chicory

Summary

Summary: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Kisiel W. Sesquiterpene lactones in a hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus. Z Naturforsch C. 2002;57:994-7 pubmed
    ..The yield of 8-desoxylactucin reached 0.03 g l(-1) at the early stationary phase of the culture. ..
  2. Petrovic J, Stanojkovic A, Comic L, Curcic S. Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:737-9 pubmed
    ..All the tested extracts showed antibacterial activity, the ethyl acetate extract being the most active. Water extract inhibits Agrobacterium radiobacter sp. tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. ..
  3. Van den Ende W, Michiels A, De Roover J, Van Laere A. Fructan biosynthetic and breakdown enzymes in dicots evolved from different invertases. Expression of fructan genes throughout chicory development. ScientificWorldJournal. 2002;2:1281-95 pubmed
    ..progress has now succeeded in elucidating the biochemistry and molecular biology of fructan biodegradation in chicory, an economically important species used for commercial inulin extraction...
  4. Innocenti M, Gallori S, Giaccherini C, Ieri F, Vincieri F, Mulinacci N. Evaluation of the phenolic content in the aerial parts of different varieties of Cichorium intybus L. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:6497-502 pubmed
    Fresh aerial parts of different chicory varieties: green chicory (c.v...
  5. Llorach R, Tomas Barberan F, Ferreres F. Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:5109-16 pubmed
    ..Methanol extraction yielded a raw extract with a high phenolic content, the baby and chicory extracts being the richest with approximately 50 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract...
  6. Le Roy K, Verhaest M, Rabijns A, Clerens S, Van Laere A, Van den Ende W. N-glycosylation affects substrate specificity of chicory fructan 1-exohydrolase: evidence for the presence of an inulin binding cleft. New Phytol. 2007;176:317-24 pubmed
    Recently, the three-dimensional structure of chicory (Cichorium intybus) fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH IIa) in complex with its preferential substrate, 1-kestose, was determined...
  7. D Amico M, Frisullo S, Cirulli M. Endophytic fungi occurring in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery--commercial crops in southern Italy. Mycol Res. 2008;112:100-7 pubmed publisher
    The occurrence of endophytic fungi in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery crops was investigated in southern Italy. A total of 186 symptomless plants was randomly collected and sampled at the stage of commercial ripeness...
  8. Le Roy K, Lammens W, Van Laere A, Van den Ende W. Influencing the binding configuration of sucrose in the active sites of chicory fructan 1-exohydrolase and sugar beet fructan 6-exohydrolase. New Phytol. 2008;178:572-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It is demonstrated for the first time that invertase activity can be introduced in an S101L mutant of chicory (Cichorium intybus) 1-FEH IIa by influencing the orientation of Trp 82...
  9. Marley C, Cook R, Keatinge R, Barrett J, Lampkin N. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites. Vet Parasitol. 2003;112:147-55 pubmed
    ..it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Legrand S, Hendriks T, Hilbert J, Quillet M. Characterization of expressed sequence tags obtained by SSH during somatic embryogenesis in Cichorium intybus L. BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:27 pubmed
    ..In chicory, genetic variability with respect to the formation of somatic embryos was detected between plants from a ..
  2. Cankar K, van Houwelingen A, Bosch D, Sonke T, Bouwmeester H, Beekwilder J. A chicory cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase CYP71AV8 for the oxidation of (+)-valencene. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:178-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), which is known to have a variety of terpene-hydroxylating activities, was screened for a P450 mono-oxygenase to convert (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone...
  3. Lante A, Nardi T, Zocca F, Giacomini A, Corich V. Evaluation of red chicory extract as a natural antioxidant by pure lipid oxidation and yeast oxidative stress response as model systems. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these vegetal crops, red chicory is attractive because of the large quantity of its byproducts (residues as leaves and stems); moreover, there is ..
  4. Foster J, Clapham W, Belesky D, Labreveux M, Hall M, Sanderson M. Influence of cultivation site on sesquiterpene lactone composition of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:1772-8 pubmed
    The forage potential of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has not been realized in southern West Virginia (WV) because ruminants are reluctant to consume the herbage...
