echium

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family BORAGINACEAE. Members contain GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID and PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Alhazzaa R, Bridle A, Mori T, Barden A, Nichols P, Carter C. Echium oil is better than rapeseed oil in improving the response of barramundi to a disease challenge. Food Chem. 2013;141:1424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..diets containing high levels of C18 precursors for LC-PUFA - stearidonic (SDA) and ?-linolenic acid (GLA) - from Echium plantagineum (EO), or rapeseed oil (RO) rich in ?-linolenic acid (ALA), but a poor source of LC-PUFA and their ..
  2. Cleveland B, Francis D, Turchini G. Echium oil provides no benefit over linseed oil for (n-3) long-chain PUFA biosynthesis in rainbow trout. J Nutr. 2012;142:1449-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed 1 of 4 diets (3 replicate tanks/treatment) containing either FO, linseed oil (LO), echium oil, or mixed vegetable oil (72% LO, 23% sunflower oil, and 6% canola oil) as the dietary lipid source (16...
  3. Kavanagh K, Flynn D, Jenkins K, Wilson M, Chilton F. Stearidonic and ?-linolenic acids in echium oil improves glucose disposal in insulin resistant monkeys. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;89:39-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Echium oil (EO) contains stearidonic acid (18:4), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and gamma-linolenic acids (18:3), a n-6 PUFA that can be converted to long chain (LC)-PUFAs...
  4. Sayyah M, Sayyah M, Kamalinejad M. A preliminary randomized double blind clinical trial on the efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in the treatment of mild to moderate major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:166-9 pubmed
    Based on a traditional belief, Echium amoenum (Boraginaceae) dried flowers are used in Iran as an anxiolytic remedy and also as a mood enhancer. In this study, efficacy of an aqueous extract of E...
  5. Heidari M, Azad E, Mehrabani M. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey. extract in mice: possible mechanism involved. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:345-9 pubmed
    b>Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey. has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as demulcent and analgesic in common cold from long ago...
  6. Forrest L, Boudyguina E, Wilson M, Parks J. Echium oil reduces atherosclerosis in apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;220:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echium oil contains stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4, n-3), which is metabolized to EPA in humans and mice, resulting in ..
  7. Mañas Fernández A, Vilches Ferrón M, Garrido Cárdenas J, Belarbi E, Alonso D, García Maroto F. Cloning and molecular characterization of the acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene from Echium. Lipids. 2009;44:555-68 pubmed publisher
    Boraginaceae species, such as those from the genus Echium, contain high levels of the Delta(6)-desaturated gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6) and octadecatetraenoic (18:4n-3) acids...
  8. Rabbani M, Sajjadi S, Vaseghi G, Jafarian A. Anxiolytic effects of Echium amoenum on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:457-64 pubmed
    The ethanolic extract of Echium amoenum flowers at the dose of 50 mg/kg increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and decreased the percentage of time-spent ..
  9. Leiss K, Vrieling K, Klinkhamer P. Heritability of nectar production in Echium vulgare. Heredity (Edinb). 2004;92:446-51 pubmed
    Heritabilities of nectar production in the wild species Echium vulgare were estimated as realised heritability under controlled and field conditions...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Ferreres F, Pereira D, Valentão P, Andrade P. First report of non-coloured flavonoids in Echium plantagineum bee pollen: differentiation of isomers by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:801-6 pubmed publisher
    Apicultural products have been widely used in diet complements as well as in phytotherapy. Bee pollen from Echium plantagineum was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode-array detection coupled to ion trap mass ..
  2. García Maroto F, Mañas Fernández A, Garrido Cárdenas J, Alonso D, Guil Guerrero J, Guzman B, et al. Delta6-desaturase sequence evidence for explosive Pliocene radiations within the adaptive radiation of Macaronesian Echium (Boraginaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;52:563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..of standard molecular markers (nrDNA and plastid sequences), the Delta(6)-desaturase sequence phylogeny of Echium unequivocally reconstructs its active colonization across islands and archipelagos (Madeira, the Canary Islands, ..
