Summary: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. ECDYSONE has been found in seeds of some members.

Top Publications

  1. Koleckar V, Opletal L, Macakova K, Jahodar L, Jun D, Kunes J, et al. New antioxidant flavonoid isolated from Leuzea carthamoides. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010;25:143-5 pubmed publisher
    A new natural flavonoid patuletin 3'-beta-xylofuranoside was isolated from Leuzea carthamoides leaves...
  2. Nosal R, Perecko T, Jancinova V, Drabikova K, Harmatha J, Svitekova K. Suppression of oxidative burst in human neutrophils with the naturally occurring serotonin derivative isomer from Leuzea carthamoides. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31 Suppl 2:69-72 pubmed
    ..the effect of a crystalline complex fraction of four N-feruloyl-serotonin isomers isolated from the seeds of Leuzea carthamoides on the mechanism of oxidative burst of human neutrophils in vitro...
  3. Koleckar V, Brojerova E, Rehakova Z, Kubikova K, Cervenka F, Kuca K, et al. In vitro antiplatelet activity of flavonoids from Leuzea carthamoides. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2008;31:27-35 pubmed
    ..Owing to these facts, in vitro antiplatelet activity of ethanol summary extract and four flavonoids from Leuzea carthamoides was determined in human platelet-rich plasma...
  4. Budesinsky M, Vokáč K, Harmatha J, Cvacka J. Additional minor ecdysteroid components of Leuzea carthamoides. Steroids. 2008;73:502-14 pubmed publisher
    Seventeen additional minor ecdysteroid compounds were isolated and identified from the roots of Leuzea carthamoides (Wild.) DC...
  5. Chobot V, Vytlacilová J, Kubicova L, Opletal L, Jahodar L, Laakso I, et al. Phototoxic activity of a thiophene polyacetylene from Leuzea carthamoides. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:194-8 pubmed
    The thiophene polyacetylene (E)-1-[5-(hept-5-en-1,3-diynyl)-2-thienyl]ethan-1,2-diol, isolated from the roots of Leuzea carthamoides, showed phototoxic activity in the assay systems of histidine photo-oxidation, Artemia and Tubifex assays...
  6. Peschel W, Kump A, Prieto J. Effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone, Leuzea carthamoides extracts, dexamethasone and their combinations on the NF-?B activation in HeLa cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1483-95 pubmed publisher
    The plant steroid 20-hydroxyecdysterone (20E) and 20E-containing extracts from Leuzea carthamoides (Willd.) DC are sold with claims of anabolic and immunomodulatory effects...
  7. Wu J, Gao L, Shang L, Wang G, Wei N, Chu T, et al. Ecdysterones from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin reduce hippocampal excitotoxic cell loss and upregulate mTOR signaling in rats. Fitoterapia. 2017;119:158-167 pubmed publisher
    ..Ecdysterone treatment also prevented glutamate-induced rat hippocampal cell loss. In summary, RCI-derived ecdysterones appear to prevent glutamatergic excitotoxicity by increasing mTOR/Akt/PI3K signaling activity. ..
  8. Erenler R, Sen O, Yaglioglu A, Demirtas I. Bioactivity-Guided Isolation of Antiproliferative Sesquiterpene Lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2016;19:66-72 pubmed
    ..IC50 and IC75 values of compound 1 were obtained as 10.78 and 53.65 against C6 cell and as 48.78 and 68.52 against HeLa, respectively. IC50 and IC75 values of compound 2 were determined as 432.43 and 109.79 against C6 cell. ..
  9. Skała E, Sitarek P, Toma M, Szemraj J, Radek M, Nieborowska Skorska M, et al. Inhibition of human glioma cell proliferation by altered Bax/Bcl-2-p53 expression and apoptosis induction by Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts from transformed and normal roots. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2016;68:1454-1464 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study may offer a new insight into the potential anticancer activity of R. carthamoides root extracts. ..

