carthamus tinctorius


Summary: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Oil from the seed (SAFFLOWER OIL) is an important food oil of commerce.

Top Publications

  1. Chapman M, Hvala J, Strever J, Matvienko M, Kozik A, Michelmore R, et al. Development, polymorphism, and cross-taxon utility of EST-SSR markers from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2009;120:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers represent a valuable resource for the genetic analysis of safflower and related species, and also have the potential to facilitate comparative map-based analyses across a broader array of taxa within the Asteraceae. ..
  2. Koyama N, Kuribayashi K, Seki T, Kobayashi K, Furuhata Y, Suzuki K, et al. Serotonin derivatives, major safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed antioxidants, inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:4970-6 pubmed
  3. Wang C, Ma H, Zhang S, Wang Y, Liu J, Xiao X. Safflor yellow B suppresses pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) injury induced by oxidative stress via antioxidant system and Bcl-2 /Bax pathway. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These suggest that SYB is able to protect PC12 cells from H(2)O(2)-induced injury and apoptosis via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. ..
  4. Roh J, Han J, Kim J, Hwang J. Inhibitory effects of active compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds for melanogenesis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1976-8 pubmed
    In order to develop a new skin whitening agent, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds were evaluated for melanogenesis inhibitory activity and its active principles were identified following activity-guided isolation...
  5. Shi N, Cheng C, Zha Z. [Clinical study of safflower injection in treating and preventing the vascular crisis after free flap transplantation]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2011;31:1322-7 pubmed
    ..AI could effectively prevent and treat the vascular crisis after free flap transplantation. It had less adverse reaction and good safety. It was better than Dextran-40. It was a safe and effective drug to prevent the vascular crisis. ..
  6. Chapman M, Burke J. DNA sequence diversity and the origin of cultivated safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.; Asteraceae). BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:60 pubmed
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a diploid oilseed crop whose origin is largely unknown. Safflower is widely believed to have been domesticated over 4,000 years ago somewhere in the Fertile Crescent...
  7. Pahlavani M, Mirlohi A, Saeidi G. Inheritance of flower color and spininess in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). J Hered. 2004;95:265-7 pubmed
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) flowers are used for coloring and flavoring food and also as fresh-cut and dried flowers...
  8. Jiang T, Lv Z, Wang Y. Separation and determination of chalcones from Carthamus tinctorius L. and its medicinal preparation by capillary zone electrophoresis. J Sep Sci. 2005;28:1244-7 pubmed
    ..hydroxysafflor yellow A, safflor yellow A, safflamin C, and safflamin A, in the Chinese herbal extract from Carthamus tinctorius L. The optimum buffer system was 30 mM borate buffer (Na2B407/HCl, pH 9.00) with 10% (v/v) methanol...
  9. Takimoto T, Suzuki K, Arisaka H, Murata T, Ozaki H, Koyama N. Effect of N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin, major anti-atherogenic polyphenols in safflower seed, on vasodilation, proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1561-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These may explain a part of anti-atherogenic mechanism that underlies their ability to improve vascular distensibility and to inhibit aortic hyperplasia. ..

More Information


  1. Christianson J, McPherson M, Topinka D, Hall L, Good A. Detecting and quantifying the adventitious presence of transgenic seeds in safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:5506-13 pubmed publisher
    Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) is currently being developed as a platform for the production of novel proteins...
  2. Wu S, Yue Y, Tian H, Li Z, Li X, He W, et al. Carthamus red from Carthamus tinctorius L. exerts antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver damage in rats via the Nrf2 pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148:570-8 pubmed publisher
    Carthamus red isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a Chinese traditional medicine) is evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.
  3. Han S, Li H, Ma X, Zhang K, Ma Z, Tu P. Protective effects of purified safflower extract on myocardial ischemia in vivo and in vitro. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:694-702 pubmed publisher
    b>Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbal medicines to prevent and treat cardiac disease in clinical practice...
