chrysanthemum cinerariifolium


Summary: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.

Top Publications

  1. Ramirez A, Stoopen G, Menzel T, Gols R, Bouwmeester H, Dicke M, et al. Bidirectional secretions from glandular trichomes of pyrethrum enable immunization of seedlings. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4252-65 pubmed publisher
  2. Osimitz T, Franzosa J, Maciver D, Maibach H. Pyrethrum allergic contact dermatitis in humans--real?, common?, or not documented? An evidence-based approach. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2006;25:287-308 pubmed
    ..Changes in the chemical composition of the refined pyrethrins suggest the putative sensitizer is present at a lower level in today's refined extracts than in ground pyrethrum flowers or the extracts used earlier. ..
  3. Mbaria J, Maitho T, Mitema E, Muchiri D. Comparative efficacy of pyrethrum marc with albendazole against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1998;30:17-22 pubmed
    ..9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum mare-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p < 0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed. ..
  4. Axelrad J, Howard C, McLean W. Interactions between pesticides and components of pesticide formulations in an in vitro neurotoxicity test. Toxicology. 2002;173:259-68 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that exposure to multiple OP-containing pesticide formulations may lead to synergistic neurotoxicity by a direct mechanism at the cellular level. ..
  5. Schubert H, Prater E, Diener C. [Pollinosis in chrysanthemum growers]. Z Gesamte Hyg. 1990;36:162-3 pubmed
    ..It was possible to continue cultivating work in all cases because of several protective measures and hyposensitization. ..
  6. Devine G, Barber M, Denholm I. Incidence and inheritance of resistance to METI-acaricides in European strains of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:443-8 pubmed
    ..These are the first published incidences of METI-acaricide resistance in Europe and implications for the future use of these compounds are discussed. ..
  7. Khallouki F, Hmamouchi M, Younos C, Soulimani R, Essassi E. A new flavonoid from the aerial parts of Chrysanthemum viscidehirtum. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:413-6 pubmed
    ..From the aerial parts of Chrysanthemum viscidehirtum, a new flavonoid, 2"-glucosyl-8-C-glucosyl-4'-O-methylapigenin (1) was isolated. ..
  8. Chen H, Chen J, Zhang G, Zhang S. [A preliminary study on benthyloid wasp control for chrysanthemum stem borer]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993;18:716-7, 762 pubmed
    ..The Chrysanthemum stem borer was parasitized by Benthyloid wasp. In the lab, the parasitic rate is 83.9%, and in the fields, 57.2%. The best ratio for the released Bethyloid wasp and the host is two to one. ..
  9. Harikrishnan R, Heo J, Balasundaram C, Kim M, Kim J, Han Y, et al. Effect of traditional Korean medicinal (TKM) triherbal extract on the innate immune system and disease resistance in Paralichthys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) TKM solvent extracts clearly enhanced the innate immune responses and disease resistance in P. olivaceus against U. marinum. ..

More Information


  1. Ueda A, Aoyama K, Manda F, Ueda T, Kawahara Y. Delayed-type allergenicity of triforine (Saprol). Contact Dermatitis. 1994;31:140-5 pubmed
    ..Cross-sensitization between triforine and dichlorvos was also shown. The present results confirm that triforine is capable of including delayed-type allergy among chrysanthemum growers and of showing cross-reactivity with dichlorvos. ..
  2. Salehzadeh A, Jabbar A, Jennens L, Ley S, Annadurai R, Adams R, et al. The effects of phytochemical pesticides on the growth of cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:268-76 pubmed
    ..The major neem seed terpenoids, nimbin and salannin, for example, inhibited insect cell growth by 23% and 15%, respectively. ..
  3. Pethybridge S, Gent D, Hay F. Epidemics of ray blight on pyrethrum are linked to seed contamination and overwintering inoculum of Phoma ligulicola var. inoxydabilis. Phytopathology. 2011;101:1112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the analyses point to several critical stages in the disease cycle that can be targeted to minimize the probability of regional epidemics of ray blight in this perennial pathosystem. ..
