Summary: An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).

Top Publications

  1. Zhang R, Huang J, Zhu J, Xie X, Tang Q, Chen X, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel PDR-type ABC transporter gene PgPDR3 from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer induced by methyl jasmonate. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:6195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a potential role of the PgPDR3 gene in the accumulation of secondary metabolites in MeJA-induced ginseng...
  2. Oh J, Lee S, Hwang K, Ji G. The anti-obesity effects of the dietary combination of fermented red ginseng with levan in high fat diet mouse model. Phytother Res. 2014;28:617-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, FGL showed a significant anti-obesity effect in HFD-induced obese mice and prevent insulin and leptin resistance. FGL may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity. ..
  3. Doh K, Lim S, Piao S, Jin L, Heo S, Zheng Y, et al. Ginseng treatment attenuates chronic cyclosporine nephropathy via reducing oxidative stress in an experimental mouse model. Am J Nephrol. 2013;37:421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that KRG has a protective effect in CsA-induced renal injury via reducing oxidative stress. ..
  4. Ramesh T, Kim S, Hwang S, Sohn S, Yoo S, Kim S. Panax ginseng reduces oxidative stress and restores antioxidant capacity in aged rats. Nutr Res. 2012;32:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that consumption of Korean red ginseng reduces lipid peroxidation and restores antioxidant capacity by suppressing oxidative stress in rats. ..
  5. Liu Z, Li W, Li X, Zhang M, Chen L, Zheng Y, et al. Antidiabetic effects of malonyl ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on type 2 diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:233-40 pubmed publisher
    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been recorded to treat 'Xiao-ke' (emaciation and thirst) symptom in many ancient Chinese medical literatures (such as 'Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing') for thousands of years...
  6. Yang X, Wang R, Zhang S, Zhu W, Tang J, Liu J, et al. Polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer and their antioxidant activities. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:386-91 pubmed publisher
    Polysaccharides named as PP1, PP2, PP3, PP4 and PP5 were extracted and isolated from the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A...
  7. Han J, Hwang H, Choi S, Kim H, Choi Y. Cytochrome P450 CYP716A53v2 catalyzes the formation of protopanaxatriol from protopanaxadiol during ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1535-45 pubmed publisher
    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs, and the root of this plant contains pharmacologically active components, called ginsenosides...
  8. Ying Y, Ding W, Li Y. Characterization of soil bacterial communities in rhizospheric and nonrhizospheric soil of Panax ginseng. Biochem Genet. 2012;50:848-59 pubmed publisher
    ..approach was used to evaluate the bacterial community in rhizospheric and nonrhizospheric soil in which Panax ginseng had grown for 3 years...
  9. Poudyal D, Cui X, Mai Le P, Davis T, Hofseth A, Jin Y, et al. A limited role of p53 on the ability of a Hexane fraction of American ginseng to suppress mouse colitis. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:785739 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53-/- and WT p53 colon cancer cells. ..

More Information


  1. Jung H, Choi H, Lim H, Shin D, Kim H, Kwon B, et al. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions of red ginseng extract by fermentation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, RG and FRG showed similar anti-angiogenic activity. FRG possesses enhanced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity but similar anti-angiogenic activity than RG. ..
  2. Du G, Wang C, Zhang Z, Wen X, Somogyi J, Calway T, et al. Caspase-mediated pro-apoptotic interaction of panaxadiol and irinotecan in human colorectal cancer cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study suggested that caspase-3- and caspase-9-mediated apoptosis may play an important role in the panaxadiol enhanced antiproliferative effects of irinotecan on human colorectal cancer cells. ..
  3. Lee E, Song M, Kwon H, Ji G, Sung M. Oral administration of fermented red ginseng suppressed ovalbumin-induced allergic responses in female BALB/c mice. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest in vivo anti-allergic activities of RG or FRG, which are associated with the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance, intestinal inflammation and subsequent the suppression of IgE. ..
  4. Kim P, Park J, Kwon K, Kim K, Kim H, Lee J, et al. Effects of Korean red ginseng extracts on neural tube defects and impairment of social interaction induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;51:288-96 pubmed publisher
    Ginseng is one of the most widely used medicinal plants, which belongs to the genus Panax. Compared to uncured white ginseng, red ginseng has been generally regarded to produce superior pharmacological effects with lesser side/adverse ..
  5. Wang J, Yin H, Guo C, Huang Y, Xia C, Liu Q. Influence of high blood glucose fluctuation on endothelial function of type 2 diabetes mellitus rats and effects of Panax Quinquefolius Saponin of stem and leaf. Chin J Integr Med. 2013;19:217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..blood glucose fluctuation on the endothelial function of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and the effects of Panax Quinquefolius Saponin (PQS) of stem and leaf...