  5. Mares D, Romagnoli C, Tosi B, Andreotti E, Chillemi G, Poli F. Chicory extracts from Cichorium intybus L. as potential antifungals. Mycopathologia. 2005;160:85-91 pubmed
    ..This behaviour is discussed on the basis of the presence in the chicory extract of the two main sesquiterpene lactones, 8-deoxylactucin and 11 beta,13-dihydrolactucin.
  6. Carazzone C, Mascherpa D, Gazzani G, Papetti A. Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2013;138:1062-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study reporting the glycosylation type and position of mono- and diglycosylated flavonoids in red salads. ..
  7. Lucau Danila A, Laborde L, Legrand S, Huot L, Hot D, Lemoine Y, et al. Identification of novel genes potentially involved in somatic embryogenesis in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:122 pubmed publisher
    In our laboratory we use cultured chicory (Cichorium intybus) explants as a model to investigate cell reactivation and somatic embryogenesis and have produced 2 chicory genotypes (K59, C15) sharing a similar genetic background...
  8. Heimler D, Isolani L, Vignolini P, Tombelli S, Romani A. Polyphenol content and antioxidative activity in some species of freshly consumed salads. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1724-9 pubmed
    ..intybus genotype exhibited the highest antiradical activity. In every case, the characteristics of the different salads as functional foods have been pointed out. ..
  9. Schmidt B, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1131-9 pubmed
    ..sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation...
  10. de Kraker J, Franssen M, Joerink M, de Groot A, Bouwmeester H. Biosynthesis of costunolide, dihydrocostunolide, and leucodin. Demonstration of cytochrome p450-catalyzed formation of the lactone ring present in sesquiterpene lactones of chicory. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:257-68 pubmed
    b>Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is known to contain guaianolides, eudesmanolides, and germacranolides. These sesquiterpene lactones are postulated to originate from a common germacranolide, namely (+)-costunolide...
  11. Demigne C, Jacobs H, Moundras C, Davicco M, Horcajada M, Bernalier A, et al. Comparison of native or reformulated chicory fructans, or non-purified chicory, on rat cecal fermentation and mineral metabolism. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47:366-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Chicory inulin has been identified as an effective prebiotic to promote active fermentation and lactobacilli proliferation in the large intestine, and to enhance calcium (Ca) digestive absorption and deposition in bones...
  12. Slavin J, Feirtag J. Chicory inulin does not increase stool weight or speed up intestinal transit time in healthy male subjects. Food Funct. 2011;2:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of a 20 g day(-1) supplement of chicory inulin on stool weight, intestinal transit time, stool frequency and consistency, selected intestinal ..
  13. Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Kisiel W. Long-term cultured hairy roots of chicory-a rich source of hydroxycinnamates and 8-deoxylactucin glucoside. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;171:1589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..a callus culture of the plant as well as roots and leaves of a wild plant of chicory, and roots of two C. intybus L. var...
  14. Monti A, Amaducci M, Pritoni G, Venturi G. Growth, fructan yield, and quality of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) as related to photosynthetic capacity, harvest time, and water regime. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:1389-95 pubmed
    ..At present, fructans are mostly supplied by chicory, which is only grown and processed in The Netherlands, France, and Belgium...
  15. Druart N, De Roover J, Van den Ende W, Goupil P, Van Laere A, Rambour S. Sucrose assimilation during early developmental stages of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plants. Planta. 2001;212:436-43 pubmed
    The activities of enzymes of both sucrose and fructan metabolism were measured in chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Turbo) plants during early vegetative growth...
  16. Papetti A, Daglia M, Gazzani G. Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble compounds in Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (Treviso red chicory). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;30:939-45 pubmed
    ..silvestre was investigated. This vegetable is domestically known as Treviso red chicory recalling its cultivation in the area of Treviso (Italy)...