  4. Kim H, Bae Y, Park R, Choi S, Cho S, Choi Y, et al. Bone-protecting effect of safflower seeds in ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int. 2002;71:88-94 pubmed
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds have long been clinically used in Korea to promote bone formation and prevent osteoporosis. However, the beneficial effect has not been scientifically evaluated...
  5. Cho S, Lee H, Kim T, Choi S, Lee W, Choi Y. Effects of defatted safflower seed extract and phenolic compounds in diet on plasma and liver lipid in ovariectomized rats fed high-cholesterol diets. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004;50:32-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that safflower polyphenols have the effect of improving blood lipid status via increasing HDL-cholesterol formation and cholesterol excretion without significant uterotropic action in estrogen-deficient animals. ..
  6. Wan L, Chen J, Li L, Xiong W, Zhou L. Protective effects of Carthamus tinctorius injection on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in rats. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:1204-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Carthamus tinctorius injection (CTI) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) specifically used for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and myocardial ischemia...
  7. Hotta Y, Nagatsu A, Liu W, Muto T, Narumiya C, Lu X, et al. Protective effects of antioxidative serotonin derivatives isolated from safflower against postischemic myocardial dysfunction. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;238:151-62 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is concluded that the antioxidant effects of two derivatives isolated from safflower play an important role in ischemia-reperfusion hearts in close relation with NO. ..
  8. Katsuda S, Suzuki K, Koyama N, Takahashi M, Miyake M, Hazama A, et al. Safflower seed polyphenols (N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin) ameliorate atherosclerosis and distensibility of the aortic wall in Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:944-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Serotonin derivatives may be beneficial in improving vascular distensibility and in reducing cardiovascular risk. ..
  9. Li H, Dong Y, Sun Y, Zhu E, Yang J, Liu X, et al. Investigation of the microRNAs in safflower seed, leaf, and petal by high-throughput sequencing. Planta. 2011;233:611-9 pubmed publisher
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is one of the most important crop plants that has been utilized for production of oleosins...
  10. Han S, Li H, Ma X, Zhang K, Ma Z, Jiang Y, et al. Evaluation of the anti-myocardial ischemia effect of individual and combined extracts of Panax notoginseng and Carthamus tinctorius in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:722-7 pubmed publisher
    The decoction of combined Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen and Carthamus tinctorius L...
  11. Zhu H, Wang Z, Ma C, Tian J, Fu F, Li C, et al. Neuroprotective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A: in vivo and in vitro studies. Planta Med. 2003;69:429-33 pubmed
    Previous work has shown that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L. markedly extended the coagulation time in mice and exhibited a significant antithrombotic effect in rats...
  12. Piga R, Naito Y, Kokura S, Handa O, Yoshikawa T. Inhibitory effect of serotonin derivatives on high glucose-induced adhesion and migration of monocytes on human aortic endothelial cells. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a mechanism of action of serotonin derivatives against endothelial damage at a cellular level, and underline their benefits against the disorders and complications related to reactive oxygen species. ..
  13. Takahashi T, Miyazawa M. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed. Phytother Res. 2012;26:722-6 pubmed publisher
    ..for naturally derived ?-glucosidase inhibitors, the chemical components isolated from safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were evaluated. The compounds active as ?-glucosidase inhibitors were serotonin derivatives (e.g...
  14. Jiang J, Chen Z, Yang Y, Feng Z, Zhang P. Two new glycosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013;15:427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..acid-4-O-[6'-O-(2?-methylbutyryl)-?-D-glucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic means including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D ..
  15. Fan L, Zhao H, Xu M, Zhou L, Guo H, Han J, et al. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Carthamus tinctorius L. by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:2063-70 pubmed publisher
    Flavonoids in the water extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. exhibit potent biological activities such as anti-coagulant, vasodilation, anti-oxidant, neuroprotection and immunosuppressant...
