asarum

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE which was used medicinally by North American Indians. The common name of 'snakeroot' is also used for many other plants, including SANICULA; or ARISTOLOCHIA; or Polygala.

Top Publications

  1. Perumalsamy H, Kim N, Ahn Y. Larvicidal activity of compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides against Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti, and Ochlerotatus togoi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:1420-3 pubmed
    The toxicity of several compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides root steam distillate to third-instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett, Aedes aegypti (L...
  2. Quang T, Ngan N, Minh C, Kiem P, Tai B, Thao N, et al. Anti-inflammatory and PPAR transactivational effects of secondary metabolites from the roots of Asarum sieboldii. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:2527-33 pubmed publisher
    Phytochemical study on the roots of Asarum sieboldii resulted in the isolation of one new compound, (1R,2S,5R,6R)-5'-O-methylpluviatilol (1) and 12 known compounds (2-13)...
  3. Li Y, Tian M, Yu J, Shang M, Cai S. Studies on morphology and aristolochic acid analogue constituents of Asarum campaniflorum and a comparison with two official species of Asari radix et rhizoma. J Nat Med. 2010;64:442-51 pubmed publisher
    Dried whole herbs or roots and rhizomes of Asarum campaniflorum have been sold under the trade name Xixin and used as folk remedies in its producing areas for a long time. In order to avoid the misuse of A...
  4. Perumalsamy H, Chang K, Park C, Ahn Y. Larvicidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root constituents against insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus togoi. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10001-6 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the toxicity of (-)-asarinin, ?-asarone, methyleugenol, pellitorine, and pentadecane identified in Asarum heterotropoides root to third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible Culex pipiens pallens (KS-CP strain), Aedes ..
  5. Schaneberg B, Khan I. Analysis of products suspected of containing Aristolochia or Asarum species. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94:245-9 pubmed
    ..The Aristolochia and Asarum genera both have been found to contain aristolochic acids...
  6. Zhao Y, Moller M, Yang J, Liu T, Zhao J, Dong L, et al. Extended expression of B-class MADS-box genes in the paleoherb Asarum caudigerum. Planta. 2010;231:265-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Asarum caudigerum (Aristolochiaceae) is a paleoherb species that is important for research in origin and evolution of angiosperm flowers due to its basal position in the angiosperm phylogeny...
  7. S X, L K, F N. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT HYDROPONIC SUBSTRATE COMBINATIONS AND WATERING REGIMES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANTI-FUNGAL PROPERTIES OF SIPHONOCHILUS AETHIOPICUS. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017;14:89-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of substrate combinations and watering regimes on nutrient uptake, anti-F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolite profile of S. aethiopicus...
  8. Xu Y, Cao C, Shang M, Jiang Y, Wang X, Li C, et al. [Assessment on anti-nociception and anti-inflammation pharmacodynamics of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum and Asarum sieboldii]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:625-31 pubmed
    To assess the anti-nociception and anti-inflammation pharmacodynamics of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum and A. sieboldii...
  9. Zhang F, Fu S, Xu Q, Xiao H, Cai S, Liang X. [Study on GC fingerprint of the constituents in Herba Asari]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:411-3 pubmed
    ..A general acquaintance of the chemical constituents in Herba Asari can be obtained by using the preferable GC fingerprint determination method, which is useful for quality evaluation of the crude drug of Herba Asari. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Li C, Xu F, Cao C, Shang M, Zhang C, Yu J, et al. Comparative analysis of two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by electronic nose, headspace GC-MS and chemometrics. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;85:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The samples used were the dried roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum (AH) and Asarum sieboldii (AS)...
  2. Perumalsamy H, Jung M, Hong S, Ahn Y. Growth-Inhibiting and morphostructural effects of constituents identified in Asarum heterotropoides root on human intestinal bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:245 pubmed publisher
    The growth-inhibiting and morphostructural effects of seven constituents identified in Asarum heterotropoides root on 14 intestinal bacteria were compared with those of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin...
  3. Zhang L, Lu S, Zhang S, Nie H, Guan Z, Yang B. [Effect of asarinin on the acute heart transplantation rejection and the expression of adhesion molecule]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:494-7 pubmed
    ..The expression level of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 is increased in suppressing the course of acute rejection and asarinin can inhibit their expression level. Asarinin can decrease the dosage of CsA. ..
