aristolochia

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.

Top Publications

  1. Oelschlägel B, Gorb S, Wanke S, Neinhuis C. Structure and biomechanics of trapping flower trichomes and their role in the pollination biology of Aristolochia plants (Aristolochiaceae). New Phytol. 2009;184:988-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigations were carried out on six Mediterranean Aristolochia species...
  2. Liang Q, Ni C, Yan X, Xie M, Zhang Y, Zhang Q, et al. [Comparative study on metabonomics and on liver and kidney toxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and Stephania tetrandra]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2882-8 pubmed
    Combined the blood biochemical markers, the renal histopathological changes and the metabonomics profile were investigated to study the toxicity differences between Aristolochia fangchi and Stephania tetrandra.
  3. Shaohua Z, Ananda S, Ruxia Y, Liang R, Xiaorui C, Liang L. Fatal renal failure due to the Chinese herb "GuanMu Tong" (Aristolochia manshuriensis): autopsy findings and review of literature. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;199:e5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..GuanMu Tong is derived from the plant Aristolochia manshuriensis which contains aristolochic acid...
  4. Heinrich M, Chan J, Wanke S, Neinhuis C, Simmonds M. Local uses of Aristolochia species and content of nephrotoxic aristolochic acid 1 and 2--a global assessment based on bibliographic sources. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:108-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of nephropathy over the last 10 years caused by the systemic and longer term application of Chinese snakeroot (Aristolochia fangchi) highlighted the risk of using preparations which contain aristolochic acids...
  5. Debelle F, Vanherweghem J, Nortier J. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: a worldwide problem. Kidney Int. 2008;74:158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..in a Belgian cohort of more than 100 patients after the intake of slimming pills containing a Chinese herb, Aristolochia fangchi...
  6. Shafi P, Rosamma M, Jamil K, Reddy P. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Aristolochia indica. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:439-41 pubmed
    The essential oil of Aristolochia indica, containing beta-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene as major constituents, was found to show a moderate antibacterial activity.
  7. Miranda T, Ebner M, Traiser C, Roth Nebelsick A. Diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance in the large-leaved temperate liana Aristolochia macrophylla depends on spatial position within the leaf lamina. Ann Bot. 2013;111:905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Leaf zone-specific differences in water supply and/or gas exchange may therefore be anticipated. In this study, an investigation was made to see whether zonal differences in gas exchange regulation can be detected in large leaves...
  8. Gluhovschi G, Margineanu F, Kaycsa A, Velciov S, Gluhovschi C, Bob F, et al. Therapeutic remedies based on Aristolochia clematitis in the main foci of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Romania. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;116:c36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..There may be a relationship between BEN and cumulative previous exposure to low doses of AA due to the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, which could add to any contributions by therapeutic remedies...
  9. Masselter T, Speck T. Quantitative and qualitative changes in primary and secondary stem organization of Aristolochia macrophylla during ontogeny: functional growth analysis and experiments. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2955-67 pubmed publisher
    The anatomy of young and old stems of Aristolochia macrophylla has been investigated for a better understanding of how secondary growth processes cause changes in the stem anatomy of a lianescent plant. In A...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Abe F, Nagafuji S, Yamauchi T, Okabe H, Maki J, Higo H, et al. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 1. Evaluation of some Mexican plants for their trypanocidal activity and active constituents in Guaco, roots of Aristolochia taliscana. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:1188-91 pubmed
    ..Among them, the MeOH extract of roots of Aristolochia taliscana (Aristolochiaceae), locally known as "Guaco," immobilized all the epimastigotes even at ..
  2. Li M, Ling K, Lam H, Shaw P, Cheng L, Techen N, et al. Cardiocrinum seeds as a replacement for Aristolochia fruits in treating cough. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:429-32 pubmed publisher
    The antitussive Chinese herb Madouling derived from Aristolochia species is banned due to aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy. A substitute is found dispensed as Madouling in Taiwan...
  3. Zhang G, Shimokawa S, Mochizuki M, Kumamoto T, Nakanishi W, Watanabe T, et al. Chemical constituents of Aristolochia constricta: antispasmodic effects of its constituents in guinea-pig ileum and isolation of a diterpeno-lignan hybrid. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1167-72 pubmed publisher
    Twenty constituents were isolated from the n-hexane and chloroform extracts of Aristolochia constricta, a plant whose aerial parts have been used empirically in folk medicine for various purposes...