  17. Plocik A, Layden J, Kesseli R. Comparative analysis of NBS domain sequences of NBS-LRR disease resistance genes from sunflower, lettuce, and chicory. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;31:153-63 pubmed
    ..from the family Asteraceae: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and Cichorium intybus (chicory)...
  18. Cavin C, Delannoy M, Malnoe A, Debefve E, Touché A, Courtois D, et al. Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 by chicory extract. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:742-9 pubmed
    b>Chicory is a major source of fructans with reported prebiotic-bifidogenic properties. In the present study, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of chicory were investigated...
  19. Hassan H, Yousef M. Ameliorating effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-supplemented diet against nitrosamine precursors-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2163-9 pubmed publisher
    The current study was carried out to elucidate the modulating effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-supplemented diet against nitrosamnine-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats...
  20. Verhaest M, Lammens W, Le Roy K, De Ranter C, Van Laere A, Rabijns A, et al. Insights into the fine architecture of the active site of chicory fructan 1-exohydrolase: 1-kestose as substrate vs sucrose as inhibitor. New Phytol. 2007;174:90-100 pubmed
    ..Here we report on complexes between chicory (Cichorium intybus) 1-FEH IIa with the substrate 1-kestose and the inhibitors sucrose, fructose and 2,5 dideoxy-2,..
  21. Wesołowska A, Nikiforuk A, Michalska K, Kisiel W, Chojnacka Wójcik E. Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like guaianolides in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107:254-8 pubmed
    ..Lactucopicrin appeared to be the most potent analgetic of the three tested compounds. Lactucin and lactucopicrin, but not 11beta,13-dihydrolactucin, also showed sedative properties in the spontaneous locomotor activity test. ..
  22. Michiels A, Van Laere A, Van den Ende W, Tucker M. Expression analysis of a chicory fructan 1-exohydrolase gene reveals complex regulation by cold. J Exp Bot. 2004;55:1325-33 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the FEHIIa promoter may provide tools to study cold-induced expression and to increase freezing tolerance in agricultural crops. ..
  23. Périlleux C, Pieltain A, Jacquemin G, Bouché F, Detry N, D Aloia M, et al. A root chicory MADS box sequence and the Arabidopsis flowering repressor FLC share common features that suggest conserved function in vernalization and de-vernalization responses. Plant J. 2013;75:390-402 pubmed publisher
    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a biennial crop, but is harvested to obtain root inulin at the end of the first growing season before flowering...
  24. Kidane A, Houdijk J, Athanasiadou S, Tolkamp B, Kyriazakis I. Effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasitism and performance of lambs. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:1513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..their 24-d-old twin lambs were used to assess the effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on performance and parasitism...
  25. Van den Ende W, Van Laere A. Induction of 1-FEH in mature chicory roots appears to be related to low temperatures rather than to leaf damage. ScientificWorldJournal. 2002;2:1750-61 pubmed
    Large-scale inulin production from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L...
  26. Bouwmeester H, Kodde J, Verstappen F, Altug I, de Kraker J, Wallaart T. Isolation and characterization of two germacrene A synthase cDNA clones from chicory. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:134-44 pubmed
    b>Chicory (Cichorium intybus) sesquiterpene lactones were recently shown to be derived from a common sesquiterpene intermediate, (+)-germacrene A...
  27. Dauchot N, Mingeot D, Purnelle B, Muys C, Watillon B, Boutry M, et al. Construction of 12 EST libraries and characterization of a 12,226 EST dataset for chicory (Cichorium intybus) root, leaves and nodules in the context of carbohydrate metabolism investigation. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:14 pubmed publisher
    The industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a member of the Asteraceae family that accumulates fructan of the inulin type in its root...
  28. Marley C, Cook R, Barrett J, Keatinge R, Lampkin N. The effects of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) when compared with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on ovine gastrointestinal parasite development, survival and migration. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:280-90 pubmed
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory on parasitic nematode development, survival and migration when compared with perennial ryegrass...
  29. Van den Ende W, Michiels A, Van Wonterghem D, Clerens S, De Roover J, Van Laere A. Defoliation induces fructan 1-exohydrolase II in Witloof chicory roots. Cloning and purification of two isoforms, fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa and fructan 1-exohydrolase IIb. Mass fingerprint of the fructan 1-exohydrolase II enzymes. Plant Physiol. 2001;126:1186-95 pubmed
    The cloning of two highly homologous chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum cv Flash) fructan 1-exohydrolase cDNAs (1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb) is described...
  30. Jurgoński A, Juśkiewicz J, Zduńczyk Z, Król B. Caffeoylquinic acid-rich extract from chicory seeds improves glycemia, atherogenic index, and antioxidant status in rats. Nutrition. 2012;28:300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..diet supplemented with rutin, a phenolic compound with well-recognized bioavailability and bioactivity, and a chicory (Cichorium intybus L...
  31. Galland R, Randoux B, Vasseur J, Hilbert J. A glutathione S-transferase cDNA identified by mRNA differential display is upregulated during somatic embryogenesis in Cichorium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1522:212-6 pubmed
    CHI-GST1, a cDNA encoding a glutathione S-transferase, was isolated by differential display in leaf tissues of chicory, during the early stages of somatic embryogenesis...
  32. Rossetto M, Lante A, Vanzani P, Spettoli P, Scarpa M, Rigo A. Red chicories as potent scavengers of highly reactive radicals: a study on their phenolic composition and peroxyl radical trapping capacity and efficiency. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:8169-75 pubmed
  33. Kisiel W, Zielińska K. Guaianolides from Cichorium intybus and structure revision of Cichorium sesquiterpene lactones. Phytochemistry. 2001;57:523-7 pubmed
    ..The known eudesmanolide magnolialide and the known guaianolide ixerisoside D, reported for the first time from the plant material, along with the previously known chicory sesquiterpene lactones have been also isolated and identified.
  34. Van den Ende W, Michiels A, De Roover J, Verhaert P, Van Laere A. Cloning and functional analysis of chicory root fructan1-exohydrolase I (1-FEH I): a vacuolar enzyme derivedfrom a cell-wall invertase ancestor? Mass fingerprint of the 1-FEH I enzyme. Plant J. 2000;24:447-56 pubmed
    This paper describes the cloning and functional analysis of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) fructan 1-exohydrolase I cDNA (1-FEH I). To our knowledge it is the first plant FEH cloned...
  35. de Kraker J, Franssen M, Dalm M, de Groot A, Bouwmeester H. Biosynthesis of germacrene A carboxylic acid in chicory roots. Demonstration of a cytochrome P450 (+)-germacrene a hydroxylase and NADP+-dependent sesquiterpenoid dehydrogenase(s) involved in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 2001;125:1930-40 pubmed
    Sprouts of chicory (Cichorium intybus), a vegetable grown in the dark, have a slightly bitter taste associated with the presence of guaianolides, eudesmanolides, and germacranolides...
  36. Papetti A, Daglia M, Aceti C, Sordelli B, Spini V, Carazzone C, et al. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives occurring in Cichorium endivia vegetables. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;48:472-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined approach enabled identification of four hydroxycinnamic derivatives in each chicory extract; three derivatives (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid) ..
  37. Kusch U, Greiner S, Steininger H, Meyer A, Corbière Divialle H, Harms K, et al. Dissecting the regulation of fructan metabolism in chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy roots. New Phytol. 2009;184:127-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have explored chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy root cultures (HRCs) to study the regulation of fructan metabolism in sink tissues in ..
  38. Mølbak L, Thomsen L, Jensen T, Bach Knudsen K, Boye M. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1853-67 pubmed
    ..The study focussed especially on Bifidobacterial species by using a noncultureable approach...
  39. de Wiele T, Boon N, Possemiers S, Jacobs H, Verstraete W. Prebiotic effects of chicory inulin in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004;51:143-53 pubmed
    The prebiotic potential of native chicory inulin was assessed in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) by monitoring microbial community from the colon compartments, its metabolic activity and community ..
