epimedium

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family BERBERIDACEAE which is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL. Members contain flavonol glycosides including epimedins, icariin and noricariin.

Top Publications

  1. Song Y, Li B, Chen X, Cai H. Ethanol extract from Epimedium brevicornum attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac remodeling through down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity and myocardial apoptosis in rats with congestive heart failure. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21:117-24 pubmed
    b>Epimedium, a traditional Chinese herb, has been used for the remedy of coronary heart disease, impotence and osteoporosis in traditional oriental medicine...
  2. Huang J, Shen Z, Wu B. [Effect and mechanism of Epimedium flavanoids for aging retardation from viewpoint of transcriptomics and metabonomics]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008;28:47-50 pubmed
    To investigate the effect and its mechanism of Epimedium flavanoids (EF) in retarding aging with different systematic viewpoints...
  3. Wu B, Yan S, Lin Z, Wang Q, Yang Y, Yang G, et al. Metabonomic study on ageing: NMR-based investigation into rat urinary metabolites and the effect of the total flavone of Epimedium. Mol Biosyst. 2008;4:855-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of ageing on rat urinary metabolites and to evaluate the anti-ageing effects of the total flavone of Epimedium (TFE)...
  4. Hsieh T, Sheu S, Sun J, Chen M, Liu M. Icariin isolated from Epimedium pubescens regulates osteoblasts anabolism through BMP-2, SMAD4, and Cbfa1 expression. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The main active flavonoid glucoside extracted from Epimedium pubescens is Icariin, which has been reported to enhance bone healing and reduce osteoporosis occurrence...
  5. Chen X, Guo B, Li S, Zhang Q, Tu P, Wang Y. Simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids in Epimedium using pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1163:96-104 pubmed
    ..VII, sagittatoside A, sagittatoside B, 2''-O-rhamnosyl icariside II and baohuoside I in different species of Epimedium. The analysis was performed by using a Zorbax SB-C18 analytical column (250 mm x 4.6 mm I.D...
  6. Dou J, Liu Z, Liu S. Structure identification of a prenylflavonol glycoside from Epimedium koreanum by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Sci. 2006;22:449-52 pubmed
    A novel prenylflavonol glycoside, named acetylicariin, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum Nakai...
  7. Zhang G, Qin L, Hung W, Shi Y, Leung P, Yeung H, et al. Flavonoids derived from herbal Epimedium Brevicornum Maxim prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats independent of its enhancement in intestinal calcium absorption. Bone. 2006;38:818-25 pubmed
    Factorial design was used to test our hypothesis whether a group of flavonoids (FE) derived from herbal Epimedium Brevicornum Maxim exerted its preventive effects on estrogen-deficiency-induced osteoporosis mainly through an enhancement ..
  8. Cai W, Zhang X, Huang J. [Effect of Epimedium flavonoids in retarding aging of C. elegans]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008;28:522-5 pubmed
    To investigate effect of Epimedium flavonoids (EF), positively controlled by caloric restriction (CR) method, in retarding aging of the model organism C. elegans, in order to establish a basis for studying its action mechanism.
  9. Meng F, Li Y, Xiong Z, Jiang Z, Li F. Osteoblastic proliferative activity of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:189-93 pubmed
    The effect of the extracts of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. was investigated on proliferative activity in vitro. The osteoblast-like UMR106 cells was employed as an osteoblast model...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Xie P, Yan Y, Guo B, Lam C, Chui S, Yu Q. Chemical pattern-aided classification to simplify the intricacy of morphological taxonomy of Epimedium species using chromatographic fingerprinting. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52:452-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium herb (Yinyanghuo), one of the popular Chinese materia medica, is a multiple species colony of Epimedium genus belonging to Berberidaceae...
  2. Yin L, Lin L, Zhang L, Li L. Epimedium flavonoids ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats by modulating neuroinflammatory and neurotrophic responses. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63:851-62 pubmed publisher
    The present study was designed to determine whether epimedium flavonoids (EF) had effect on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms...
  3. Huang W, Sun W, Lv H, Luo M, Zeng S, Pattanaik S, et al. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Epimedium sagittatum regulates the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70778 pubmed publisher
    Herba epimedii (Epimedium), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a kidney tonic and antirheumatic medicine for thousands of years...