  4. Sato N, Takahashi D, Chen S, Tsuchiya R, Mukoyama T, Yamagata S, et al. Acute nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acids in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004;56:221-9 pubmed
    Aristolochic acids (AA), present in Aristolochia plants, are the toxin responsible for Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), a rapidly progressive tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN)...
  5. Liu M, Maruyama S, Mizuno M, Morita Y, Hanaki S, Yuzawa Y, et al. The nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia manshuriensis in rats is attributable to its aristolochic acids. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2003;7:186-94 pubmed
    Although Aristolochia manshuriensis (AM), which was incriminated in the Japanese variety of Chinese herbs nephropathy, has been recently shown to be nephrotoxic in rats, less is known about whether this toxicity is attributable to its ..
  6. Ding X, Liang A, Wang J, Xiao Y, Wu Z, Li C, et al. [Nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia manshuriensis and aristolochic acids in mice]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1019-22 pubmed
    The acute toxic effects of Aristolochia manshuriensis (GMT) and the total aristolochic acids (TA) were compared in mice with aristolochic acid A (AA) as the dose standard...
  7. Hranjec T, Kovac A, Kos J, Mao W, Chen J, Grollman A, et al. Endemic nephropathy: the case for chronic poisoning by aristolochia. Croat Med J. 2005;46:116-25 pubmed
  8. Koh H, Wang H, Zhou S, Chan E, Woo S. Detection of aristolochic acid I, tetrandrine and fangchinoline in medicinal plants by high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;40:653-61 pubmed
    ..The non-toxic Stephania tetrandra (Fangji) has been known to be substituted by Aristolochia fangchi (Guang fangji), which contains the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acid (AA)...
  9. León Díaz R, Meckes M, Said Fernandez S, Molina Salinas G, Vargas Villarreal J, Torres J, et al. Antimycobacterial neolignans isolated from Aristolochia taliscana. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:45-51 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to screen extracts of Aristolochia taliscana, a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat cough and snake bites, for antimycobacterial ..
  10. Wagner S, Isnard S, Rowe N, Samain M, Neinhuis C, Wanke S. Escaping the lianoid habit: evolution of shrub-like growth forms in Aristolochia subgenus Isotrema (Aristolochiaceae). Am J Bot. 2012;99:1609-29 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aristolochia (?500 species) consists predominantly of climbers, but a handful of shrub-like species are known from ..
  11. Jaramillo M, Kramer E. APETALA3 and PISTILLATA homologs exhibit novel expression patterns in the unique perianth of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Evol Dev. 2004;6:449-58 pubmed
    ..is formed by two whorls of organs in the genus Saruma but by only one whorl in the remaining genera, including Aristolochia. Although the morphology of Saruma is similar in appearance to the core eudicot perianth, with leaf-like sepals ..
  12. Schmeiser H, Stiborova M, Arlt V. Chemical and molecular basis of the carcinogenicity of Aristolochia plants. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2009;12:141-8 pubmed
    The herbal drug aristolochic acid (AA), which is derived from the Aristolochia species, has been associated with the development of a novel nephropathy, designated as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), and with human urothelial cancer...
  13. Tsuchihara K, Wazawa T, Ishii Y, Yanagida T, Nishida R, Zheng X, et al. Characterization of chemoreceptive protein binding to an oviposition stimulant using a fluorescent micro-binding assay in a butterfly. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Three-dimensional molecular modeling revealed the structure of the OSBP-aristolochic acid complex. This is the first report of a native chemoreceptive protein binding to an oviposition stimulant as a ligand in insects. ..
  14. Zhao D, Qu L, Wang X, Li X, Xu J, Cai S. [Studies on solid phase extraction method of aristolochic acids and aristololactams in rat urine]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:2613-9 pubmed
    ..0 mL methanol. The established method of SPE is efficient, selective, simple and fast, and can be used as urine pretreatment method to analyze a variety of aristolochic acids and aristololactams in rat urine. ..
  15. Su T, Qu L, Zhang C, Cai S, Li X. [Studies on pharmacodynamic characteristics of aristolochic acid I in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:676-81 pubmed
    ..The characteristics may be related to the long term nephrotoxicity of AA-I. ..
  16. Ma H, Zhang B. [Comparison among families of Mutong]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27:412-8 pubmed
    ..g. Caulis Aristolochia manshuriensis (CAM) was not put down in writing of past ages but is mainly used today with toxicity repeatedly...