  4. Danés I, Enrique R. [Efficacy of pediculicidal drugs in pediculosis capitis]. Med Clin (Barc). 2005;124:512-4 pubmed
  5. Nishigawa H, Miyata S, Oshima K, Sawayanagi T, Komoto A, Kuboyama T, et al. In planta expression of a protein encoded by the extrachromosomal DNA of a phytoplasma and related to geminivirus replication proteins. Microbiology. 2001;147:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..EcOYW1 is the first phytoplasmal extrachromosomal DNA shown to express encoded genes...
  6. Casida J. Michael Elliott's billion dollar crystals and other discoveries in insecticide chemistry. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:1163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This review considers Michael's seminal discoveries in insecticide chemistry, with emphasis on his Berkeley years. ..
  7. Ramirez A, Yang T, Bouwmeester H, Jongsma M. A trichome-specific linoleate lipoxygenase expressed during pyrethrin biosynthesis in pyrethrum. Lipids. 2013;48:1005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that the enzyme shared the highest homology with chloroplast-localized 13-type-lipoxygenases that are involved in maintaining basal levels of jasmonate. ..
  8. Kurtak D, Jamnback H, Meyer R, Ocran M, Renaud P. Evaluation of larvicides for the control of Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in West Africa. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1987;3:201-10 pubmed
    ..These chemicals with differing modes of action, together with Bacillus thuringiensis H-14, are being used in an attempt to cope with the development and spread of resistance to the organophosphates temephos and chlorphoxim. ..
  9. Takahashi K, Matsuda M, Ohashi K, Taniguchi K, Nakagomi O, Abe Y, et al. Analysis of anti-rotavirus activity of extract from Stevia rebaudiana. Antiviral Res. 2001;49:15-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that SE may bind to 37 kD VP7 and interfere with the binding of VP7 to the cellular receptors by steric hindrance, which results in the blockade of the virus attachment to cells. ..
  10. Ramirez A, Saillard N, Yang T, Franssen M, Bouwmeester H, Jongsma M. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65030 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity and distribution of sesquiterpene lactones in different tissues and the correlation with the expression of these genes are shown and discussed. ..
  11. Dharni S, Alam M, Kalani K, Abdul Khaliq -, Samad A, SRIVASTAVA S, et al. Production, purification, and characterization of antifungal metabolite from Pseudomonas aeruginosa SD12, a new strain obtained from tannery waste polluted soil. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:674-83 pubmed
    ..The purified compound, 1-hydroxyphenazine, also showed broad-spectrum antagonistic activity towards a range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is the first report of its kind. ..
  12. Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Gullino M. Susceptibility of chrysanthemum and Paris daisy varieties to several isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2009;74:651-7 pubmed
  13. Katsuda Y. Progress and future of pyrethroids. Top Curr Chem. 2012;314:1-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It is strongly hoped that the development of household pyrethroids and their preparations for use in living environments around humans and pets will be achieved in the future by retaining the characteristics of natural pyrethrins. ..
  14. Dempster T, Kristiansen T, Korsøen Ø, Fosseidengen J, Oppedal F. Technical note: Modifying Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) jumping behavior to facilitate innovation of parasitic sea lice control techniques. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:4281-5 pubmed publisher
  15. Atkinson B, Blackman A, Faber H. The degradation of the natural pyrethrins in crop storage. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:280-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the plant structure may provide chemical or physical protection to the pyrethrins. In all cases, the majority of the loss was attributed to the pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II esters. ..
  16. Ogawa Y, Mii M. Ti- and cryptic-plasmid-borne virulence of wild-type Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CNI5 isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev). Arch Microbiol. 2001;176:315-22 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that the gene(s) related to tumor formation of strain CNI5 may exist not only on pTiCNI5 but also on cryptic plasmids pAtCNI5c and pAtCNI5d. ..