  3. Brown A, Zhu X, Rong S, Shewale S, Seo J, Boudyguina E, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids ameliorate atherosclerosis by favorably altering monocyte subsets and limiting monocyte recruitment to aortic lesions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Fish oil, containing omega-3 fatty acids, attenuates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acid-enriched oils are atheroprotective through alteration of monocyte subsets and their trafficking into atherosclerotic lesions...
  4. Cequier Sánchez E, Rodríguez C, Ravelo A, Zarate R. Dichloromethane as a solvent for lipid extraction and assessment of lipid classes and fatty acids from samples of different natures. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding the fatty acid profile, in Echium virescens seeds, 17 major fatty acids could be identified and quantified, and all were equally extracted when ..
  5. Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malaieri A. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:1513-6 pubmed publisher
    Traditionally, the dried flower of Echium amoenum (Boraginaceae) has been used in Iran as an anxiolytic and mood enhancer. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an aqueous extract of E...
  6. Zare K, Khosrowshahli M, Nazemiyeh H, Movafeghi A, Azar A, Omidi Y. Callus culture of Echium italicum L. towards production of a shikonin derivative. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1480-7 pubmed publisher
    Callus induction and proliferation of Echium italicum L. (Boraginaceae) were investigated using cotyledon, hypocotyl and root explants...
  7. Chilton F, Rudel L, Parks J, Arm J, Seeds M. Mechanisms by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory disorders. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:498S-503S pubmed
    ..Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil, borage oil, and echium oil affects the biochemistry of fatty acid metabolism and thus the balance of proinflammatory mediators and ..
  8. García Maroto F, Garrido Cárdenas J, Rodríguez Ruiz J, Vilches Ferrón M, Adam A, Polaina J, et al. Cloning and molecular characterization of the delta6-desaturase from two echium plant species: production of GLA by heterologous expression in yeast and tobacco. Lipids. 2002;37:417-26 pubmed
    ..We have cloned genes encoding the delta6-desaturase (D6DES) from two different Macaronesian Echium species, E. pitardii and E...
  9. García Maroto F, Mañas Fernández A, Garrido Cárdenas J, Alonso D. Substrate specificity of acyl-Delta(6)-desaturases from Continental versus Macaronesian Echium species. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:540-4 pubmed
    b>Echium (Boraginaceae) species from the Macaronesian islands exhibit an unusually high level of gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6; GLA) and relatively low content of octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3; OTA) in the seed, while the amounts of both ..
  10. Abolhassani M. Antibacterial effect of borage (Echium amoenum) on Staphylococcus aureus. Braz J Infect Dis. 2004;8:382-5 pubmed
    Borage (Echium amoenum) is a large annual plant of the Boraginaceae family, which grows in most of Europe and in northern Iran. The borage flower is used as a medicinal herb in France and other countries...
  11. Botelho P, Mariano K, Rogero M, de Castro I. Effect of Echium oil compared with marine oils on lipid profile and inhibition of hepatic steatosis in LDLr knockout mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:38 pubmed publisher
    ..n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) supplementation, the effect of three sources of omega 3 fatty acids (algae, fish and Echium oils) on lipid profile and inflammation biomarkers was evaluated in LDL receptor knockout mice.
  12. Kitessa S, Young P. Echium oil is better than rapeseed oil in enriching poultry meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:709-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The n-3 fatty acid in rapeseed oil is ALA while Echium oil contains both ALA and SDA...
  13. Albreht A, Vovk I, Simonovska B, Srbinoska M. Identification of shikonin and its ester derivatives from the roots of Echium italicum L. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:3156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..ANS), 2-methyl-n-butyrylshikonin (MBS) and isovalerylshikonin (IVS) were identified in the root epidermis of Echium italicum L. for the first time...
  14. Kitessa S, Young P, Nattrass G, Gardner G, Pearce K, Pethick D. When balanced for precursor fatty acid supply echium oil is not superior to linseed oil in enriching lamb tissues with long-chain n-3 PUFA. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil...
  15. Boppre M, Colegate S, Edgar J. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Echium vulgare honey found in pure pollen. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:594-600 pubmed
    The pyrrolizidine alkaloids previously identified in floral honey attributed to Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae) have been detected (8000-14 000 ppm) in pure pollen collected from the anthers of Echium vulgare...