More Information


  1. Dietz B, Hajirahimkhan A, Dunlap T, Bolton J. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health. Pharmacol Rev. 2016;68:1026-1073 pubmed
    ..Understanding the mechanism of action of these supplements used for women's health will ultimately lead to standardized botanical products with higher efficacy, safety, and chemopreventive properties. ..
  2. Wu N, Lei T, Li H, Wu Q, Tang L. [Effects of Rhaponticum uniflorum on activity and mRNA expression of CYP3A1 in rats hepatocytes]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2007;30:1403-6 pubmed
    ..4%, 44.2% and 65.4% respectively, while those of the inhibitory effect to mRNA level were 29.4%, 49.8% and 56.0%. Rhaponticum uniflorum inhibits the enzymic activity of CYP3A1 and lowers CYP3A1 expression at the transcriptive levels. ..
  3. Kormosh N, Laktionov K, Antoshechkina M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res. 2006;20:424-5 pubmed
    ..The preparation is a combination of dried ethanol/water extracts from roots of Leuzea carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus and fruits of Schizandra chinensis...
  4. Li F, Yang G, Xian F, Liu H. [Effects of Rhaponticum uniforum polysaccharide on immune response of mice after antigen stimulation and their possible mechanisms]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:433-5 pubmed
    ..uniforum polysaccharide were all significantly higher than those in control groups (P <0.05). R. uniforum polysaccharide could enhance the immune function in normal mice. ..
  5. Maslov L, Guzarova N. [Cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic properties of preparations from Leuzea carthamoides, Aralia mandshurica, and Eleutherococcus senticosus]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2007;70:48-54 pubmed
    It is established that pretreatment with Leuzea carthamoides extract (LCE) (1 ml/kg per os during 8 days) prevents the development of stress-induced (6-hr painful-emotional stress) damage of the rat heart...
  6. Maslov L, Lishmanov Y, Arbuzov A, Krylatov A, Budankova E, Konkovskaya Y, et al. Antiarrhythmic activity of phytoadaptogens in short-term ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147:331-4 pubmed
    ..Extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Leuzea carthamoides, and Panax ginseng did not change the incidence of ischemic and reperfusion arrhythmias...
  7. Nosáĺ R, Perečko T, Jančinová V, Drábiková K, Harmatha J, Sviteková K. Naturally appearing N-feruloylserotonin isomers suppress oxidative burst of human neutrophils at the protein kinase C level. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:790-8 pubmed
    N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT) isomers, isolated from seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (Wild) DC, inhibited dose-dependent oxidative burst in human whole blood and isolated neutrophils in vitro, which were measured by luminol- and/or ..
  8. Koleckar V, Opletal L, Brojerova E, Rehakova Z, Cervenka F, Kubikova K, et al. Evaluation of natural antioxidants of Leuzea carthamoides as a result of a screening study of 88 plant extracts from the European Asteraceae and Cichoriaceae. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008;23:218-24 pubmed
    ..29 extracts exhibited IC(50) value lower than 0.1 mg/mL. The leaves of Leuzea carthamoides (IC(50) = 0...
  9. Boussaada O, Ammar S, Saidana D, Chriaa J, Chraif I, Daami M, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile components from capitula and aerial parts of Rhaponticum acaule DC growing wild in Tunisia. Microbiol Res. 2008;163:87-95 pubmed
    ..It was found that oils from both parts of R. acaule, and especially that of C, exhibited interesting antibacterial activity, but no antifungal activity was observed. ..
  10. Yamamotova A, Pometlova M, Harmatha J, Raskova H, Rokyta R. The selective effect of N-feruloylserotonins isolated from Leuzea carthamoides on nociception and anxiety in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:368-74 pubmed
    The effects of N-feruloylserotonins, substances isolated from the seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (WILLD.) DC., on nociception and anxiety were studied in Wistar rats...
  11. Liu W, Wang Y, Xu R. [Egg cluster pattern of two coexisting melitaeine butterfly species and oviposition site selection of their adult females]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:1254-8 pubmed
    ..43 +/- 1.53 m (n = 25). It was suggested that the criteria to evaluate the patch quality and the conservation strategies for the two butterfly species should be different, due to their special habitat requirements of ovipositing females. ..
  12. He X, Liu C, Yin J, Jin A, Yin X, Quan J. [Rhaponticum uniflorum inhibits H2O2-induced apoptosis of liver cells via JNK and NF-?B pathways]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017;42:1189-1193 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that R. unifloru had the inhibitory effect on apoptosis induced by H2O2in HepG2 cells, and the mechanism maybe associated with inhibiting JNK activation and NF-?B nuclear translocation...
  13. Ivanov S, Bespalov V, Semenov A, Kovan ko E, Aleksandrov V. Toxicogenomic Effects in Rat Blood Leukocytes and Chemoprophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016;160:705-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to ionizing ?-radiation in a dose of 4 Gy and chemoprophylaxis with ?-difluoromethylornithine, eleutherococcus or leuzea extracts, which were used in animals with morphological manifestations of tumor growth under conditions of ..
  14. Antoshechkin A, Olalde J, Antoshechkina M, Briuzgin V, Platinskiy L. Influence of the plant extract complex "AdMax" on global gene expression levels in cultured human fibroblasts. J Diet Suppl. 2008;5:293-304 pubmed publisher
    Ethanol/water extracts from roots of Leuzea carthamoides Iljin, Rhodiola rosea L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, and from dry berries of Schizandra chinensis Baill...
  15. Plotnikov M, Aliev O, Vasil ev A, Andreeva V, Krasnov E, Kalinkina G. Effect of Rhaponticum carthamoides extract on structural and metabolic parameters of erythrocytes in rats with cerebral ischemia. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:45-8 pubmed
    ..Morphological characteristics of erythrocytes returned to normal, which manifested in an increase in the number of discocytes and decrease in the count of degenerated cells. ..
  16. Bruckart W, Eskandari F, Berner D, Aime M. Life cycle of Puccinia acroptili on Rhaponticum (= Acroptilon) repens. Mycologia. 2010;102:62-8 pubmed
    ..The ontology of these sori is unknown. This is the first description of spermogonia and the first report and description of basidiospores, aecia, aeciospores, amphispores and mesospores of P. acroptili. ..
  17. Ding J, Liao Z, Wang L, Yang X. [Study on determination of trace cadmium in Chinese medicine loulu by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001;21:552-4 pubmed
    ..The recovery was between 97% and 105%. The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can eliminate the matrix effect. It has been applied to the direct determination of trace cadmium in chinese medicine Loulu with satisfactory results. ..
  18. Havlik J, Budesinsky M, Kloucek P, Kokoska L, Valterova I, Vasickova S, et al. Norsesquiterpene hydrocarbon, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides root essential oil. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:414-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against 5 of 9 strains of bacteria and yeast, when tested using broth micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged between 32 and 256 microg/ml. ..
  19. Chen H, Wang C, Qi M, Ge L, Tian Z, Li J, et al. Anti-tumor Effect of Rhaponticum uniflorum Ethyl Acetate Extract by Regulation of Peroxiredoxin1 and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:870 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Conclusion: RUEA extracts inhibited tumor growth and invasion by reducing Prx1 expression and suppressing the EMT process in OSCC. RUEA extracts may be a potential candidate for OSCC treatment...
  20. Li F, Xu H, Yan X, Li M, Liu H. [Monosaccharide composition analysis and its content determination of polysaccharides from Rhaponticum uniforum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:1284-6 pubmed
    ..HPAEC-PAD can be used to analyze the monosaccharide composition in the polysaccharide with high precision, and the method of phenol-sulfuric acid is simple, convenient and reliable. ..
  21. Sovová H, Opletal L, Sajfrtová M, Bártlová M. Supercritical fluid extraction of cynaropicrin and 20-hydroxyecdysone from Leuzea carthamoides DC. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:1387-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Leuzea carthamoides is an adaptogenic plant containing biologically active compounds as ecdysteroids and guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, conventionally extracted from the plant with ethanol...
  22. Skała E, Kowalczyk T, Toma M, Szemraj J, Radek M, Pytel D, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human glioma cell lines of various grades through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation by Rhaponticum carthamoides transformed root extract. Mol Cell Biochem. 2018;445:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the TR extract possesses anticancer activity by inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and inducing apoptotic cell death, and may be used as a promising anticancer agent. ..
  23. Plotnikov M, Logvinov S, Pugachenko N, Maslov M, Aliev O, Vasil ev A, et al. [Cerebroprotector activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides extract in rats with brain ischemia]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2005;68:19-23 pubmed
    ..Iljin. in a daily dose of 150 mg/kg (p.o.) equivalent to 2.7 mg ecdysterone per kg body weight reduced manifestations of the ischemic damage, improved the structure of neurons, and restored brain activity (EEG parameters). ..
  24. Mosbah H, Chahdoura H, Kammoun J, Hlila M, Louati H, Hammami S, et al. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:79 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed that the RaEO is a new promising potential source of antioxidant compounds, endowed with good practical applications for human health. ..
  25. Jurkstiene V, Pavilonis A, Garšvienė D, Juozulynas A, Samsoniene L, Daukšienė D, et al. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.). Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:174-9 pubmed
  26. Elliott C, McCowan C. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses grazing Rhaponticum repens (creeping knapweed). Aust Vet J. 2012;90:151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first documented case of nigropallidal encephalomalacia in Australian horses associated with R. repens. ..
  27. Biskup E, Gołębiowski M, Gniadecki R, Stepnowski P, Łojkowska E. Triterpenoid ?-amyrin stimulates proliferation of human keratinocytes but does not protect them against UVB damage. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59:255-60 pubmed
    ..Amyrin did not protect HaCaT cells against the damage caused by UVB radiation. ..
  28. Skała E, Sitarek P, Rozalski M, Krajewska U, Szemraj J, Wysokinska H, et al. Antioxidant and DNA Repair Stimulating Effect of Extracts from Transformed and Normal Roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides against Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in CHO Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:5753139 pubmed publisher
    ..R. carthamoides may possess antioxidant properties that protect CHO cells against oxidative stress. ..
  29. Zhang Y, Zhang J, Xie J, Chen G, Cheng D. [Triterpenes from root of Rhaponticum uniflorum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1833-6 pubmed
    ..Compounds 1 approximately 5 were isolated from the genus Rhaponticum for the first time. ..
  30. Kokoska L, Janovska D. Chemistry and pharmacology of Rhaponticum carthamoides: a review. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:842-55 pubmed publisher
    Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin is a perennial herb, commonly known as a maral root or Russian leuzea, which has been used for centuries in eastern parts of Russia for its marked medicinal properties...
  31. Gaube F, Wolfl S, Pusch L, Werner U, Kroll T, Schrenk D, et al. Effects of Leuzea carthamoides on human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells determined by gene expression profiling and functional assays. Planta Med. 2008;74:1701-8 pubmed publisher
    Products derived from roots of Leuzea carthamoides (Maral root) are being promoted as dietary supplements with anti-aging, adaptogenic and anabolic activity, without much scientific evidence...
  32. Stodulka P, Koleckar V, Jun D, Kuca K, Rehakova Z, Kubikova K, et al. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of four Leuzea carthamoides flavonoids. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:162-4 pubmed
    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of four Leuzea carthamoides flavonoids, namely eriodictyol, patuletin, eriodictyol-7-beta-glucopyranoside, and 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-(6"-O-..
  33. Miliauskas G, van Beek T, de Waard P, Venskutonis R, Sudhölter E. Identification of radical scavenging compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoides by means of LC-DAD-SPE-NMR. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:168-72 pubmed
    ..Compound 5 is a new natural compound. Its radical scavenging activity was tested against DPPH radical and was found to be weaker than that of the reference antioxidants rosmarinic acid and Trolox. ..