pubmed
    ..The cleavage and aggregation of the D1 protein appear to be two alternative processes influenced by protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, distribution of FtsH, and intactness of the thylakoids...
  27. Choi Y, Hong S, Shin H. Re-consideration of Peronospora farinosa infecting Spinacia oleracea as distinct species, Peronospora effusa. Mycol Res. 2007;111:381-91 pubmed
    Downy mildew is probably the most widespread and potentially destructive global disease of spinach (Spinacia oleracea)...
  28. Sigfridsson K, Bernát G, Mamedov F, Styring S. Molecular interference of Cd(2+) with Photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1659:19-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, the presence of both Ca(2+) and DCMU abolished Cd(2+)-induced effects partially and in different sites. The number of sites for Cd(2+) binding and the possible nature of these sites are discussed...
  29. Himathongkham S, Dodd M, Yee J, Lau D, Bryant R, Badoiu A, et al. Recirculating immunomagnetic separation and optimal enrichment conditions for enhanced detection and recovery of low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from fresh leafy produce and surface water. J Food Prot. 2007;70:2717-24 pubmed
    ..The method used in this study was effective for monitoring E. coli O157:H7 in the farm environment, during postharvest processing, and in foodborne outbreak investigations...
  30. Balsera M, Arellano J, Revuelta J, De Las Rivas J, Hermoso J. The 1.49 A resolution crystal structure of PsbQ from photosystem II of Spinacia oleracea reveals a PPII structure in the N-terminal region. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:1051-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, the PsbQ crystal coordinates two zinc ions, one of them is proposed to have a physiological role in higher plants, on the basis of the full conservation of the ligand protein residues in the sequence subfamily...
  31. Roose J, Frankel L, Bricker T. Documentation of significant electron transport defects on the reducing side of photosystem II upon removal of the PsbP and PsbQ extrinsic proteins. Biochemistry. 2010;49:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..6 M urea did not induce further reducing-side alterations. Our results demonstrate that studies attributing defects observed upon PsbP and PsbQ removal solely to the oxidizing side must be viewed with caution...
  32. Ruban A, Berera R, Ilioaia C, van Stokkum I, Kennis J, Pascal A, et al. Identification of a mechanism of photoprotective energy dissipation in higher plants. Nature. 2007;450:575-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this is the principal mechanism of photoprotection...
  33. Sakurai I, Shen J, Leng J, Ohashi S, Kobayashi M, Wada H. Lipids in oxygen-evolving photosystem II complexes of cyanobacteria and higher plants. J Biochem. 2006;140:201-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that phosphatidylglycerol plays important roles in the electron transport at the QB-binding site in photosystem II complexes...
  34. Sparla F, Fermani S, Falini G, Zaffagnini M, Ripamonti A, Sabatino P, et al. Coenzyme site-directed mutants of photosynthetic A4-GAPDH show selectively reduced NADPH-dependent catalysis, similar to regulatory AB-GAPDH inhibited by oxidized thioredoxin. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:1025-37 pubmed
    ..A model based on this concept might be developed to explain the in vivo light-regulation of the GAPDH...
  35. Fraysse L, Wells B, McCann M, Kjellbom P. Specific plasma membrane aquaporins of the PIP1 subfamily are expressed in sieve elements and guard cells. Biol Cell. 2005;97:519-34 pubmed
    ..As the nomenclature implies, the majority of PIPs have been shown to be localized at the plasma membrane. Recently, two highly abundant plasma membrane aquaporins, SoPIP2;1 and SoPIP1;2, have been purified and structurally characterized...
  36. Boisvert S, Joly D, Carpentier R. Quantitative analysis of the experimental O-J-I-P chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics. Apparent activation energy and origin of each kinetic step. FEBS J. 2006;273:4770-7 pubmed
  37. Kowalska J, Pszczoła K, Wilimowska Pelc A, Lorenc Kubis I, Zuziak E, Ługowski M, et al. Trypsin inhibitors from the garden four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seeds: isolation, characterization and chemical synthesis. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:1487-96 pubmed
    Five serine proteinase inhibitors (Mirabilis jalapa trypsin inhibitors, MJTI I and II and Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitors, SOTI I, II, and III) from the garden four-o'clock (M. jalapa) and spinach (S. oleracea) seeds were isolated...
  38. Fermani S, Sparla F, Falini G, Martelli P, Casadio R, Pupillo P, et al. Molecular mechanism of thioredoxin regulation in photosynthetic A2B2-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11109-14 pubmed
    ..The CTE is envisioned as a redox-sensitive regulatory domain that can force AB-GAPDH into a kinetically inhibited conformation under oxidizing conditions, which also occur during dark inactivation of the enzyme in vivo...
  39. Kirchhoff H, Haase W, Haferkamp S, Schott T, Borinski M, Kubitscheck U, et al. Structural and functional self-organization of Photosystem II in grana thylakoids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:1180-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the supramolecular protein arrangement in grana thylakoids is a self-organized process...