  17. Pereira M, da Silva T, Aguiar A, Oliva G, Guido R, Yokoyama Yasunaka J, et al. Chemical Composition, Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic Activities of Indole Alkaloids and Benzofuran Neolignan of Aristolochia cordigera. Planta Med. 2017;83:912-920 pubmed publisher
    This is a comparative study on the intraspecific chemical variability of Aristolochia cordigera species, collected in two different regions of Brazil, Biome Cerrado (semiarid) and Biome Amazônia (coastal)...
  18. Jaramillo M, Kramer E. Molecular evolution of the petal and stamen identity genes, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, after petal loss in the Piperales. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;44:598-609 pubmed
    ..Relaxed purifying selection after the loss of only one of these organs suggests that there has been dissociation of the functional roles of these genes in the Piperales. ..
  19. Zhou S, Du G, Zhao Y, Cui H, Wang X, Li L, et al. [Study on transdifferentiation of renal tubular cells in rat chronic renal interstitial fibrosis induced by Radix Aristolochiae Fangchi Extract]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1882-5 pubmed
    ..Part of the renal tubular cells was transdifferentiated into myofibroblasts. Renal tubular cells may participate the occurance of chronic renal interstitial fibrosis, TGF-beta1 may accelerate the transdifferentiation of tubular cells. ..
  20. Chen Y, Yu L, Huang R, Liu J, Lv Y, Zhao Y. 3"-hydroxyamentoflavone and its 7-O-methyl ether, two new biflavonoids from Aristolochia contorta. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28:1233-5 pubmed
    ..3"-hydroxyamentoflavone-7-O-methyl ether (1) and 3"-hydroxyamentoflavone (2), were isolated from the fruits of Aristolochia contorta Bge. Their structures were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.
  21. Erasto P, Omolo J, Sunguruma R, Munissi J, Wiketye V, de Konig C, et al. Evaluation of Antimycobacterial Activity of Higenamine Using Galleria mellonella as an In Vivo Infection Model. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2018;8:63-69 pubmed publisher
    The Phytochemical investigation on MeOH extract on the bark of Aristolochia brasiliensis Mart. & Zucc (Aristolochiaceae) led to the isolation of major compound (1) as light brown grainy crystals...
  22. Tripatara P, Onlamul W, Booranasubkajorn S, Wattanarangsan J, Huabprasert S, Lumlerdkij N, et al. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:170 pubmed publisher
    A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic...
  23. Tütüncü Konyar S, Ozturk N, Dane F. Occurrence, types and distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in leaves and stems of some species of poisonous plants. Bot Stud. 2014;55:32 pubmed publisher
    ..The plants examined in this study were Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae), Aristolochia clematitis L. (Aristolochiaceae), Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), Saponaria officinalis L...
  24. Jiang X, Wang Z, You L, Dai L, Ding G. [Determination of aristolochic acid A in Radix Aristolociae and Herba Asari by RP-HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:408-10 pubmed
    To develop a HPLC method to determine the contents of aristolochic A in aristolochia debilis and Asarun spp....
  25. Milichovský J, Bárta F, Schmeiser H, Arlt V, Frei E, Stiborová M, et al. Active Site Mutations as a Suitable Tool Contributing to Explain a Mechanism of Aristolochic Acid I Nitroreduction by Cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2 and 1B1. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:213 pubmed publisher
    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a plant drug found in Aristolochia species that causes aristolochic acid nephropathy, Balkan endemic nephropathy and their associated urothelial malignancies...
  26. Durán J, Fagua G, Robles J, Gil E. Sequestration of aristolochic acid I from Aristolochia pilosa by Mapeta xanthomelas Walker, 1863. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:1285-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested for the presence of aristolochic acid I in leaves of Aristolochia pilosa and female bodies of Mapeta xanthomelas, obtained from larvae feeding on the plant, using high ..
  27. Xu Y, Shang M, Ge Y, Wang X, Cai S. [Chemical constituent from fruit of Aristolochia contorta]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2862-5 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents of the fruit of Aristolochia contorta. The compounds were isolated by chromatographic techniques and crystalization, the structures were elucidated by spectrum analysis...
  28. Morais A, Brown K, Stanton M, Massuda K, Trigo J. Are Aristolochic Acids Responsible for the Chemical Defence of Aposematic Larvae of Battus polydamas (L.) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)?. Neotrop Entomol. 2013;42:558-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Papilionidae: Troidini) against predators. These compounds are sequestered by larvae from their Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) host plants...
  29. Zhou X, Zheng C, Sun J, You T. Analysis of nephroloxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in Aristolochia plants by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection at a carbon fiber microdisk electrode. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1109:152-9 pubmed
    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are the main bioactive ingredients in the most of Aristolochia plants, which are used to make dietary supplements, slimming pills and Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs)...
  30. Jin K, Su K, Li T, Zhu X, Wang Q, Ge R, et al. Hepatic Premalignant Alterations Triggered by Human Nephrotoxin Aristolochic Acid I in Canines. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016;9:324-34 pubmed publisher
    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) existing in plant drugs from Aristolochia species is an environmental human carcinogen associated with urothelial cancer...
  31. Kaoud T, Park H, Mitra S, Yan C, Tseng C, Shi Y, et al. Manipulating JNK signaling with (--)-zuonin A. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1873-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that the biological activity reported for other lignans, such as saucerneol F and zuonin B, may be the result of their ability to impede protein-protein interactions within MAPK cascades...
  32. Yuan J, Ren G, Liang J, Wang C, Yan Z, Huang Q, et al. Comparative studies on the multi-component pharmacokinetics of Aristolochiae Fructus and honey-fried Aristolochiae Fructus extracts after oral administration in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:107 pubmed publisher
    ..The PK parameters obtained in this work could provide valuable references for the toxicity research and clinical use of Aristolochiaceae herbs, including AF and HAF. Process diagram of comparative pharmacokinetics study. ..
  33. Wu T, Damu A, Su C, Kuo P. Terpenoids of Aristolochia and their biological activities. Nat Prod Rep. 2004;21:594-624 pubmed
    b>Aristolochia is an important genus widely used in traditional medicine. During the past two decades, this genus has attracted much interest and has been the subject of numerous chemical and pharmacological studies...
  34. Worley K, Dashe J, Barber R, Megison S, McIntire D, Twickler D. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in isolated diaphragmatic hernia: volume of herniated liver and neonatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:318.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Percentages of lung and other herniated organs were not associated with outcome. In our MR series of isolated CDH, neonatal deaths were significantly increased when > 20% of the fetal thorax was occupied by liver. ..
  35. Bunel V, Antoine M, Stévigny C, Nortier J, Duez P. New in vitro insights on a cell death pathway induced by magnolol and honokiol in aristolochic acid tubulotoxicity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016;87:77-87 pubmed publisher
    Aristolochic acids (AA) are nephrotoxic agents found in Aristolochia species whose consumption leads to the onset of a progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis...
  36. Hu S, Zhang H, Chan K, Mei Q. Studies on the toxicity of Aristolochia manshuriensis (Guanmuton). Toxicology. 2004;198:195-201 pubmed
    1) To study the acute and chronic toxicity of stem of Aristolochia manshuriensis (AMA Guanmuton) which is a Chinese medicinal herb in order to provide basis for safe clinical use...
  37. Nortier J, Pozdzik A, Roumeguere T, Vanherweghem J. [Aristolochic acid nephropathy ("Chinese herb nephropathy")]. Nephrol Ther. 2015;11:574-88 pubmed publisher
    ..initially reported in Belgium after the intake of slimming pills containing root extracts of a Chinese herb, Aristolochia fangchi. In the following decades, numerous cases have been reported worldwide, particularly in Asian countries...
  38. Ruffa M, Ferraro G, Wagner M, Calcagno M, Campos R, Cavallaro L. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79:335-9 pubmed
    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L...
  39. Ioset J, Raoelison G, Hostettmann K. An LC/DAD-UV/MS method for the rapid detection of aristolochic acid in plant preparations. Planta Med. 2002;68:856-8 pubmed
    ..A thin layer chromatography assay was also developed for the preliminary detection of aristolochic acid I in complex mixtures. ..
  40. Alves Da Silva D, Borghetti F, Thompson K, Pritchard H, Grime J. Underdeveloped embryos and germination in Aristolochia galeata seeds. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2011;13 Suppl 1:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aristolochia galeata is a native climber found in the Cerrado biome, associated with road and gallery forest edges...
  41. Zhang C, Wang X, Shang M, Yu J, Xu J, Lh Z, et al. [Affection of different preparations on the content of toxic constituents in traditional Chinese medicines, examplified with Caulis Aristolochiae Manshuriensis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:835-9 pubmed
    Taking Caulis Aristolochiae Manshuriensis (Guanmutong in Chinese, derived from the stem of Aristolochia manshuriensis) as an example, to study the affection of different preparations on the content of toxic constituents in traditional ..
  42. Kumar G. RNA targeting by small molecules: Binding of protoberberine, benzophenanthridine and aristolochia alkaloids to various RNA structures. J Biosci. 2012;37:539-52 pubmed
    ..Especially noteworthy are the protoberberines and aristolochia alkaloids distributed widely in many botanical families...
  43. Sun D, Liu C, Ma Y, Zhang L. Protective effect of prostaglandin E1 on renal microvascular injury in rats of acute aristolochic acid nephropathy. Ren Fail. 2011;33:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats in PGE1 group received Caulis Aristolochia manshuriensis (CAM) decoction by gavage for 5 days, and PGE1 was given by vena caudalis before gavage...
  44. Jordan S, Cunningham D, Marles R. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;243:198-216 pubmed publisher
    ..The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities ..
  45. Wang G, Wang Z, Sun Q. [Advances in studies on pharmacokinetics of aristolochic acid I]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1573-5 pubmed
    ..The characters of pharmacokinetics of AA-I induce the cumulation of AA-I in vivo and the nephrotoxin to the kidney and other viscera. ..
  46. Kazembe T, Munyarari E. Effect of Aristolochia petersiana on the efficacy of fansidar. Cent Afr J Med. 2006;52:11-6 pubmed
    This study sought to determine the effect of the traditional antimalarial plant, Aristolochia petersiana (Malundu) extract on the efficacy of fansidar, a pharmaceutical antimalarial drug. A...
  47. Xu Y, Li X, Liu G, Wang X, Shang M, Li X, et al. Comparative study of the contents of analogues of aristolochic acid in two kinds of Aristolochiae Fructus by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Nat Med. 2013;67:113-22 pubmed publisher
    Aristolochiae Fructus ("Madouling") is derived from the fruits of Aristolochia contorta and A. debilis (Aristolochiaceae). These two species contain potentially nephrotoxic constituents, but are officially used in China...
  48. Shaw D. Toxicological risks of Chinese herbs. Planta Med. 2010;76:2012-8 pubmed publisher
    ..difficult to detect in the traditional setting and recent reports have demonstrated the health problems from Aristolochia species...
  49. de Oliveira B, Melo C, Alves P, Santos A, Santos A, Santana A, et al. Essential Oil of Aristolochia trilobata: Synthesis, Routes of Exposure, Acute Toxicity, Binary Mixtures and Behavioral Effects on Leaf-Cutting Ants. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    Plants of the genus Aristolochia have been frequently reported as important medicinal plants. Despite their high bioactive potential, to date, there are no reports of their effects on leaf-cutting ants...
  50. Fan X, Ding Y, Ji Ye A, Zhao X, Liu W. [Study on LC-MS fingerprint for quality assessment of Aristolochia manshuriensis with chemical pattern recognition]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:2928-31 pubmed
    To analyze LC-MS fingerprints of Aristolochia manshuriensis for quality assessment with two different chemical pattern recognition models. LC-MS fingerprints of A...
  51. Zhao Y, Wang H, Cheng X, Wei F, Bai X, Lin R, et al. Metabolomics analysis reveals the association between lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and Nrf2 dysfunction in aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12936 pubmed publisher
    ..AAI) nephropathy (AAN) is a common and rapidly progressive interstitial nephropathy caused by ingestion of Aristolochia herbal medications...
  52. León Díaz R, Meckes Fischer M, Valdovinos Martínez L, Campos M, Hernandez Pando R, Jiménez Arellanes M. Antitubercular activity and the subacute toxicity of (-)-Licarin A in BALB/c mice: a neolignan isolated from Aristolochia taliscana. Arch Med Res. 2013;44:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Licarin A (LA) was isolated from diverse plants such as Aristolochia taliscana and possesses antimycobacterial, antiinflammatory, trypanocidal, and neuroprotective activities...
  53. Li Y. [Query on the cause of "belgium nephropathy" (Chinese herb nephropathy) and the speculation on carcinogenesis of Chinese herbs]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002;22:142-5 pubmed