  16. Di Paola Naranjo R, Sánchez Sánchez J, González Paramás A, Rivas Gonzalo J. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of anthocyanin composition of dark blue bee pollen from Echium plantagineum. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1054:205-10 pubmed
    Dark blue bee pollen samples from pollinic type Echium plantegineum were analysed in order to identify and quantify their anthocyanin pigments...
  17. Surette M, Edens M, Chilton F, Tramposch K. Dietary echium oil increases plasma and neutrophil long-chain (n-3) fatty acids and lowers serum triacylglycerols in hypertriglyceridemic humans. J Nutr. 2004;134:1406-11 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Echium oil, a plant oil containing the 18-carbon (n-3) PUFA stearidonic acid, on tissue fatty acid content and serum ..
  18. Colegate S, Edgar J, Knill A, Lee S. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-MS profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides: a case study of Echium plantagineum. Phytochem Anal. 2005;16:108-19 pubmed
    ..The present case study of Echium plantagineum highlighted a higher ratio of N-oxides to the parent tertiary bases than has been previously reported...
  19. Kuhnt K, Fuhrmann C, Köhler M, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2014;144:447-60 pubmed publisher
    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans...
  20. Nave A, Gonçalves F, Crespí A, Campos M, Torres L. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae. Bull Entomol Res. 2016;106:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut...
  21. Codabaccus M, Bridle A, Nichols P, Carter C. Effect of feeding Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) a diet enriched with stearidonic acid from parr to smolt on growth and n-3 long-chain PUFA biosynthesis. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:1772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..a high intake of stearidonic acid (SDA) from Echium oil (EO) would result in increased n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis due to a lower requirement for ?6 desaturase...
  22. Dresler S, Rutkowska E, Bednarek W, Stanisławski G, Kubrak T, Bogucka Kocka A, et al. Selected secondary metabolites in Echium vulgare L. populations from nonmetalliferous and metalliferous areas. Phytochemistry. 2017;133:4-14 pubmed publisher
    ..capacity, and heavy metal concentration in two metallicolous (MC, MZ) and one nonmetallicolous (NM) populations of Echium vulgare L. The shoots and the roots of the three studied populations were collected from their natural habitats...
  23. Kefi S, Essid R, Mkadmini K, Kefi A, Mahjoub Haddada F, Tabbene O, et al. Phytochemical investigation and biological activities of Echium arenarium (Guss) extracts. Microb Pathog. 2018;118:202-210 pubmed publisher
    ..was developed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of Echium arenarium (Guss) extracts, and to analyze their phytochemical composition...
  24. El Rokh A, Negm A, El Shamy M, El Gindy M, Abdel Mogib M. Sucrose diester of aryldihydronaphthalene-type lignans from Echium angustifolium Mill. and their antitumor activity. Phytochemistry. 2018;149:155-160 pubmed publisher
    ..diester of aryldihydronaphthalene-type lignans, named echiumins A-D, were isolated from the butanol fraction of Echium angustifolium Mill, in addition to a known compound, trigonotin A, which is reported for the first time from the ..
  25. Asadollahi F, Mehrzad J, Chaichi M, Taghavi Razavizadeh A. Photoimmunological properties of borage in bovine neutrophil in vitro model. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015;151:270-5 pubmed publisher
    Borage (Echium amoenum fisch) is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants, and has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many (non)infectious diseases in Iran...
  26. Dal Bello B, Torri L, Piochi M, Zeppa G. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:8375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum...
  27. Guil Guerrero J, Gómez Mercado F, Ramos Bueno R, González Fernández M, Urrestarazu M, Rincón Cervera M. Sardinian Boraginaceae are new potential sources of gamma-linolenic acid. Food Chem. 2017;218:435-439 pubmed publisher
    ..officinalis collected in the same ecosystems. SDA was found in significant amounts in Echium plantagineum seed oil from the Lattias Mountains (15% SDA of total fatty acids)...
  28. Dias L, Veloso A, Sousa M, Estevinho L, Machado A, Peres A. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;900:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.)...
  29. Eruygur N, Yılmaz G, Kutsal O, Yücel G, Üstün O. Bioassay-guided isolation of wound healing active compounds from Echium species growing in Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;185:370-6 pubmed publisher
    The roots and root barks of Echium sp. have been used to treat ulcers, burns and wounds in traditional Turkish medicine...