  40. Ohira S, Morita N, Suh H, Jung J, Yamamoto Y. Quality control of photosystem II under light stress - turnover of aggregates of the D1 protein in vivo. Photosynth Res. 2005;84:29-33 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this notion, singlet oxygen production in thylakoid samples under illumination was shown to be stimulated significantly at higher temperatures...
  41. Bhatia A, Jain M. Spinacia oleracea L. protects against gamma radiations: a study on glutathione and lipid peroxidation in mouse liver. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:607-15 pubmed
    The present study deals with the protective effect of Spinacia oleracea L. against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is evaluated in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product and tissue levels of glutathione...
  42. Pfent C, Pobursky K, Sather D, Golenberg E. Characterization of SpAPETALA3 and SpPISTILLATA, B class floral identity genes in Spinacia oleracea, and their relationship to sexual dimorphism. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that regulation of B class floral identity genes has a role in the development of sexual dimorphism and dioecy in spinach rather than being a secondary result of organ abortion...
  43. Yamauchi Y, Furutera A, Seki K, Toyoda Y, Tanaka K, Sugimoto Y. Malondialdehyde generated from peroxidized linolenic acid causes protein modification in heat-stressed plants. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2008;46:786-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This modification was not observed in linolenic acid-deficient mutants (fad3fad7fad8 triple mutant), suggesting that linolenic acid is a major source of protein modification by MDA in heat-stressed plants...
  44. Khalil R, Frank J. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on damaged leaves of spinach, lettuce, cilantro, and parsley stored at abusive temperatures. J Food Prot. 2010;73:212-20 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence that the damaged portion of a leafy green is a distinct growth niche that elicits different microbial responses in the various types of leafy greens...
  45. Macarisin D, Bauchan G, Fayer R. Spinacia oleracea L. leaf stomata harboring Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: a potential threat to food safety. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:555-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings and the fact that this pathogenic parasite resists washing and disinfection raise concerns regarding food safety...
  46. Yamashita A, Nijo N, Pospisil P, Morita N, Takenaka D, Aminaka R, et al. Quality control of photosystem II: reactive oxygen species are responsible for the damage to photosystem II under moderate heat stress. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:28380-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Although occurring in the dark, the damages caused by the moderate heat stress to photosystem II are quite similar to those induced by excessive illumination where reactive oxygen species are involved...
  47. Okazaki K, Oka N, Shinano T, Osaki M, Takebe M. Differences in the metabolite profiles of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf in different concentrations of nitrate in the culture solution. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:170-7 pubmed
  48. Sather D, York A, Pobursky K, Golenberg E. Sequence evolution and sex-specific expression patterns of the C class floral identity gene, SpAGAMOUS, in dioecious Spinacia oleracea L. Planta. 2005;222:284-92 pubmed publisher
    Development in dioecious cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea, is distinguished by the absence of alternative reproductive organ primordia in male and female flowers...
  49. Yamamoto Y, Nishi Y, Yamasaki H, Uchida S, Ohira S. Assay of photoinhibition of photosystem II and protease activity. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;274:217-27 pubmed
    ..The method to analyze the protease activity in the stroma that recognizes and digests the crosslinked products of the D1 protein generated by the light stress is also described...
  50. Sahu S, Gummadi S. Flippase activity in proteoliposomes reconstituted with Spinacea oleracea endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins: evidence of biogenic membrane flippase in plants. Biochemistry. 2008;47:10481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the existence of biogenic membrane flippases in plants and that the mechanism of membrane biogenesis is similar to that found in animals...
  51. Rinalducci S, Pedersen J, Zolla L. Formation of radicals from singlet oxygen produced during photoinhibition of isolated light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1608:63-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, monomerization of antennae as well as their incorporation into the PSII complex seem to represent physiologically protected forms. A comparison is made of the photoinhibition mechanisms of different photosynthetic systems...
  52. Das S, Guha D. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:185-90 pubmed
    Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in ..
  53. Kirchhoff H, Haase W, Wegner S, Danielsson R, Ackermann R, Albertsson P. Low-light-induced formation of semicrystalline photosystem II arrays in higher plant chloroplasts. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11169-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the occurrence of a hexagonal phase of the lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in grana membranes of low-light-adapted plants could trigger the rearrangement by changing the lateral membrane pressure...
  54. Zornetzer G, Fox B, Markley J. Solution structures of spinach acyl carrier protein with decanoate and stearate. Biochemistry. 2006;45:5217-27 pubmed
    ..These structures demonstrate the conformational flexibility of spinach ACP and suggest how the protein changes to accommodate its myriad binding partners...
  55. Yoshihara R, Imaki T, Hori M, Watanabe C, Yamamoto K, Takimoto K. CPD photolyase gene from Spinacia oleracea: repair of UV-damaged DNA and expression in plant organs. J Radiat Res. 2005;46:157-64 pubmed
    ..In both the male and female plants, the gene was highly expressed in leaves and flowers under the condition of 14-h light and 10-h dark cycle. The expression in the roots was quite low compared with the other organs...