  6. Hong Y, Kim N, Lee K, Hee Sonn C, Eun Lee J, Tae Kim S, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) ameliorates type 1 diabetes and restores immune cell compartments. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;144:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the prophylactic potential of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Radix Rubra) in a well-established mouse model of Type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
  7. Gu C, Qiao J, Zhu M, Du J, Shang W, Yin W, et al. Preliminary evaluation of the interactions of Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with 5-fluorouracil on pharmacokinetics in rats and pharmacodynamics in human cells. Am J Chin Med. 2013;41:443-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of extracts from Panax ginseng (PGS) and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB) on the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were performed ..
  8. Niederhofer H. First preliminary results of an observation of Panax ginseng treatment in patients with autistic disorder. J Diet Suppl. 2009;6:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..For that reason, Panax ginseng, which is comparable with Piracetam, a substance effective in the treatment of autism, was investigated ..
  9. Lee N, Yoo S, Kim H, Cho J, Son C. Safety and tolerability of Panax ginseng root extract: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in healthy Korean volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18:1061-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Panax ginseng has been extensively used as an adaptogen and is among the top 10 selling herbal supplements in the United States over the past decade. However, there have been few reports about the toxicity of P. ginseng in human studies...
  10. Dong G, Jang E, Kang S, Cho I, Park S, Kim S, et al. Red ginseng abrogates oxidative stress via mitochondria protection mediated by LKB1-AMPK pathway. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:64 pubmed publisher
    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used as a botanical medicine throughout the history of Asian traditional Oriental medicine...
  11. Hwang S, Shin E, Shin T, Lee B, Choi S, Kang J, et al. Gintonin, a ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor ligand, attenuates Alzheimer's disease-related neuropathies: involvement of non-amyloidogenic processing. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;31:207-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Gintonin could be a useful agent for AD prevention or therapy. ..
  12. Park H, Kim S, Mun A, Go H, Kim G, Kim S, et al. Korean red ginseng and its primary ginsenosides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:1071-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) is one of the most widely used medicinal plants due to its wide spectrum of medicinal effects...
  13. Yoo K, Lee C, Lo Y, Moon B. The hypoglycemic effects of American red ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on a diabetic mouse model. J Food Sci. 2012;77:H147-52 pubmed publisher
    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) root health benefits include treatment of type 2 diabetes and this study evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of American red ginseng (ARG)...
  14. Li C, Zhu Y, Guo X, Sun C, Luo H, Song J, et al. Transcriptome analysis reveals ginsenosides biosynthetic genes, microRNAs and simple sequence repeats in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:245 pubmed publisher
    b>Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. Complete genome information for this species remains unavailable due to its large genome size...
  15. Hong S, Suk K, Choi S, Lee J, Sung H, Kim C, et al. Anti-oxidant and natural killer cell activity of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) and urushiol (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease of rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;55:586-91 pubmed publisher
    Anti-oxidative and immunologic effects of the Korea red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) and urushiol (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated...
  16. Wu B, Wang M, Ma Y, Yuan L, Lu S. High-throughput sequencing and characterization of the small RNA transcriptome reveal features of novel and conserved microRNAs in Panax ginseng. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44385 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no information is available for miRNAs from Panax ginseng, an economically significant medicinal plant species...
  17. Lee L, Cho C, Hong H, Lee Y, Choi U, Kim Y. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of phenolic compound-rich extracts from white ginseng (Panax ginseng) in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Molecules. 2013;18:12548-60 pubmed publisher
  18. Paul S, Shin H, Kang S. Inhibition of inflammations and macrophage activation by ginsenoside-Re isolated from Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:1354-61 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside-Re (Gin-Re) isolated from roots of Panax ginseng on carrageenan-induced paw and TPA-induced skin inflammations in experimental mice...
  19. Shin T, Kim H, Kwon B, Choi S, Kim H, Hwang S, et al. Gintonin, a ginseng-derived novel ingredient, evokes long-term potentiation through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor activation: involvement of LPA receptors. Mol Cells. 2012;34:563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that gintonin-mediated I ( NMDA ) potentiation and LTP induction in the hippocampus via the activation of LPA receptor might be responsible for ginseng-mediated improvement of memory-related brain functions. ..
  20. Hwang S, Lee B, Kim H, Cho H, Shin H, Im K, et al. Suppression of metastasis of intravenously-inoculated B16/F10 melanoma cells by the novel ginseng-derived ingredient, gintonin: involvement of autotaxin inhibition. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that the gintonin?induced inhibition of ATX activity may be the molecular basis of ginseng?induced antimetastatic and antitumor activities. ..
  21. Mucalo I, Rahelic D, Jovanovski E, Bozikov V, Romic Z, Vuksan V. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Coll Antropol. 2012;36:1435-40 pubmed
  22. Sun B, Gu L, Fang Z, Wang C, Wang Z, Lee M, et al. Simultaneous quantification of 19 ginsenosides in black ginseng developed from Panax ginseng by HPLC-ELSD. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;50:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The validated HPLC method is expected to provide the basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. ..
  23. Yun T, Zheng S, Choi S, Cai S, Lee Y, Liu X, et al. Non-organ-specific preventive effect of long-term administration of Korean red ginseng extract on incidence of human cancers. J Med Food. 2010;13:489-94 pubmed publisher
    Previously, two case-control studies and a cohort study strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer exerted non-organ-specific preventive effects against cancer...
  24. Jin Y, Hofseth A, Cui X, Windust A, Poudyal D, Chumanevich A, et al. American ginseng suppresses colitis through p53-mediated apoptosis of inflammatory cells. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that AG drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which AG protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. ..
  25. Park H, Han E, Park D. The ethyl acetate extract of PGP (Phellinus linteus grown on Panax ginseng) suppresses B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through inducing cellular differentiation and apoptosis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132:115-21 pubmed publisher
    Phellinus linteus and Panax ginseng have been widely used as traditional herbal medicines to treat various diseases including cancer in East Asia...
  26. Sathiyamoorthy S, In J, Gayathri S, Kim Y, Yang D. Gene ontology study of methyl jasmonate-treated and non-treated hairy roots of Panax ginseng to identify genes involved in secondary metabolic pathway. Genetika. 2010;46:932-9 pubmed
    The roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, known as Korean ginseng have been a valuable and important folk medicine in East Asian countries...
  27. Lee H, Lee O, Kim K, Lee B. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes glucose uptake through activated AMPK pathway in insulin-resistant muscle cells. Phytother Res. 2012;26:1017-22 pubmed publisher
    Ginsenoside Rg1, a protopanaxatriols saponin, is one of the major active constituents from Panax ginseng and possesses various biological activities...
  28. Zuo G, Guan T, Chen D, Li C, Jiang R, Luo C, et al. Total saponins of Panax ginseng induces K562 cell differentiation by promoting internalization of the erythropoietin receptor. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:747-57 pubmed
    Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine with a wide range of therapeutic benefits. Total saponins of Panax ginseng (TSPG) is one of the main effective components of ginseng...
  29. Li H, Han S, Ma X, Zhang K, Wang L, Ma Z, et al. The saponin of red ginseng protects the cardiac myocytes against ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:477-83 pubmed publisher
    Steamed root of Panax ginseng C.A...
  30. Han J, Kim H, Kwon Y, Choi Y. The Cyt P450 enzyme CYP716A47 catalyzes the formation of protopanaxadiol from dammarenediol-II during ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:2062-73 pubmed publisher
    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs and contains pharmacologically active components, ginsenosides, in its roots...
  31. Shukla R, Kumar M. Role of Panax ginseng as an antioxidant after cadmium-induced hepatic injuries. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:769-73 pubmed publisher
    ..has been made to study the cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) induced toxicity in liver and its possible protection by Panax ginseng...
  32. Kang T, Park H, Kim Y, Kim H, Kim N, Do J, et al. Effects of red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:446-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Korean herb medicine, has been widely used in China and Japan for fatigue and enhancement of resistance to many diseases...
  33. Wu Q, Song J, Sun Y, Suo F, Li C, Luo H, et al. Transcript profiles of Panax quinquefolius from flower, leaf and root bring new insights into genes related to ginsenosides biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation. Physiol Plant. 2010;138:134-49 pubmed publisher
    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has been used for a wide range of therapeutic purposes in China. The major bioactive phytochemicals responsible for this plant's pharmacological features are ginsenosides...
  34. Wong V, Cheung S, Li T, Jiang Z, Wang J, Dong H, et al. Asian ginseng extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of mouse lewis lung carcinoma via modulation of ERK-p53 and NF-?B signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:899-910 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report demonstrating possible combination of EAG with proteasome inhibitors could be a novel strategy in anti-cancer treatment. ..
  35. Jung H, Kwak H, Kim S, Kim Y, Lee C, Byurn H, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng supplementation on muscle damage and inflammation after uphill treadmill running in humans. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:441-50 pubmed
    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether Panax ginseng extract intake would influence exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation responses...
  36. Sathiyamoorthy S, In J, Gayathri S, Kim Y, Yang D. Generation and gene ontology based analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) from a Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer roots. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:3465-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family. Traditionally used as a medicinal plant in Oriental medicine for more than thousand years. Ginsenosides are the major therapeutic components in ginseng roots...
  37. Cho S, Won C, Lee D, Lee M, Lee S, So S, et al. Red ginseng root extract mixed with Torilus fructus and Corni fructus improves facial wrinkles and increases type I procollagen synthesis in human skin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Med Food. 2009;12:1252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results substantiate the alleged beneficial effects of red ginseng on photoaging and support its use as an effective "beauty food." ..
  38. Kwak Y, Kyung J, Kim J, Cho J, Rhee M. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:468-72 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our data suggest that RGAP may play an additional role in reducing hyperlipidemic conditions, which can be used as a valuable neutraceutical application for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. ..
  39. Park S, Jang J, Chen C, Na H, Surh Y. A formulated red ginseng extract rescues PC12 cells from PCB-induced oxidative cell death through Nrf2-mediated upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate cysteine ligase. Toxicology. 2010;278:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, taken together, suggest that HO-1 and GCLC induction via Nrf2 activation may contribute to cytoprotection exerted by RGE against PCB126-induced oxidative stress. ..
  40. Cui X, Jin Y, Poudyal D, Chumanevich A, Davis T, Windust A, et al. Mechanistic insight into the ability of American ginseng to suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that AG keeps the colon environment in metabolic equilibrium when mice are treated with AOM + DSS and gives insight into the mechanisms by which AG protects from colon cancer associated with colitis. ..
  41. Liu L, Hoang Gia T, Wu H, Lee M, Gu L, Wang C, et al. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves spatial learning and memory by regulation of cell genesis in the hippocampal subregions of rats. Brain Res. 2011;1382:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also indicates that Rb1 may be developed as a therapeutic agent for patients with memory impairment. ..
  42. Lee N, Son C. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of ginseng. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2011;4:85-97 pubmed publisher
    ..All randomized clinical trials evaluating the clinical effects or safety of the use of ginseng monopreparations (Panax ginseng or P. quinquefolium) were considered for inclusion...
  43. Liu J, Shimizu K, Yu H, Zhang C, Jin F, Kondo R. Stereospecificity of hydroxyl group at C-20 in antiproliferative action of ginsenoside Rh2 on prostate cancer cells. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:902-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implied that the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at C-20 may play an important role in antitumor activities. ..
  44. Nguyen H, Song G, Kim J, Hyun J, Kang H, Kim Y. Dammarane-type saponins from the flower buds of Panax ginseng and their effects on human leukemia cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..floralginsenoside Td (4), ginsenoside F(1) (5), and ginsenoside F(5) (6), were isolated from the flower buds of Panax ginseng. Floralginsenoside Td (4) was first isolated from natural plant sources...
  45. Li B, Wang C, He T, Yuan C, Du W. Antioxidants potentiate American ginseng-induced killing of colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;289:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further suggest that the anti-cancer effect of steamed ginseng can be enhanced by antioxidants or inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  46. Lee M, Yang E, Kim J, Ernst E. Ginseng for cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;18:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..databases from their inception to January 2009 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of any type of Panax ginseng to treat human patients suffering from AD. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score...
  47. Kim Y, Kim H, Kim G, Park H, Lim S, Seong N, et al. Panax ginseng protects against global ischemia injury in rat hippocampus. J Med Food. 2009;12:71-6 pubmed publisher
    Based on the use of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Family Araliaceae) for the treatment of stroke in traditional Korean medicine, the present study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotective effects of P...
  48. Kim H, Kang K, Yamabe N, Yokozawa T. Comparison of the effects of Korean ginseng and heat-processed Korean ginseng on diabetic oxidative stress. Am J Chin Med. 2008;36:989-1004 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of Korean ginseng (KG, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and heat-processed Korean ginseng (H-KG) on diabetic renal damage, we used the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model in this study...
  49. Taira S, Ikeda R, Yokota N, Osaka I, Sakamoto M, Kato M, et al. Mass spectrometric imaging of ginsenosides localization in Panax ginseng root. Am J Chin Med. 2010;38:485-93 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) to localize ginsenosides (Rb(1), Rb(2) or Rc, and Rf) in cross-sections of the Panax ginseng root at a resolution of 100 microm using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (..
  50. Wang C, Aung H, Zhang B, Sun S, Li X, He H, et al. Chemopreventive effects of heat-processed Panax quinquefolius root on human breast cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:2545-51 pubmed
    Former studies have shown that extract from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) may possess certain antiproliferative effects on cancer cells...
  51. Qi L, Wang C, Yuan C. Isolation and analysis of ginseng: advances and challenges. Nat Prod Rep. 2011;28:467-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the isolation and analysis of ginseng, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. ..
  52. Lee B, Choi S, Pyo M, Shin T, Hwang S, Kim B, et al. A role for Leu247 residue within transmembrane domain 2 in ginsenoside-mediated alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor regulation. Mol Cells. 2009;27:591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, inhibit subsets of nAChR channel currents, but not alpha7, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  53. Chen S, Luo H, Li Y, Sun Y, Wu Q, Niu Y, et al. 454 EST analysis detects genes putatively involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:1593-601 pubmed publisher
    b>Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most highly valued medicinal plants in the world. To analyze the transcriptome of P...