  16. Zhao B, Gu S, Du Y, Shen M, Liu X, Shen Y. Solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for oral delivery of hydroxysafflor yellow A. Int J Pharm. 2018;535:164-171 pubmed publisher
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is the main bioactive flavonoid extracted from the flower of Carthamus tinctorius L., which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial ischemia and cerebral ischemia...
  17. Androcioli H, Hoshino A, Pastório M, Cardoso P, de Araújo P, Fernandes T, et al. First Record of Euphoria lurida Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Injurious to Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) in Brazil. Neotrop Entomol. 2017;46:130-132 pubmed publisher
    ..the first report on Euphoria lurida (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) infestation on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a crop of industrial and medicinal importance...
  18. Song H, Zhang Q, Jiang P, Guo T, Chen D, He Z. [Studies on preparation of sustained-release Shuxiong formulation, a traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe, using time-controlled release techniques]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1413-7 pubmed
    ..The technique made it possible that various components with extremely different physicochemical properties in these preparations could release synchronously. ..
  19. Scholljegerdes E, Hess B, Moss G, Hixon D, Rule D. Influence of supplemental cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds on site and extent of digestion in beef cattle. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:3577-88 pubmed
  20. Banas W, Sánchez García A, Banas A, Stymne S. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds. Planta. 2013;237:1627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations...
  21. Jiang J, Lu L, Yang Y, Zhang J, Zhang P. New spermidines from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2008;10:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..known compounds, N(1),N(5),N(10)-(Z)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (3) and N(1),N(5),N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (4), were isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means.
  22. Zhao G, Gai Y, Chu W, Qin G, Guo L. A novel compound N(1),N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine isolated from Carthamus tinctorius L. and acting by serotonin transporter inhibition. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:749-58 pubmed publisher
    Safflower, the dry flower of Carthamus tinctorius L., has long been applied for empirically treating cerebral ischemia and depression in traditional Chinese medicine. Pathogenesis of major depression involves monoaminergic transmission...
  23. Li H, Dong Y, Yang J, Liu X, Wang Y, Yao N, et al. De novo transcriptome of safflower and the identification of putative genes for oleosin and the biosynthesis of flavonoids. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30987 pubmed publisher
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is one of the most extensively used oil crops in the world. However, little is known about how its compounds are synthesized at the genetic level...
  24. Qu C, Wang L, Jin W, Tang Y, Jin Y, Shi X, et al. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A and Anhydrosafflor Yellow B in Safflower Series of Herb Pairs Using Prep-HPLC and a Selective Knock-Out Approach. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed
    The flower of Carthamus tinctorius L...
  25. Lin W, Lai M, Chen H, Ho C, Man K, Shen J, et al. Protective effect of Flos carthami extract against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Urol Res. 2012;40:655-61 pubmed publisher
    Flos carthami (FC), also known as Carthamus tinctorius, is a traditional Chinese herbal plant that has been prescribed since centuries for treating various symptoms related to blood circulation improvement...
  26. Grant M, Alexander B, Hess B, Bottger J, Hixon D, Van Kirk E, et al. Dietary supplementation with safflower seeds differing in fatty acid composition differentially influences serum concentrations of prostaglandin F metabolite in postpartum beef cows. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005;45:721-7 pubmed
    ..Although potential impacts on reproductive performance remain to be proven, dietary oil supplements high in linoleate, but not oleate, increased serum concentrations of PGFM compared to control supplements. ..
  27. Ashkani J, Pakniyat H, Ghotbi V. Genetic evaluation of several physiological traits for screening of suitable spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes under stress and non-stress irrigation regimes. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:2320-6 pubmed
    Seven cultivars and one line of spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were used to estimate genetic variation, heritability, genetic gain and genetic factor analysis for several physiological traits...
  28. Pan Y, Zheng D, Liu S, Meng Y, Xu H, Zhang Q, et al. Hydroxysafflor yellow A attenuates lymphostatic encephalopathy-induced brain injury in rats. Phytother Res. 2012;26:1500-6 pubmed publisher
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a main chemical component of the flower of Carthamus tinctorius. The present study investigated whether HSYA could attenuate brain injury induced by lymphostatic encephalopathy (LE)...