  30. Abeywardena M, Adams M, Dallimore J, Kitessa S. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Nutrients. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially...
  31. Jaya Ram A, Shu Chien A, Kuah M. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2016;42:1107-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-..
  32. Comunian T, Boillon M, Thomazini M, Nogueira M, de Castro I, Favaro Trindade C. Protection of echium oil by microencapsulation with phenolic compounds. Food Res Int. 2016;88:114-121 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work was to encapsulate echium oil (Echium plantagineum L...
  33. Skoneczny D, Weston P, Zhu X, Gurr G, Callaway R, Weston L. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia--A Case of Novel Weapons?. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:26721-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E...
  34. Skoneczny D, Weston P, Zhu X, Gurr G, Callaway R, Barrow R, et al. Metabolic Profiling and Identification of Shikonins in Root Periderm of Two Invasive Echium spp. Weeds in Australia. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Root periderm tissues of the invasive Australian weeds Echium plantagineum and its congener E. vulgare were extracted overnight in ethanol for shikonin profiling...
  35. Dresler S, Wójciak Kosior M, Sowa I, Stanisławski G, Bany I, Wójcik M. Effect of short-term Zn/Pb or long-term multi-metal stress on physiological and morphological parameters of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Echium vulgare L. populations. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2017;115:380-389 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to determine the response of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Echium vulgare L. populations to chronic multi-metal (Zn, Pb, Cd) and acute Zn (200, 400 ?M) and Pb (30, 60 ?M) stress. Three populations of E...
  36. Letsyo E, Jerz G, Winterhalter P, Lindigkeit R, Beuerle T. Incidence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Herbal Medicines from German Retail Markets: Risk Assessments and Implications to Consumers. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1903-1909 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, H. perforatum-containing products were frequently contaminated with PAs from Echium spp., while both Cynara cardunculus L. products and fixed-combination products of Gentiana lutea L...
  37. Sung J, Jeon H, Kim I, Jeong H, Lee J. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Stearidonic Acid Mediated by Suppression of NF-?B and MAP-Kinase Pathways in Macrophages. Lipids. 2017;52:781-787 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effects of SDA isolated from echium oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages...
  38. Zhu X, Skoneczny D, Weidenhamer J, Mwendwa J, Weston P, Gurr G, et al. Identification and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones in the roots and rhizosphere of Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum), a noxious invader. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:3777-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the production and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones (NQs) in the roots of Echium plantagineum, an invasive endemic weed in Australia. Roots of E...
  39. Shen L, Yang Y, Ou T, Key C, Tong S, Sequeira R, et al. Dietary PUFAs attenuate NLRP3 inflammasome activation via enhancing macrophage autophagy. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:1808-1821 pubmed publisher
    ..2% cholesterol, supplemented with an additional 10% of calories as PO, fish oil (FO), echium oil (EO, containing 18:4 n-3), or borage oil (BO, containing 18:3 n-6)...
  40. Jokar N, Noorhosseini S, Allahyari M, Damalas C. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM). J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;207:203-210 pubmed publisher
    ..cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L...
  41. Agnes T, Roschel G, Castro I. The use of factorial design to evaluate the oxidation of oils containing different types of omega 3 fatty acids. J Sci Food Agric. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..palmitate and AMVN) were combined in a factorial design to accelerate the oxidation of three oils (flaxseed, echium and fish) containing different sources of n3 FA...
  42. Shewale S, Brown A, Bi X, Boudyguina E, Sawyer J, Alexander Miller M, et al. In vivo activation of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 by PUFAs has minimal impact on atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:236-246 pubmed publisher
    ..and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) + 10% calories as: 1) PO, 2) fish oil (FO; 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 enriched), 3) echium oil (EO; 18:4 n-3 enriched), or 4) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched) for 16 weeks...
  43. Castejón N, Luna P, Señoráns F. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents. Food Chem. 2018;244:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed...
  44. Choi N, Kim H, Kim B, Lee J, Kim I. Production of Phytosteryl Ester from Echium Oil in a Recirculating Packed Bed Reactor Using an Immobilized Lipase. J Oleo Sci. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    The synthesis of phytosteryl ester via the lipase-catalyzed esterification of phytosterol with fatty acid from echium oil was performed in a recirculating packed bed reactor...
  45. Rincón Cervera M, Venegas Venegas E, Ramos Bueno R, Rodríguez García I, Guil Guerrero J. Acyl migration evaluation in monoacylglycerols from Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol. J Biosci Bioeng. 2013;115:518-22 pubmed publisher
    Production of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by selective hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol and further purification was carried out...
  46. Hanley M, May O. Cotyledon damage at the seedling stage affects growth and flowering potential in mature plants. New Phytol. 2006;169:243-50 pubmed
    ..Reduced growth as a result of cotyledon damage may have implications for plant competition during the establishment phase, and on subsequent reproductive success at maturity...
  47. Comunian T, Chaves I, Thomazini M, Moraes I, Ferro Furtado R, de Castro I, et al. Development of functional yogurt containing free and encapsulated echium oil, phytosterol and sinapic acid. Food Chem. 2017;237:948-956 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this work was to coencapsulate echium oil, phytosterols and sinapic acid (crosslinker/antioxidant), and incorporate the obtained microcapsules into ..
  48. Wu F, Tang C, Guo Y, Bian Z, Fu J, Lu G, et al. Transcriptome analysis explores genes related to shikonin biosynthesis in Lithospermeae plants and provides insights into Boraginales' evolutionary history. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4477 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Arnebia euchroma and Echium plantagineum. As a result, two unigenes (i.e...
  49. Konarzewski T, Murray B, Godfree R. Rapid development of adaptive, climate-driven clinal variation in seed mass in the invasive annual Forb Echium plantagineum L. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49000 pubmed publisher
    We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection...
  50. Renna M, Lussiana C, Cornale P, Battaglini L, Fortina R, Mimosi A. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats. J Dairy Res. 2016;83:28-34 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO)...
  51. Okhovvat S, Zakeri Z, Moshashai R. The causal agents of damping-off disease of buglosse from Iran. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2005;70:319-22 pubmed
    ..Buglosse (Fig. 1) is one of the most important and common medicinal plants in Iran and exist as Echium amoneum and Borago officinalis...
  52. Martín Arroyo T, González Porto A, Bartolomé Esteban C. Viper's bugloss (Echium spp.) honey typing and establishing the pollen threshold for monofloral honey. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185405 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample...
  53. Kuhnt K, Weiß S, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:32 pubmed publisher
    ..The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers...
  54. Santana O, Reina M, Fraga B, Sanz J, González Coloma A. Antifeedant activity of fatty acid esters and phytosterols from Echium wildpretii. Chem Biodivers. 2012;9:567-76 pubmed publisher
    Crude extracts and fractions from Echium wildpretii H. Pearson ex Hook. f. subsp...
  55. Dubecke A, Beckh G, Lullmann C. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey and bee pollen. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:348-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The PA pattern was used to identify the potential origin of the PAs in honey, which was verified for the genus Echium by relative pollen analysis...
  56. Dresler S, Bednarek W, Wójcik M. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2014;104:332-8 pubmed publisher
    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated...
  57. Durán A, Gutiérrez M, Rial C, Torres A, Varela R, Valdivia M, et al. Bioactivity and quantitative analysis of isohexenylnaphthazarins in root periderm of two Echium spp.: E. plantagineum and E. gaditanum. Phytochemistry. 2017;141:162-170 pubmed publisher
    ..The work described herein concerns the biological activity of compounds from the roots of Echium plantagineum L...
  58. Hosseini N, Abolhassani M. Immunomodulatory properties of borage (Echium amoenum) on BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. J Clin Immunol. 2011;31:465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we used both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Iranian borage (Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey) for treatment of L. major infection in BALB/c mice...
  59. Burger H, Dötterl S, Häberlein C, Schulz S, Ayasse M. An arthropod deterrent attracts specialised bees to their host plants. Oecologia. 2012;168:727-36 pubmed publisher
    ..of host flowers to foraging-naïve and -experienced Hoplitis adunca (Megachilidae) bees that are specialised on Echium and Pontechium (Boraginaceae) plants. The investigations showed that naïve H...
  60. Betteridge K, Cao Y, Colegate S. Improved method for extraction and LC-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in honey: application to Echium vulgare honeys. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1894-902 pubmed
    ..The procedure was validated using extracts of Echium plantagineum and authenticated standards of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides from other plant sources...
  61. Moita E, Gil Izquierdo A, Sousa C, Ferreres F, Silva L, Valentão P, et al. Integrated analysis of COX-2 and iNOS derived inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW macrophages pre-exposed to Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen extract. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59131 pubmed publisher
    ..This study intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen to support its claimed health beneficial effects...
  62. Méndez V, Campos D, Sheppard A. A model for plant invasions: the role of distributed generation times. Bull Math Biol. 2009;71:1727-44 pubmed publisher
    ..and mature) is considered and successfully tested using experimental data available for some invasive weeds (Echium plantagineum, Cytisus scoparius, Carduus nutans andCarduus acanthoides) from their native and exotic ranges...
  63. Mañas Fernández A, Li Beisson Y, Alonso D, García Maroto F. Cloning and molecular characterization of a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) gene from Echium (Boraginaceae) involved in the biosynthesis of cutin polyesters. Planta. 2010;232:987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..and molecular characterization of EpGPAT1, a gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) from Echium pitardii (Boraginaceae) with high similarity to the AtGPAT4/AtGPAT8 of Arabidopsis...
  64. Dwyer A, Whitten D, Hawrelak J. Herbal medicines, other than St. John's Wort, in the treatment of depression: a systematic review. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:40-9 pubmed
    ..Researchers were contacted, and bibliographies of relevant papers and previous meta-analysis were hand searched for additional references...
  65. Cequier Sánchez E, Rodríguez C, Dorta Guerra R, Ravelo A, Zarate R. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:42 pubmed publisher
    ..e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, ?-linolenic acid)...
  66. Papp N, Bencsik T, Németh K, Gyergyák K, Sulc A, Farkas A. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1475-8 pubmed
    ..Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of ..
  67. Alali F, Tahboub Y, Ibrahim E, Qandil A, Tawaha K, Burgess J, et al. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium glomeratum (Boraginaceae). Phytochemistry. 2008;69:2341-6 pubmed publisher
    The methanolic extract of the whole plant of Echium glomeratum Poir...
  68. Tandogan B, Kuruüzüm Uz A, Sengezer C, Guvenalp Z, Demirezer L, Ulusu N. In vitro effects of rosmarinic acid on glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, glucose 6-phosphate (G6P):NADP(+) oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49) is the key regulatory enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and maintains NADPH for reductive reactions...
  69. Praz C, Muller A, Dorn S. Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?. Ecology. 2008;89:795-804 pubmed
    ..Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae)...
  70. Kempf M, Wittig M, Reinhard A, von der Ohe K, Blacquiere T, Raezke K, et al. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:332-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant...
  71. Tanghe S, Millet S, De Smet S. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3253-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of ?-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring...
  72. Yang Q, O Shea T. Dietary Echium oil increases tissue (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids without elevating hepatic lipid concentrations in premature neonatal rats. J Nutr. 2009;139:1353-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Echium oil (EO) contains notable quantities of both (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA and has not, to our knowledge, been studied in neonates...
  73. Díaz López M, Pérez M, Acosta N, Jerez S, Dorta Guerra R, Tocher D, et al. Effects of dietary fish oil substitution by Echium oil on enterocyte and hepatocyte lipid metabolism of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;155:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echium oil (EO) has a good n-3/n-6 balance as well as an interesting profile with its high content of unusual fatty acids ..
  74. Zurbuchen A, Cheesman S, Klaiber J, Muller A, Hein S, Dorn S. Long foraging distances impose high costs on offspring production in solitary bees. J Anim Ecol. 2010;79:674-81 pubmed publisher
    ..5. The results of this study clearly indicate that a close neighbourhood of suitable nesting and foraging habitats is crucial for population persistence and thus conservation of endangered solitary bee species...
  75. Moyano M, Garcia A, Rueda A, Molina A, Mendez A, Infante F. Echium vulgare and Senecio vulgaris poisoning in fighting bulls. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006;53:24-5 pubmed
    An unusual case of poisoning by simultaneous ingestion of Echium vulgare L. and Senecio vulgaris L. in a herd of Spanish fighting bulls is described...
  76. Hasani Ranjbar S, Larijani B, Abdollahi M. A systematic review of the potential herbal sources of future drugs effective in oxidant-related diseases. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009;8:2-10 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the medicinal plants growing and having history of folk medicine in Iran and found effective as anti free radical damage in animal or human...
  77. Tsai S, Harris P, Lovell P. The root epidermis of Echium plantagineum L.: a novel type of pattern based on the distribution of short and long root hairs. Planta. 2003;217:238-44 pubmed
    ..The seedling root of Echium plantagineum L...
  78. Shahat A, Mahmoud E, Al Mishari A, Alsaid M. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME SAUDI ARABIAN HERBAL PLANTS. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017;14:161-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Five plants were active against eight organisms. The data appeared that extracts of Echium arabicum (SY-176), Rhantarium epapposum (SY-Rumex vesicarus (SY-181), Ziziphus nummularia ..
  79. Ozcan T. Accumulation patterns of some seed oil components from wild sources of Turkey. Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles of fatty acids and ?-tocopherol were analysed at three ripening stages in the seed oils of Primula and Echium species...
  80. Orantes Bermejo F, Serra Bonvehí J, Gómez Pajuelo A, Megias M, Torres C. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: their occurrence in Spanish honey collected from purple viper's bugloss (Echium spp.). Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:1799-806 pubmed publisher
    The incidence and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Echium spp. plant have been defined in 103 Spanish honey samples. Each sample was examined to determine total pollen content, the percentage of Echium spp...
  81. Comunian T, Ravanfar R, de Castro I, Dando R, Favaro Trindade C, Abbaspourrad A. Improving oxidative stability of echium oil emulsions fabricated by Microfluidics: Effect of ionic gelation and phenolic compounds. Food Chem. 2017;233:125-134 pubmed publisher
    b>Echium oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which are important because of their benefits to human health; it is, however, unstable...
  82. Abd El Mawla A. Effect of certain elicitors on production of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in hairy root cultures of Echium rauwolfii. Pharmazie. 2010;65:224-6 pubmed
    Hairy root cultures of Echium rauwolfii were obtained by infection of sterile apical shoots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to the alkaloids production...
  83. Václavík T, Beckmann M, Cord A, Bindewald A. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175671 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L...
  84. Forrest L, Lough C, Chung S, Boudyguina E, Gebre A, Smith T, et al. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice. Nutrients. 2013;5:2629-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice...
  85. Stolyhwo A, Mol J. Changes in the content of gamma-linolenic C18:3 (n-6) and stearidonic C18:4 (n-3) acids in developing seeds of viper's bugloss Echium vulgare L. Acta Biochim Pol. 2007;54:741-6 pubmed
    ..FA) were determined in lipid extracts isolated from developing ovaries containing ovules and developing seeds of Echium vulgare L. The samples were collected successively over 20 days beginning with the first day after flowering...
  86. Tocher D, Dick J, MacGlaughlin P, Bell J. Effect of diets enriched in Delta6 desaturated fatty acids (18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3), on growth, fatty acid composition and highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in two populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;144:245-53 pubmed
    ..47% protein and 21% lipid differing only in the added lipid component, which was either fish oil (FO) or echium oil (EO)...
  87. Arm J, Boyce J, Wang L, Chhay H, Zahid M, Patil V, et al. Impact of botanical oils on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and leukotriene generation in mild asthmatics. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:141 pubmed publisher
  88. Klinkhamer P, van der Lugt P. Pollinator service only depends on nectar production rates in sparse populations. Oecologia. 2004;140:491-4 pubmed
    As predicted, approach rate by bumblebees is strongly related to the nectar production rate of Echium vulgare plants in a sparse population, while in a dense population such a relationship is completely absent...
  89. Lane K, Derbyshire E, Li W, Brennan C. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54:572-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative sources include flaxseed, echium, walnut, and algal oil but their conversion to EPA and DHA must be considered...