  4. Haque A, Moon J, Saravana P, Tilahun A, Chun B. Composition of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum radix oil from different extraction methods and activities against human body odor-producing bacteria. J Food Drug Anal. 2016;24:813-821 pubmed publisher
    In this study, oils from Asarum heterotropoides were extracted by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction methods and their antioxidant activities along with antimicrobial and ..
  5. Zhao Y, Larson Rabin Z, Li D, Wang G, Peng S, Li C. The expression and phylogenetic analysis of four AP3-like paralogs in the stamens, carpels, and single-whorl perianth of the paleoherb Asarum caudigerum. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:4691-9 pubmed publisher
    The paleoherb species Asarum caudigerum (Aristolochiaceae) is important for research into the origin and evolution of angiosperm flowers due to its basal position in the angiosperm phylogeny...
  6. Yang Z, Jiang M, Li F, Xu K, Tan G. [Studies on the chemical constituents from Asarum Chinese Franch. f. fargesii (Franch.) C. Y. Cheng (II)]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:130-2 pubmed
    Three compounds were isolated from the roots and stems of Asarum chinese Franch. f. fargesii (Franch.) C. Y. Cheng with column chromatography methods...
  7. Xie B, Shang M, Wang X, Cai S, Lee K. [A new aristolochic acid derivative from Asarum himalaicum]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2011;46:188-92 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of Asarum himalaicum, fifteen compounds were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-..
  8. Hu S, He G, Chen B, Cui L, Yang J. [Genetic diversity and volatile components of Asarum sieboldii in Qin-ba region]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2012;35:188-94 pubmed
    To analyze the genetic diversity and the volatile components of Asarum sieboldii from seven habitats in Qin-ba region...
  9. Guo L, Deng J, Wang Y, Huang Y, Guan Z. [Influence of scutellarin on oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis of rats with dementia]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:237-41 pubmed
    ..No significant difference between the scutellarin group and positive drug control group was found. Scutellarin might play an therapeutic role by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis in AD treatment. ..
  10. Huang J, Wang H, Zhang C, Li G, Lin R, Wang J. A new tetrahydrofuran-type lignan with anti-inflammatory activity from Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2014;16:387-92 pubmed publisher
    A new tetrahydrofuran-type lignan, episesaminone (1), was isolated from Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag...
  11. Liang S, Tan X, Chen F, Luo J. [Comparative analysis of volatile oils of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin decoction and its major constituted herbs by GC-MS]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:896-901 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the correlativity between volatile oils of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin decoction and its major constituted herbs in composition and proportion...
  12. Han Y, Kwon E, Kim S. Protection of brain cells against AMPA-induced damage by Asiasari Radix extracts. Phytother Res. 2003;17:882-6 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, fraction 4 blocked the Zn-induced oxidative damages in C6 glial cells. ..
  13. Xue Y, Tong X, Wang F, Zhao W. [Analysis of aristolochic acid A from the aerial and underground parts of Asarum by UPLC-UV]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2008;43:221-3 pubmed
    To develop an UPLC-UV method for the determination of aristolochic acid A in the aerial and underground parts of Asarum, an AcquityUPLC HSST3 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm ID, 1.8 microm) was used with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0...
  14. Nelson C, Halpern C, Antos J. Variation in responses of late-seral herbs to disturbance and environmental stress. Ecology. 2007;88:2880-90 pubmed
    ..forest, we compared abundance, demographic changes, and physiological acclimation of three clonal herbs (Asarum caudatum, Clintonia uniflora, and Pyrola picta) that differ in belowground morphology and leaf longevity...
  15. Miller L, Santhanakrishnan A, Jones S, Hamlet C, Mertens K, Zhu L. Reconfiguration and the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations in broad leaves. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:2716-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf. ..
  16. Zhang F, Wang L, Luo Q, Xiao H, Liang X, Cai S. [Analysis of volatile constituents of root and rhizome of Asarum heterotropoides Fr. var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2002;20:467-70 pubmed
    The volatiles of root and rhizome of Asarum heterotropoides Fr. var. mandshuricum (Maxzim. ) Kitag...