  29. Yadava R, Chakravarti N. Anti-inflammatory activity of a new triterpenoid saponin from carthamus tinctorius linn. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008;23:543-8 pubmed
    ..Compound (A) showed anti-inflammatory activity. ..
  30. Asgarpanah J, Kazemivash N. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L. Chin J Integr Med. 2013;19:153-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Carthamus tinctorius L. is commonly known as Safflower. C. tinctorius extracts and oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the world...
  31. Di K, Chang L. [Experimental study of inhibition of safflower injection on mesenteric microvascular motion in rabbits DI]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2007;27:339-42 pubmed
    ..SI could abolish the effect of L-NMMA on vasomotion but L-NMMA did not influence the effect of SI on vasomotion. CONCLUSION SI can inhibit vasomotion in vaso-dilation status, but its mechanism is not mediated by endogenous NO. ..
  32. Tian Y, Yang Z, Li Y, Qiao Y, Yang J, Jia Y, et al. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of hydroxysafflower yellow A in normal and blood stasis syndrome rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that HSYA was with high uptake and eliminated slowly in the animals with blood stasis syndrome, suggesting that the rate and extent of drug metabolism was altered in acute blood stasis animals. ..
  33. Sangkitporn S, Shide L, Klinbuayaem V, Leenasirimakul P, Wirayutwatthana N, Leechanachai P, et al. Efficacy and safety of zidovudine and zalcitabine combined with a combination of herbs in the treatment of HIV-infected Thai patients. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:704-8 pubmed
    ..The SH herbs may be an alternative for the third anti-retroviral agent in the triple drug regimen for the treatment of HIV infected patients in countries with limited resources. ..
  34. Paredi G, Raboni S, Marchesani F, Ordoudi S, Tsimidou M, Mozzarelli A. Insight of Saffron Proteome by Gel-Electrophoresis. Molecules. 2016;21:167 pubmed publisher
    ..for various periods of time after their processing; and (iii) two common plant adulterants, dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius L. and dried fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis...
  35. Suzuki K, Tsubaki S, Fujita M, Koyama N, Takahashi M, Takazawa K. Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2010;6:1007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness. ..
  36. McPherson M, Good A, Topinka A, Yang R, McKenzie R, Cathcart R, et al. Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) intended for plant molecular farming to conventional safflower. Environ Biosafety Res. 2009;8:19-32 pubmed publisher Chile and western Canada to measure short-distance (0 to 100 m) outcrossing from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) intended for plant molecular farming to non-transgenic commodity safflower of the same variety...
  37. Zhao G, Qin G, Gai Y, Guo L. Structural identification of a new tri-p-coumaroylspermidine with serotonin transporter inhibition from safflower. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:950-2 pubmed
    We previously reported that safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) ethyl acetate extract (HE) possessed an inhibitory action on serotonin (5HT) uptake in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing 5HT transporter (SERT) (S6 cells)...
  38. Wang L, Jin M, Zang B, Wu Y. Inhibitory effect of safflor yellow on pulmonary fibrosis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:511-6 pubmed
    ..SY had anti-fibrotic effect in experiment and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  39. Park J, Park S, Jung W, Moon S. Carthami-Semen acupuncture point injection for chronic daily headache: a pilot, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2011;19 Suppl 1:S19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A larger and long-term follow-up trial is needed to determine more definitely the efficacy of CS acupuncture point injection and to elucidate how long the effect lasts. ..
  40. Shi G, Liu C, Cai Q, Liu Q, Hou C. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of two safflower cultivars in relation to photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;85:256-63 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic and antioxidant activities of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plants, two cultivars (Yuming and New safflower No...
  41. Pan R, Zhang Y, Zang B, Tan L, Jin M. Hydroxysafflor yellow A inhibits TGF-?1-induced activation of human fetal lung fibroblasts in vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2016;68:1320-30 pubmed publisher
    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is one of the chemical component isolated from Chinese medicine Carthamus tinctorius L. Our preliminary study confirmed that HSYA attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice...
  42. Hamrouni Sellami I, Salah H, Kchouk M, Marzouk B. Variations in phytosterol composition during the ripening of Tunisian safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:3829-34 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, their amounts decreased at the end of maturity while Steryl Glycosides (SG) and acylated sterylglycosides (ASG) were practically stable during the ripening of seeds. ..
  43. Ablat N, Lv D, Ren R, Xiaokaiti Y, Ma X, Zhao X, et al. Neuroprotective Effects of a Standardized Flavonoid Extract from Safflower against a Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    ..Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. L.) has long been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China...
  44. Tang J, Ouyang Z, Feng X, Fang J, Cao X. [Studies on pharmacokinetics of hydroxysafflor yellow A in Carthamus tinctorius and its compound preparation in rat]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:2246-9 pubmed
    ..of the concentration of hydroxysafflor yellow A in rat plasma, to study the pharmacokinetics of Carthamus tinctorius extration and Naodesheng tablet, and to investigate the effect of other components on the pharmacokinetics ..
  45. Cummings J, Handley L, Macbryde B, Tupper S, Werner S, Byram Z. Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops. Environ Biosafety Res. 2008;7:241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L...
  46. Villa C, Costa J, Oliveira M, Mafra I. Novel quantitative real-time PCR approach to determine safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) adulteration in saffron (Crocus sativus). Food Chem. 2017;229:680-687 pubmed publisher
    ..Species-specific PCR and real-time PCR with EvaGreen dye targeting the ITS region of Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) were successfully proposed...
  47. Catalano D, Pignone D, Sonnante G, Finetti Sialer M. In-silico and in-vivo analyses of EST databases unveil conserved miRNAs from Carthamus tinctorius and Cynara cardunculus. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13 Suppl 4:S12 pubmed publisher
    ..85 specificity. The putative miRNAs identified belong to 55 dicotyledon plants and to 24 families only in monocotyledon. ..
  48. Yue S, Wu L, Wang J, Tang Y, Qu C, Shi X, et al. Metabolic profile of anhydrosafflor yellow B in rats by ultra-fast liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1014:37-44 pubmed publisher
    Anhydrosafflor yellow B (AHSYB) is one of the major active water-soluble pigments from Carthamus tinctorius, which has been found to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation and possess significant antioxidant activity...
  49. Niu S, Yan W, Wang X, Li X. [Effects of seeds irradiation with 60Cogamma-ray on shoot growth and physiological status of Carthamus tinctorius]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:3004-7 pubmed
    ..Seeds of Carthamus tinctorius were irradiated with 60Cogamma-ray, and germination rate of seeds, germination, seedling rate and seedling ..
  50. Yaginuma S, Shiraishi T, Igarashi K. Developmental transition of the flavonoid contents in safflower leaves during stress-loaded cultivation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:1691-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that appropriate selection of the time for stress loading could provide more flavonoid-rich plants during the practical cultivation of vegetables. ..
  51. Jiang J, Xia P, Feng Z, Zhang P. [Chemical constituents from flowers of Carthamus tinctorius]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:2911-3 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents from the flowers of Carthamus tinctorius. Compounds were isolated by chromatographic techniques. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods...
  52. Yao C, Yang W, Si W, Shen Y, Zhang N, Chen H, et al. An enhanced targeted identification strategy for the selective identification of flavonoid O-glycosides from Carthamus tinctorius by integrating offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/linear ion-trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry, high-resolution. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1491:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..strategy is presented and validated by the selective identification of flavonoid O-glycosides (FOGs) from Carthamus tinctorius. It consists of four steps: (i) enhanced separation and detection by offline two-dimensional liquid ..
  53. Abbasi Maleki S, Mousavi Z. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017;20:1063-1073 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action...