  40. Lavelli V. Antioxidant activity of minimally processed red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) evaluated in xanthine oxidase-, myeloperoxidase-, and diaphorase-catalyzed reactions. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7194-200 pubmed publisher
    Minimally processed red chicory products (Cichorium intybus L. var...
  41. Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Szneler E, Kisiel W. Furofuran lignans from a callus culture of Cichorium intybus. Plant Cell Rep. 2005;24:246-9 pubmed
    ..The compounds were characterised by spectral methods. This is the first report on the presence of furofuran lignans in Cichorium species. ..
  42. Athanasiadou S, Gray D, Younie D, Tzamaloukas O, Jackson F, Kyriazakis I. The use of chicory for parasite control in organic ewes and their lambs. Parasitology. 2007;134:299-307 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential benefits of grazing lactating ewes and their lambs on chicory (Cichorium intybus)...
  43. Rasmussen M, Zamaratskaia G, Andersen B, Ekstrand B. Dried chicory root modifies the activity and expression of porcine hepatic CYP3A but not 2C--effect of in vitro and in vivo exposure. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4175-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of chicory root on hepatic CYP3A and 2C in male pigs...
  44. Schaffer S, Schmitt Schillig S, Muller W, Eckert G. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 1:115-24 pubmed
  45. Mingeot D, Dauchot N, Van Cutsem P, Watillon B. Characterisation of two cold induced dehydrin genes from Cichorium intybus L. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:1995-2001 pubmed publisher
    ..They were among the most abundant sequences obtained from 10 cDNA libraries constructed from chicory roots grown under field conditions...
  46. Ziamajidi N, Khaghani S, Hassanzadeh G, Vardasbi S, Ahmadian S, Nowrouzi A, et al. Amelioration by chicory seed extract of diabetes- and oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via modulation of PPAR? and SREBP-1. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;58:198-209 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract (CI) on hepatic steatosis caused by early and late stage diabetes in rats (in vivo), and induced in HepG2 cells (in vitro) by BSA-oleic acid complex (OA)...
  47. Hozayen W, El Desouky M, Soliman H, Ahmed R, Khaliefa A. Antiosteoporotic effect of Petroselinum crispum, Ocimum basilicum and Cichorium intybus L. in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:165 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of parsley, basil and chicory on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats...
  48. Wang D, Li F, Wang S. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;151:1220-1226 pubmed publisher
    ..FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0...
  49. Panouillé M, Thibault J, Bonnin E. Cellulase and protease preparations can extract pectins from various plant byproducts. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:8926-35 pubmed
    The use of protease and cellulase preparations to extract pectins from plant byproducts (chicory, cauliflower) was investigated...
  50. Komilis D, Karatzas E, Halvadakis C. The effect of olive mill wastewater on seed germination after various pretreatment techniques. J Environ Manage. 2005;74:339-48 pubmed
    ..the main effects and interactions of the above four pretreatment techniques on the germination of tomato and chicory seeds...
  51. Kälber T, Kreuzer M, Leiber F. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows. J Dairy Res. 2013;80:81-8 pubmed publisher
    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows...
  52. Yook J, Kim M, Pichiah P, Jung S, Chae S, Cha Y. The Antioxidant Properties and Inhibitory Effects on HepG2 Cells of Chicory Cultivated Using Three Different Kinds of Fertilizers in the Absence and Presence of Pesticides. Molecules. 2015;20:12061-75 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidant levels and anticancer properties of chicory cultivated using three different kinds of fertilizers (i.e...
  53. Dembitsky V, Goldshlag P, Srebnik M. Occurrence of p-nonylphenol isomers in wild species of Cichorium endivia subsp. divaricatum. J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:1623-8 pubmed
    ..p-Nonylphenol isomers and other aromatic compounds were found in roots and stalks of the plant Cichorium endivia subsp. divaricatum. These compounds were characterized by high-resolution capillary GC-MS. ..