  17. Yu H, Seo S, Hur J, Lee H, Lee Y, You Y. Asarum sieboldii extracts attenuate growth, acid production, adhesion, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans. J Med Food. 2006;9:505-9 pubmed
    b>Asarum sieboldii has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat dental caries and periodontal disease. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of A...
  18. Zhang F, Chu C, Xu Q, Fu S, Hu J, Xiao H, et al. A new amide from Asarum forbesii Maxim. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7:1-5 pubmed
    ..1), was isolated in very small quantities from the whole plant of Asarum forbesii Maxim...
  19. Zhang S, Cai S, Zhao Y. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Asarum longerhizomatosum C. F. Liang et C. S. Yang]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001;26:762-3 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of the roots and rhizomes of Asarum longerhizomatosum. Chromatography and spectral analysis were used to isolate the constituents and elucidate their structures...
  20. Jing Y, Zhang Y, Shang M, Liu G, Li Y, Wang X, et al. Chemical Constituents from the Roots and Rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum and the In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    Anti-inflammatory compounds were investigated from the ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum, a traditional Chinese medicine called Xixin and used for pain and inflammatory...
  21. Su W. [Chemical pattern recognition of traditional Chinese medicine xixin (I)]. Zhong Yao Cai. 1999;22:279-82 pubmed
    In this paper, three species of traditional Chinese medicine Xixin (Asarum heterotropoides Fr. var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) kitag, Asarum sieboldii Miq. var. seoulense Nakai and Asarum sieboldii Miq...
  22. Stajić A, Anđelković M, Dikic N, Rasic J, Vukašinović Vesić M, Ivanovic D, et al. Determination of higenamine in dietary supplements by UHPLC/MS/MS method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;146:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..origine of higenamine (or norcoclaurine) are different plants including Nandina domestica, Aconitum carmichaelii, Asarum heterotropioides, Galium divaricatum, Annona squamosa, Nelumbo nucifera etc...
  23. Xie B, Shang M, Lee K, Wang X, Komatsu K, Cai S. 5-methoxyaristololactam I, the first natural 5-substituted aristololactam from Asarum ichangense. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:11-4 pubmed
    A new aristololactam, 5-methoxyaristololactam I (1), was isolated from an ethanol extract of the whole plant of Asarum ichangense C. Y. Cheng et C. S. Yang, together with twenty known compounds (2-21)...
  24. Takahashi D, Teramine T, Sakaguchi S, Setoguchi H. Relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral processes to clinal variation in calyx lobe length in the series Sakawanum (Asarum: Aristolochiaceae). Ann Bot. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..analyses, the relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral processes were explored to infer the evolutionary history of species of the series Sakawanum (genus Asarum), which shows significant clinal variation in calyx lobe length.
  25. Kitayama T, Yamamoto K, Utsumi R, Takatani M, Hill R, Kawai Y, et al. Chemistry of zerumbone. 2. Regulation of ring bond cleavage and unique antibacterial activities of zerumbone derivatives. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:2193-9 pubmed
    ..Several zerumbone derivatives were found to be selective inhibitors of the growth of gram-positive bacteria. ..
  26. Kim S, Gao Zhang C, Taek Lim J. Mechanism of anti-nociceptive effects of Asarum sieboldii Miq. radix: potential role of bradykinin, histamine and opioid receptor-mediated pathways. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:5-9 pubmed
    The radix of Asarum sieboldii Miq. (AR) has been used to treat pain and inflammation in Korea...
  27. Kim J, Perumalsamy H, Lee J, Ahn Y, Lee Y, Lee S. Acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived compounds and hydrodistillate constitutes toward Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2016;68:485-95 pubmed publisher
    The acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived principles, methyleugenol, safrole, 3-carene, α-asarone, pentadecane and A...
  28. Ji W, Hu J, Yu X, Zhang L, Liu M, Wang Q. Study on the Inhibitory Effects of Ephedra Aconite Asarum Decoction on LPS-Induced Dendritic Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:3272649 pubmed publisher
    ..As a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine formula, Ephedra Aconite Asarum Decoction with the main ingredients of ephedrine and hypaconitine can show effect on anti-inflammation and ..