  4. Shindel A, Xin Z, Lin G, Fandel T, Huang Y, Banie L, et al. Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1518-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium species (aka horny goat weed) have been utilized for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years. Icariin (ICA) is the active moiety of Epimedium species.
  5. Liu X, Wang Q, Xia S, Huang J, Shen Z, Xu H. Characteristics of lymphocyte nuclear factor-?B signal transduction kinase expression in aging process and regulatory effect of epimedium flavonoids. Chin J Integr Med. 2011;17:704-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of lymphocyte nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signal transduction kinase-related molecular mRNA differential expressions at various month age segments in aging process and the intervening effect of Epimedium flavonoids (EF) on it.
  6. Huang W, Sun W, Wang Y. Isolation and molecular characterisation of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase genes from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Epimedium sagittatum. Gene. 2012;497:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioactive components in the herb (Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc...
  7. Choi H, Eun J, Kim D, Li R, Shin T, Park H, et al. Icariside II from Epimedium koreanum inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human osteosarcoma cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;579:58-65 pubmed
    ..Icariside II was isolated from Epimedium koreanum through successive fractionation with ethyl acetate, n-butanol, chloroform and hexane, followed by gel ..
  8. Xie J, Sun W, Duan K, Zhang Y. Chemical constituents of roots of Epimedium wushanense and evaluation of their biological activities. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:600-5 pubmed
    ..C, icarisoside A, desmethylanhydroicaritin, as well as the oleanolic acid, were isolated from the roots of Epimedium wushanense for the first time. These flavonoids manifested significant antioxidant activity in vitro...
  9. Cui L, Sun E, Zhang Z, Tan X, Wei Y, Jin X, et al. Enhancement of epimedium fried with suet oil based on in vivo formation of self-assembled flavonoid compound nanomicelles. Molecules. 2012;17:12984-96 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this work was to research the enhancement of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on the in vivo formation self-assembled flavonoid nanomicelles...
  10. Sun Y, Fung K, Leung P, Shi D, Shaw P. Characterization of medicinal Epimedium species by 5S rRNA gene spacer sequencing. Planta Med. 2004;70:287-8 pubmed
    Sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer were used to identify Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., E. wushanense T. S. Ying, E. pubescens Maxim., and E. koreanum Nakai...
  11. Qian G, Zhang X, Lu L, Wu X, Li S, Meng J. Regulation of Cbfa1 expression by total flavonoids of Herba epimedii. Endocr J. 2006;53:87-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the high dose HEF (160 mg/kg) administered for 12 weeks in vivo stimulated osteocalcin expression. These findings suggest that Cbfa1 is required for mediating the anabolic effects of HEF...
  12. Zhao Y, Song H, Fei J, Liang Y, Zhang B, Liu Q, et al. The effects of Chinese yam-epimedium mixture on respiratory function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Tradit Chin Med. 2012;32:203-7 pubmed
    To examine the clinical effects of a mixture of Chinese Yam and epimedium in patients with stable moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  13. De Naeyer A, Pocock V, Milligan S, De Keukeleire D. Estrogenic activity of a polyphenolic extract of the leaves of Epimedium brevicornum. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:35-40 pubmed
    The estrogenic activity of a polyphenolic extract of the leaves of Epimedium brevicornum and five fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction were investigated using estrogen-responsive bioassays, a yeast cell assay and the Ishikawa Var-..
  14. Fan Y, Wang D, Hu Y, Liu J, Han G, Zhao X, et al. Liposome and epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone can synergistically enhance immune effect of vaccine. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;50:125-30 pubmed publisher
    Three preparations of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone immunopotentiator (EPI), EPI liposome, EPI suspension and EPI watery solution were prepared...
  15. Kang H, Choi Y, Kwon H, Lee S, Kim D, Sung C, et al. Estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of a Epimedium koreanum extract and its major components: in vitro and in vivo studies. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:2751-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Zhang G, Qin L, Sheng H, Yeung K, Yeung H, Cheung W, et al. Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen exert beneficial effect on preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis in rabbits with inhibition of both thrombosis and lipid-deposition. Bone. 2007;40:685-92 pubmed
    This study tested the effect of Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen (PE) on preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis (ON) in rabbit model.
  17. Yang L, Lu D, Guo J, Meng X, Zhang G, Wang F. Icariin from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim promotes the biosynthesis of estrogen by aromatase (CYP19). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:715-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium brevicornum Maxim has long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and other Asian countries. However, the mechanism behind the antiosteoporotic activity of this medicinal plant is not fully understood.
  18. Yap S, Shen P, Li J, Lee L, Yong E. Molecular and pharmacodynamic properties of estrogenic extracts from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Epimedium. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113:218-24 pubmed
    The Chinese medicinal herb, Epimedium, used traditionally for bone health exerts estrogenic activity (EA) in vitro...
  19. Lin C, Ng L, Hsu F, Shieh D, Chiang L. Cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents (berberine, coptisine and icariin) on hepatoma and leukaemia cell growth. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004;31:65-9 pubmed
    1. The present study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents on hepatoma and leukaemia cells in vitro. 2...
  20. Chiu J, Chen K, Chien T, Chiou W, Chen C, Wang J, et al. Epimedium brevicornum Maxim extract relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum through multitargets on nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18:335-42 pubmed
    b>Epimedium brevicornum Maxim (EbM) has been reputed to have sexual stimulation effects on males...
  21. Wu C, Sheng Y, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Guo B. Identification and characterization of active compounds and their metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry after oral administration of a herbal extract of Epimedium koreanum Na. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:2813-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium is an important traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used throughout China as a tonic, aphrodisiac, and antirheumatic medicine. Flavonoids are considered to be the active compounds in Epimedium...
  22. Zhang D, Cheng Y, Wang N, Zhang J, Yang M, Yao X. Effects of total flavonoids and flavonol glycosides from Epimedium koreanum Nakai on the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:55-61 pubmed
    In a bioassay-guided drug screening for anti-osteoporosis activity, eight flavonol glycosides were isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai, which is traditionally widely used in China for the treatment of impotence and osteoporosis...
  23. Yuk S, Lim E, Lee J, Lee Y, Kim Y, Lee T, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of Epimedium brevicornum water extract on lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1781-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium brevicornum Maxim (Berberidaceae) possesses estrogenic properties. It is one of the most widespread herbal remedies used in Oriental medicine...
  24. Ma H, He X, Yang Y, Li M, Hao D, Jia Z. The genus Epimedium: an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:519-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium (Berberidaceae), is a genus of about 52 species in the family Berberidaceae, which also known as Rowdy Lamb Herb, Xianlinpi, Barrenwort, Bishop's Hat, Fairy Wings, Horny Goat Weed, and Yangheye or Yin Yang Huo (Chinese: )...
  25. Feng K, Xie W, Chen B, Wang J, Guo J. [Effect of five species of Epimedium on growth of cartilage and proliferation of cartilage cell in vitro]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:2065-7 pubmed
    To observe the effect of Epimedium brevicornum, E. sagittatum, E. koreanum, E, wushanense and E. elongntum on the growth of cartilage and proliferation of cartilage cell in vitro.
  26. Chen Y, Shen Z, Chen W. [Molecular mechanism of epimedium flavonoids in immune homeostasis remodeling in aged rats revealed by lymphocyte gene expression profile]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:59-62 pubmed
    To elucidate the gene regulatory pattern of Epimedium flavonoids (EF) in immune homeostasis remodeling in the aged rats.
  27. Tantry M, Dar J, Idris A, Akbar S, Shawl A. Acylated flavonol glycosides from Epimedium elatum, a plant endemic to the Western Himalayas. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:665-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracts and chemical constituents from Epimedium species are aphrodisiac as well as to treat many ailments...
  28. Pan Y, Kong L, Li Y, Xia X, Kung H, Jiang F. Icariin from Epimedium brevicornum attenuates chronic mild stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrinological alterations in male Wistar rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;87:130-40 pubmed
    ..The behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects of icariin, a major constituent of flavonoids isolated from Epimedium brevicornum, were investigated in the CMS model of depression in male Wistar rats...
  29. Guo B, Xiao P. [Comment on main species of herba epimedii]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28:303-7 pubmed
    ..To comment on main resource species of Herba Epimedii...
  30. Xu Y, Li Z, Wang Y, Huang H. Allozyme diversity and population genetic structure of three medicinal Epimedium species from Hubei. J Genet Genomics. 2007;34:56-71 pubmed
    Three Epimedium species, E. pubescens Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim., and E. wushanense T. S...
  31. Yan S, Wu B, Lin Z, Jin H, Huang J, Yang Y, et al. Metabonomic characterization of aging and investigation on the anti-aging effects of total flavones of Epimedium. Mol Biosyst. 2009;5:1204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..approach was applied to characterize the aging of rats, and the anti-aging effect of total flavones of Epimedium (TFE), a traditional Chinese medicine, has also been investigated...
  32. Zhang J, Wang Y, Ma C, Liu T, Li W, Gong Y, et al. Icarisid II, a PDE5 inhibitor from Epimedium wanshanense, increases cellular cGMP by enhancing NOS in diabetic ED rats corpus cavernosum tissue. Andrologia. 2012;44 Suppl 1:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..ICA-II implies a potential compound for neurogenic erectile dysfunction by NO-cGMP pathway...
  33. Makarova M, Pozharitskaya O, Shikov A, Tesakova S, Makarov V, Tikhonov V. Effect of lipid-based suspension of Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract on sexual behavior in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;114:412-6 pubmed
    Herba of Epimedium koreanum is used in traditional Chinese and Korean herbal medicine as a potent enhancer of erectile function...
  34. Wu H, Lien E, Lien L. Chemical and pharmacological investigations of Epimedium species: a survey. Prog Drug Res. 2003;60:1-57 pubmed
    More than 130 different compounds have been identified from over 16 species of the Epimedium genus of the Berberidaceae family...
  35. Fan Y, Hu Y, Wang D, Guo Z, Zhao X, Guo L, et al. Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically stimulate lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and enhance the immune responses to ND vaccine in chickens. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:87-92 pubmed publisher
    Four prescriptions, epimedium flavone plus propolis flavone (EF-PF), epimedium flavone plus propolis extracts (EF-PE), epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (EP-PF) and epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis extracts (EP-PE), ..
  36. Hsieh T, Sheu S, Sun J, Chen M. Icariin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by suppression of MAPKs/NF-?B regulated HIF-1? and PGE(2) synthesis. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Icariin inhibited LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis program by suppressing activation of the p38 and JNK pathway...
  37. Chen K, Ge B, Liu X, Ma P, Lu M, Bai M, et al. Icariin inhibits the osteoclast formation induced by RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor in mouse bone marrow culture. Pharmazie. 2007;62:388-91 pubmed
    Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside contained in the herb Epimedium, which has long been used to improve bone fracture healing or prevent osteoporosis because of the belief that the herb has bone-strengthening action...
  38. Cheng H, Feng S, Shen S, Zhang L, Yang R, Zhou Y, et al. Extraction, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Epimedium acuminatum Franch. polysaccharide. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;96:101-8 pubmed publisher
    Polysaccharides from Epimedium acuminatum were extracted by hot water and optimized with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of the extraction were determined to be the ratio of water to raw material of 29...
  39. Wu M, Zhao S, Ren L. Effects of total flavonoids of Epimedium sagittatum on the mRNA expression of the estrogen receptor ? and ? in hypothalamus and hippocampus in ovariectomized rats. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;36:15-20 pubmed publisher
    To explore the effect of total flavonoids of Epimedium sagittatum (TFE) on the mRNA expressions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and estrogen receptor beta(ER?) in hippocampus and hypothalamus in ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley(..
  40. Zhao H, Sun J, Fan M, Fan L, Zhou L, Li Z, et al. Analysis of phenolic compounds in Epimedium plants using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1190:157-81 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established for the analysis of phenolic compounds in Epimedium plants...
  41. Chen K, Ge B, Ma H, Liu X, Bai M, Wang Y. Icariin, a flavonoid from the herb Epimedium enhances the osteogenic differentiation of rat primary bone marrow stromal cells. Pharmazie. 2005;60:939-42 pubmed
    The herb Epimedium has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat bone fracture and prevent osteoporosis. Researchers believe that the flavonoids contained in the herb are the effective component for this activity...
  42. Hu Z, Shen Z, Huang J. [Experimental study on effect of epimedium flavonoids in protecting telomere length of senescence cells HU]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:1094-7 pubmed
    To investigate the mechanism of senescence delay of human diploid fibroblast (2BS) and protecting telomere length by epimedium flavonoids (EF).
  43. Shen P, Guo B, Gong Y, Hong D, Hong Y, Yong E. Taxonomic, genetic, chemical and estrogenic characteristics of Epimedium species. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:1448-58 pubmed
    To understand the factors contributing to estrogenic properties of extracts from the genus Epimedium L...
  44. Li X, Zou Y, Xiao C, Gituru R, Guo Y, Yang C. The differential contributions of herkogamy and dichogamy as mechanisms of avoiding self-interference in four self-incompatible Epimedium species. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:1949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We used four self-incompatible Epimedium species to explore the roles of herkogamy and dichogamy in avoiding self-interference and to test the hypothesis ..
  45. Peng S, Songlin P, Zhang G, Ge Z, He Y, Yixin H, et al. Epimedium-derived flavonoids promote osteoblastogenesis and suppress adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells while exerting an anabolic effect on osteoporotic bone. Bone. 2009;45:534-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium-derived flavonoids (EFs) have been reported to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and late postmenopausal women but the underlying mechanism of the anabolic effect is unknown.
  46. Ma J, Ma Y, Wang D, Hou F, Luo M, Lu S, et al. Simultaneous quantification of Panax and Epimedium species using Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography (RRLC). Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:581-6 pubmed
    ..eight major ginsenosides from Panax species, namely, R1, Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, and flavonoids from Epimedium species, namely, epimedins A, B, and C and icariin...
  47. Li F, Gong Q, Wu Q, Lu Y, Shi J. Icariin isolated from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim attenuates learning and memory deficits induced by d-galactose in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;96:301-5 pubmed publisher
    The effects of icariin (ICA), a major constituent of flavonoids from the Chinese medical herb Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, on spatial memory performances and expressions of hippocampus brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ..
  48. Wong S, Shen P, Lee L, Li J, Yong E. Pharmacokinetics of prenylflavonoids and correlations with the dynamics of estrogen action in sera following ingestion of a standardized Epimedium extract. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;50:216-23 pubmed publisher
    To explore pharmacokinetic properties of prenylflavonoids from the Traditional Chinese Medicinal plant Epimedium, three doses of a standardized extract (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight), were administered to ovariectomized rats and ..
  49. Chen Y, Zhao Y, Jia X, Hu M. Intestinal absorption mechanisms of prenylated flavonoids present in the heat-processed Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Yin Yanghuo). Pharm Res. 2008;25:2190-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose is to determine absorption mechanism of five bioactive prenylated flavonoids (baohuoside I, icariin, epimedine A, B, and C) present in heat-processed Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Yin Yanghuo).
  50. Zhang G, Wang X, Sheng H, Xie X, He Y, Yao X, et al. Constitutional flavonoids derived from Epimedium dose-dependently reduce incidence of steroid-associated osteonecrosis not via direct action by themselves on potential cellular targets. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6419 pubmed publisher
    ..The present experimental study demonstrated that constitutional flavonoid glycosides derived from herb Epimedium (EF, composed of seven flavonoid compounds with common stem nuclear) exerted dose-dependent effect on inhibition ..
  51. Liu J, Li S, Wang Y. Optimization for quantitative determination of four flavonoids in Epimedium by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with diode array detection using central composite design. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1103:344-9 pubmed
    ..for simultaneous determination of four flavonoids including icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B and epimedin C in Epimedium. The effects of the experimental variables on CZE had been optimized by using central composite design (CCD)...
  52. Zhang G, Qin L, Shi Y. Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen flavonoids exert beneficial effect on preventing bone loss in late postmenopausal women: a 24-month randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1072-9 pubmed
    b>Epimedium brevicornum maxim, a nonleguminous medicinal plant, has been found to be rich in phytoestrogen flavonoids...
  53. Cheng H, Feng S, Jia X, Li Q, Zhou Y, Ding C. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Epimedium acuminatum. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;92:63-8 pubmed publisher
    The polysaccharides were extracted from Epimedium acuminatum by hot water extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, enzyme extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction...
  54. Zhou J, Wu J, Chen X, Fortenbery N, Eksioglu E, Kodumudi K, et al. Icariin and its derivative, ICT, exert anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor effects, and modulate myeloid derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) functions. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that ICA, and more robustly, ICT, directly modulate MDSC signaling and therefore altered the phenotype and function of these cells, in vitro and in vivo...
  55. Zeng S, Xiao G, Guo J, Fei Z, Xu Y, Roe B, et al. Development of a EST dataset and characterization of EST-SSRs in a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:94 pubmed publisher
    b>Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant species, has been used extensively as genuine medicinal materials...