  17. Nijsse J, van der Heijden G, Van Ieperen W, Keijzer C, Van Meeteren U. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:319-27 pubmed
    ..The resistance calculated from conduit lumen characteristics was 70% of the measured resistance. The remaining unexplained part of the hydraulic resistance is at least partly caused by inter-conduit connections. ..
  18. Grdiša M, Babić S, Perisa M, Carović Stanko K, Kolak I, Liber Z, et al. Chemical diversity of the natural populations of Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium (TREVIR.) SCH.BIP.) in Croatia. Chem Biodivers. 2013;10:460-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemical characterization of indigenous Dalmatian pyrethrum populations may serve as a good background for future breeding and agricultural exploitation. ..
  19. Nakata K, Harada N, Sumitomo K, Yoneda K. Enhancement of plant stem growth by flocculation of the antibiotic-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens S272, on the roots. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000;64:459-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that polysaccharide-enhanced adhesion of P. fluorescens S272 cells might be useful for promoting plant growth through the increased antibiotic effect. ..
  20. Wellde B, Waema D, Chumo D, Reardon M, Oloo F, Njogu A, et al. Review of tsetse control measures taken in the Lambwe Valley in 1980-1984. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83 Suppl 1:119-25 pubmed
    ..A subsequent ground control programme using insecticides (dieldrin and cypermethrin) and bush clearing, conducted primarily within the National Park, has subsequently limited the prevalence of sleeping sickness to low levels. ..
  21. Musetti R, Loi N, Carraro L, Ermacora P. Application of immunoelectron microscopy techniques in the diagnosis of phytoplasma diseases. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;56:462-4 pubmed
    ..The monoclonal antibodies demonstrated their specificity against the antigen; immunocytological methods permitted the precise localization and identification of phytoplasmas in thin sections from infected tissues. ..
  22. Yang T, Stoopen G, Wiegers G, Mao J, Wang C, Dicke M, et al. Pyrethrins protect pyrethrum leaves against attack by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1% pyrethrins, and no eggs were found in leaves containing 1% pyrethrins. Our results suggest that the natural concentrations of pyrethrins in the leaves may be responsible for the observed high mortality of WFT on pyrethrum. ..
  23. Cappiello A, Tirillini B, Famiglini G, Trufelli H, Termopoli V, Flender C. Determination of natural pyrethrins by liquid chromatography-electron ionisation-mass spectrometry. Phytochem Anal. 2012;23:191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..9740-0.9983) and precision (RSD% range: 4-13%) for the quantitation of the natural pyrethrins in extracts from C. cinerariaefolium L. The nanoLC-direct EI-MS technique can be a useful tool for the detection of pyrethrins. ..
  24. Mertelík J, Mokrá V. Tomato spotted wilt virus in ornamental plants, vegetables and weeds in the Czech Republic. Acta Virol. 1998;42:347-51 pubmed
    ..Among weeds, the TSWV infection occurred very often in Stellaria media and Galinsoga parviflora. These two plant species were prevalent in glasshouses and were also good hosts of F. occidentalis...
  25. Peusens G, Beliën T. Life cycle and control of the forest bug Pentatoma rufipes L. in organically managed pear orchards. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2012;77:663-6 pubmed
    ..3%. Damage to the crop was the lowest (4.5%) when spinosad was applied twice but no statistical difference with both other applications was found. ..
  26. Mitcell J. Compositae and Frullania phytodermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1987;134:69-76 pubmed
    ..Allergic contact dermatitis from Compositae continues to attract world-wide attention owing to spread of noxious weeds in India, Europe, Japan and Australia. ..
  27. Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C, Kim M, Kim J, Han Y, Heo M. Effect of a mixed herb-enriched diet on the innate immune response and disease resistance of Paralichthys olivaceus against Philasterides dicentrarchi infection. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports that administration of 50 or 100 mg/kg mixed herbal-enriched diet could positively influence the innate immune response to P. dicentrarchi and enhance the health status of olive flounder with respect to this microbe. ..
  28. Ono H, Tesaki S, Tanabe S, Watanabe M. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate and its homologues as food-originated compounds with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62:363-5 pubmed
    ..Instrumental analysis identified the compound as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate. Some homologues of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate were also active against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus...
  29. Oldenburg M, Baur X. Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2008;63:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places. ..
  30. Xu H, Moghe G, Wiegert Rininger K, Schilmiller A, Barry C, Last R, et al. Coexpression Analysis Identifies Two Oxidoreductases Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Monoterpene Acid Moiety of Natural Pyrethrin Insecticides in Tanacetum cinerariifolium. Plant Physiol. 2018;176:524-537 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data identify key steps in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins and demonstrate the feasibility of metabolic engineering to produce components of these defense compounds in a heterologous host. ..
  31. Yang A, Liu X, Lu R, Shi Y. Triterpenoids from pyrethrum tatsienense. Pharmazie. 2006;61:70-3 pubmed
  32. Green P, Simmonds M, Blaney W, Khambay B. Effects of plant-derived compounds on larvae of a blow fly species that causes secondary myiases: laboratory studies. Phytother Res. 2004;18:538-41 pubmed
    ..The deterrent effect of azadirachtin, pyrethrum and the naphthoquinone BTG 505 together with their larvicidal activity, could be utilized in prophylaxis against myiasis infections due to larvae of Phormia regina. ..
  33. Franzosa J, Osimitz T, Maibach H. Cutaneous contact urticaria to pyrethrum-real?, common?, or not documented?: an evidence-based approach. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2007;26:57-72 pubmed
    Reports suggest that pyrethrum, the insecticidally active extract from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, can induce Type I hypersensitivity reactions in humans...
  34. Marongiu B, Piras A, Porcedda S, Tuveri E, Laconi S, Deidda D, et al. Chemical and biological comparisons on supercritical extracts of Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir) Sch. Bip. with three related species of chrysanthemums of Sardinia (Italy). Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sch. Bip. [=Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Vis.], a commercial species rich in pyrethrins...
  35. Sakamori K, Ono N, Ihara M, Suzuki H, Matsuura H, Tanaka K, et al. Selective regulation of pyrethrin biosynthesis by the specific blend of wound induced volatiles in Tanacetum cinerariifolium. Plant Signal Behav. 2016;11:e1149675 pubmed publisher
  36. Li G, Wang X, Liu F, Dang L, Li L, Yang Z, et al. The chemical constituents of endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. MFF-1. Chem Biodivers. 2010;7:1790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity. Compound 3 showed activity against Candida albicans and Bacillus cereus. ..
  37. Klunker R. [The appearance of insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica in the German Democratic Republic]. Angew Parasitol. 1990;31:79-93 pubmed
  38. Duineveld B, Kowalchuk G, Keijzer A, van Elsas J, van Veen J. Analysis of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of chrysanthemum via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA as well as DNA fragments coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:172-8 pubmed
    ..Comparison of rRNA-derived bacterial profiles showed no grouping of root tip samples versus root base samples. Rather, all profiles derived from 2-week-old plant rhizosphere soils grouped together regardless of location along the root. ..
  39. Matsuda K, Kikuta Y, Haba A, Nakayama K, Katsuda Y, Hatanaka A, et al. Biosynthesis of pyrethrin I in seedlings of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:1529-35 pubmed
  40. Isman M. Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol. 2006;51:45-66 pubmed
  41. Van Ieperen W, Van Meeteren U, van Gelder H. Fluid ionic composition influences hydraulic conductance of xylem conduits. J Exp Bot. 2000;51:769-76 pubmed
    ..The phenomenon is not caused by the vessel-to-vessel pit membranes, which in fact suppressed the effect, due to their large contribution to the overall resistance to water flow. ..
  42. Leng G, Gries W, Selim S. Biomarker of pyrethrum exposure. Toxicol Lett. 2006;162:195-201 pubmed
    ..3mg pyrethrin I. CDCA was detected during the first 36 h after intake with elimination being most rapid during the first 4h (mean elimination half-life: 4.2h). ..
  43. Antonious G, Snyder J, Patel G. Pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide residues on potato leaves and in soil under field conditions. J Environ Sci Health B. 2001;36:261-71 pubmed
    ..The first spray resulted in mean initial deposits of 0.18, 0.40, and 0.99 microg.g(-1) potato leaves for Py-I, Py-II, and PBO, respectively. Residues in soil were higher in compost treatments compared to no mulch treatments. ..
  44. Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Murakami T, Toguchida I, Harima S, Matsuda H. Medicinal flowers. I. Aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols A, B, and C, from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1999;47:340-5 pubmed
    ..The structures of kikkanols A, B, and C were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included application of the modified Mosher's method. ..
  45. Hernández Moreno D, Soffers A, Wiratno -, Falke H, Rietjens I, Murk A. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;56:483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing ?-asarone...
  46. Mzilahowa T, McCall P, Hastings I. "Sexual" population structure and genetics of the malaria agent P. falciparum. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e613 pubmed
    ..falciparum to be a sexual organism whose genomes are in linkage equilibrium, which acts to slow the emergence of drug resistance and vaccine insensitivity, extending the likely useful therapeutic lifespan of drugs and vaccines. ..
  47. Krief A, Jeanmart S, Kremer A. Inspired by flowers: synthetic routes to scalemic deltamethrinic acid. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:2555-75 pubmed publisher a synthetic compound whose structure is inspired from those present in the flower head of the plant Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. Its ester 'deltamethrin' exhibits an extremely high insecticidal activity (DDTx35...
  48. Muller P. [Insecticide resistance in the Musca domestica populations of the GDR 1976-1988]. Angew Parasitol. 1989;30:145-54 pubmed
    ..Intensified research on non-chemical or special chemical methods is urgently needed. ..
  49. Barr D, Leng G, Berger Preiss E, Hoppe H, Weerasekera G, Gries W, et al. Cross validation of multiple methods for measuring pyrethroid and pyrethrum insecticide metabolites in human urine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389:811-8 pubmed
  50. Kikuta Y, Yamada G, Mitsumori T, Takeuchi T, Nakayama K, Katsuda Y, et al. Requirement of catalytic-triad and related amino acids for the acyltransferase activity of Tanacetum cinerariifolium GDSL lipase/esterase TcGLIP for ester-bond formation in pyrethrin biosynthesis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:1822-5 pubmed
    ..Mutations of these amino acids markedly reduced the acyltransferase activity, suggesting their critical role in the production of pyrethrins. ..
  51. Vaudequin Dransart V, Petit A, Poncet C, Ponsonnet C, Nesme X, Jones J, et al. Novel Ti plasmids in Agrobacterium strains isolated from fig tree and chrysanthemum tumors and their opinelike molecules. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1995;8:311-21 pubmed
    ..These results have strong ecological and evolutionary inferences which fit previous speculation on the origin of opine-related functions. ..
  52. Kiriamiti H, Camy S, Gourdon C, Condoret J. Supercritical carbon dioxide processing of pyrethrum oleoresin and pale. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:880-4 pubmed
    ..Extraction of both PBK pale and CHE in two steps with different operating conditions improved their purity. ..
  53. Wang H, Ye X, Ng T. Purification of chrysancorin, a novel antifungal protein with mitogenic activity from garland chrysanthemum seeds. Biol Chem. 2001;382:947-51 pubmed
    ..However, we could not detect antibacterial activity against a variety of bacteria. ..