  29. Oh J, Hwang I, Kim D, Kang S, Jang T, Lee S, et al. Anti-listerial compounds from Asari Radix. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:1339-45 pubmed publisher
    Asari Radix, the roots of Asarum heterotropoides F. Maekawa var. manshuricum F. Maekawa or A. sieboldii F. Maekawa, has traditionally been used for the treatment of various infectious diseases...
  30. Han Y, Kim S. Memory enhancing actions of Asiasari radix extracts via activation of insulin receptor and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) I/II in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2003;974:193-201 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Asiasari radix extracts may exert memory enhancing effects via activation of insulin receptor and ERK I/II as well as decreasing cholinesterase activity. ..
  31. Liu C, Bai G, Yan Y. [Studies on the botanical sources and DNA molecular identification of Herba Asari based on ITS sequence]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:329-32 pubmed
    To explore the genetic basis of using three species of Asarum as Herba Asari to determine the taxonomic positions of Asarum heterotropoides and A. siebodii; and to apply DNA molecular analysis as a tool for identification of Herba Asari...
  32. Zhou C, Yang Z, Li Y, Yang C. [Systematic study on the authentic and superior medicinal herba and GAP of herba asari]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001;26:343-5 pubmed
    ..The methodology of systematic study on the Authentic and Superior Medicinal Herba was provided. According to the results of the systematic study, the GAP of the herb can be made. ..
  33. Jiang X, Wang Z, You L, Dai L, Ding G. [Determination of aristolochic acid A in Radix Aristolociae and Herba Asari by RP-HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:408-10 pubmed
    ..9 to 2 mg x g(-1). The difference of the contents in Asarum spp. was obvious. The highest is 0.35, and aristolochic acid A couldn't be detected in one sample.
  34. Qu W, Tan Z, Yu A, Quan J. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Asarum insigne by GC-MS]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:1095-8 pubmed
    To analyse the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Asarum insigne. The volatile oil from Asarum insigne was isolated with steam distillation and identified by capillary GC/MS method...
  35. Türke M, Andreas K, Gossner M, Kowalski E, Lange M, Boch S, et al. Are gastropods, rather than ants, important dispersers of seeds of myrmecochorous forest herbs?. Am Nat. 2012;179:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that terrestrial gastropods can generally act as seed dispersers of myrmecochorous plants and even substitute myrmecochory, especially where ants are absent or uncommon...
  36. Perumalsamy H, Kim J, Kim S, Kwon H, Ahn Y. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of larvicidal constituents from Asarum heterotropoides root to Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2012;49:107-11 pubmed
    ..4-2.2 for KS-CP; CC, 257-279 and SF, 1.1-2.1 for DJ-CP). The binary mixtures of pellitorine and (-)-asarinin merit further study as potential larvicides for the control of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations. ..
  37. Lijuan W, Kupittayanant P, Chudapongse N, Wray S, Kupittayanant S. The effects of wild ginger (Costus speciosus (Koen) Smith) rhizome extract and diosgenin on rat uterine contractions. Reprod Sci. 2011;18:516-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Wild ginger was able to increase contraction via calcium entry on l-type calcium channels and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release. We suggest that wild ginger rhizome extract may be a useful uterine stimulant. ..
  38. Chen L, Cai Y, Li J. [Medication rules of famous veteran traditional Chinese medicine doctor in treatment of chronic bronchitis based on implicit structure model]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017;42:1609-1616 pubmed publisher
    ..favor and enter lung, spleen, kidney meridians; the commonly herbal pairs included atractylodes and poria cocos, asarum, fructus schisandrae and pinellia, as well as poria cocos, dangshen, pinellia and dried tangerine or orange peel...
  39. Thai T, Bazzali O, Hoi T, Tuane N, Tomi F, Casanova J, et al. Chemical composition of the essential oils from two Vietnamese Asarum species: A. glabrum and A. cordifolium. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8:235-8 pubmed
    The essential oil isolated from Asarum cordifolium C. E. C. Fischer recently discovered in Vietnam, and A. glabrum Merr...
  40. Su W. [Chemical pattern recognition of traditional Chinese medicine xixin (II)]. Zhong Yao Cai. 1999;22:331-3 pubmed
    ..According to the results of hierarchical clustering, three species of Xixin (Asarum heterotropoides Fr. var. mandshuricum (Maim.) Kitag., Asarum sieboldii Miq. var...
  41. Yi J, Perumalsamy H, Sankarapandian K, Choi B, Ahn Y. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae). J Econ Entomol. 2015;108:1208-14 pubmed publisher
    ..to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide ..
  42. Ming H, Liu J, Huang S. [Influence of single leaf Asarum himalaicum on renal function of rabbits]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2004;2:199-202 pubmed
    To study the influence of single leaf Asarum himalaicum on the renal function of rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups...
  43. Wang D, Wang X, Xia X. [Analysis of season variation of methyleugenol and safrole in Asarum heterotropoides by gas chromatography]. Se Pu. 1997;15:85-6 pubmed
    We established a method for quantitative analysis of methyleugenol and safrole in Asarum heterotropoides by GC to study their season variation...
  44. Schaneberg B, Applequist W, Khan I. Determination of aristolochic acid I and II in North American species of Asarum and Aristolochia. Pharmazie. 2002;57:686-9 pubmed
    Wild ginger, Asarum canadense, which has folk uses as a medicinal and food plant, has been reported to contain aristolochic acid I...
  45. Coghlan M, Haile J, Houston J, Murray D, White N, Moolhuijzen P, et al. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002657 pubmed publisher
    ..reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic...
  46. Drew A, Whyte I, Bensoussan A, Dawson A, Zhu X, Myers S. Chinese herbal medicine toxicology database: monograph on Herba Asari, "xi xin". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40:169-72 pubmed
  47. Lu C, Chiou W, Wang J. Asarum pubitessellatum, sp. nov. (sect. Heterotropa, Aristolochiaceae) from Taiwan based on morphological and palynological evidence. Bot Stud. 2013;54:28 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we discovered an unknown Asarum from Taiwan which is closely related to A. crassisepalum S.F. Huang, T.H. Hsieh and T.C. Huang and A. taipingshanianum S.F. Huang, T.H. Hsieh and T.C...
  48. Li K, Liu M, Wei X. [Study of xixin, duzhong and mixture to the antioxidant system of D-galactose-induced senile mice]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2000;23:161-3 pubmed
    ..01); Xixin and Duzhong could enhance the activity of SOD, GSH-Px and NOS; The time of effect for mixture and Duzhong to above index was short than Xixin's. The time of Mixture and Duzhong was 15 days, and Xixin was 30 days. ..
  49. Zhang M, Ren Y, Song C, Zhao F, Hu D, Guo J, et al. [Effect and mechanism of bishudiwan(BSDW) against allergy]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28:540-4 pubmed
    ..BSDW has significant effect against allergy. The mechanism relates to its effects of decreasing the levels of serum IgE and inhibiting the release of serum and nasal histamine. ..
  50. Deng Y, Feng Y, Sun J, Zhou D, Yang L, Lai J. [Study on anti-HPV activity of Asarum heterotropoides]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27:665-7 pubmed
    To screen anti-HPV effective fraction from Asarum heterotropoides. Asarum heterotropoides was extracted with systematic solvents (petroleum benzine, ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and distilled water) accordingly...
  51. Zhao Y, Wang G, Zhang J, Yang J, Peng S, Gao L, et al. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and phylogenetic analysis of floral genes from a paleoherb species, Asarum caudigerum. Ann Bot. 2006;98:157-63 pubmed
    b>Asarum caudigerum (Aristolochiaceae) is an important species of paleoherb in relation to understanding the origin and evolution of angiosperm flowers, due to its basal position in the angiosperms...
  52. Xiong Y, Jing Y, Shang M, Li C, Ye J, Wang X, et al. [Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in mice of water and ethanol extracts of roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:2252-7 pubmed
    ..and ethanol extracts which were prepared in different concentration ethanol of Xixin (the roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum), and then to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive mechanisms...
  53. Meadley Dunphy S, Prior K, Frederickson M. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism. Oecologia. 2016;181:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal...