Summary: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.

Top Publications

  1. Kreydiyyeh S, Usta J. Diuretic effect and mechanism of action of parsley. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79:353-7 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of action of parsley seems to be mediated through an inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump that would lead to a reduction in Na+ and K+ reabsorption leading thus to an osmotic water flow into the lumen, and diuresis. ..
  2. Keser G, Buyuk G. Effects of wastewater irrigation on chemical and physical properties of Petroselinum crispum. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;146:369-75 pubmed publisher
    The present study was carried out to assess the impact of wastewater on parsley (Petroselinum crispum)...
  3. Yousofi A, Daneshmandi S, Soleimani N, Bagheri K, Karimi M. Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012;34:303-8 pubmed publisher
    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has been traditionally used for the treatment of allergy, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders...
  4. Song H, Yang J, Suh J, Lee H. Acaricidal activities of apiol and its derivatives from Petroselinum sativum seeds against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7759-64 pubmed publisher
    The acaricidal effects of an active constituent derived from Petroselinum sativum seeds and its derivatives were determined using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and ..
  5. Kanazawa K, Hashimoto T, Yoshida S, Sungwon P, Fukuda S. Short photoirradiation induces flavonoid synthesis and increases its production in postharvest vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:4359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..After 3 days irradiation during 6 days of storage, parsley did not show adverse changes in the contents of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, chlorophyll, and moisture. ..
  6. Bencze L, Filip A, Bánóczi G, ToÅŸa M, Irimie F, Gellért Ã, et al. Expanding the substrate scope of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Petroselinum crispum towards styrylalanines. Org Biomol Chem. 2017;15:3717-3727 pubmed publisher
    This study focuses on the expansion of the substrate scope of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL) towards the l-enantiomers of racemic styrylalanines rac-1a-d - which are less studied and synthetically ..
  7. Raap U, Schaefer T, Kapp A, Wedi B. Exotic food allergy: anaphylactic reaction to lychee. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2007;17:199-201 pubmed
    ..BAT and CAST are helpful tools in the diagnostic workup for exotic food allergy. Mugwort is suggested as the allergen responsible for,the cross-reactivity presented by this patient, as he had no sensitization to latex or profilin. ..
  8. Awe E, Banjoko S. Biochemical and haematological assessment of toxic effects of the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A.W. Hill (Parsley) in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:75 pubmed publisher
    b>Petroselinum crispum, a bright green biennial shrub is widely used traditionally as a food additive and herbal remedies for many ailments...
  9. Logemann E, Hahlbrock K. Crosstalk among stress responses in plants: pathogen defense overrides UV protection through an inversely regulated ACE/ACE type of light-responsive gene promoter unit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2428-32 pubmed
    ..In Petroselinum crispum, pathogen defense has been shown to be associated with extensive metabolic reprogramming, including ..

More Information


  1. Breuninger M, Requena N. Recognition events in AM symbiosis: analysis of fungal gene expression at the early appressorium stage. Fungal Genet Biol. 2004;41:794-804 pubmed
    ..We established an in vitro system of Glomus mosseae and Petroselinum crispum for studying appressorium formation and found that after 120 h first appressoria developed in the root ..
  2. Jiménez Cedillo M, Olguin M, Fall C, Colín Cruz A. As(III) and As(V) sorption on iron-modified non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed biomass from Petroselinum crispum (parsley). J Environ Manage. 2013;117:242-52 pubmed publisher
    The sorption of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions onto iron-modified Petroselinum crispum (PCFe) and iron-modified carbonaceous material from the pyrolysis of P. crispum (PCTTFe) was investigated...
  3. Schreck E, Foucault Y, Sarret G, Sobanska S, Cécillon L, Castrec Rouelle M, et al. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: mechanisms involved for lead. Sci Total Environ. 2012;427-428:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter. ..
  4. Hübner S, Hehmann M, Schreiner S, Martens S, Lukacin R, Matern U. Functional expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from Ammi majus L. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:445-52 pubmed
    ..Correspondingly, the hydroxylase transcript abundance was induced in the elicited cells. ..
  5. Coban T, Ciftci M, Kufrevioglu O. Purification and investigation of some kinetic properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2002;32:173-87 pubmed
    ..1.1.49; G6PD) was purified from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves, and analysis of the kinetic behavior and some properties of the enzyme were investigated...
  6. Chrubasik S, Droste C, Dragano N, Glimm E, Black A. Effectiveness and tolerability of the herbal mixture Asparagus P on blood pressure in treatment-requiring antihypertensives. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:740-2 pubmed
  7. Pavlickova J, Zbíral J, Smatanová M, Habarta P, Houserová P, Kubán V. Uptake of thallium from naturally-contaminated soils into vegetables. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:484-91 pubmed
    ..These findings are very important because of the high toxicity of thallium and the absence of threshold limits for thallium in soils, agricultural products, feedstuffs and foodstuffs in most countries, including the Czech Republic. ..
  8. Karakas M. Life cycle and mating behavior of Zygotylenchus guevarai (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) on excised Petroselinum crispum roots. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:4152-5 pubmed
    The life cycle and mating behavior of Zygotylenchus guevarai were observed in vitro on excised roots of Petroselinum crispum in gnotobiotic culture...
  9. Bartsch S, Bornscheuer U. Mutational analysis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase to improve reactions rates for various substrates. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2010;23:929-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the superior properties of p-nitro-cinnamic acid (p-n-CA) in the amination reaction using the PAL from Petroselinum crispum (pcPAL)...
  10. Malla S, Koffas M, Kazlauskas R, Kim B. Production of 7-O-methyl aromadendrin, a medicinally valuable flavonoid, in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..biosynthetic pathway by introducing the following structural genes: 4-coumarate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase from Petroselinum crispum, chalcone synthase from Petunia hybrida, and chalcone isomerase from Medicago sativa...
  11. Rajabbeigi E, Ghanati F, Abdolmaleki P, Payez A. Antioxidant capacity of parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum L.) in relation to iron-induced ferritin levels and static magnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 2013;32:430-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results cast doubt on the proposed functions of ferritin as a putative reactive oxygen species detoxifying molecule. ..
  12. Dreux N, Albagnac C, Carlin F, Morris C, Nguyen The C. Fate of Listeria spp. on parsley leaves grown in laboratory and field cultures. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1821-7 pubmed
    ..Direct contamination of aerial surfaces of parsley with L. monocytogenes (i.e. through contaminated irrigation water) will not lead to contaminated produce unless it occurs very shortly before harvest. ..
  13. Maodaa S, Allam A, Ajarem J, Abdel Maksoud M, Al Basher G, Wang Z. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus). Behav Brain Funct. 2016;12:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day...
  14. Dreux N, Albagnac C, Sleator R, Hill C, Carlin F, Morris C, et al. Glycine betaine improves Listeria monocytogenes tolerance to desiccation on parsley leaves independent of the osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu and OpuC. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1221-7 pubmed
    ..This effect was independent of intracellular GB accumulation by the known uptake systems. Presence of GB could improve the survival of L. monocytogenes to desiccation on leaf surfaces and nonbiological surfaces. ..
  15. Schröder L, Koch J, Mahner S, Kost B, Hofmann S, Jeschke U, et al. The Effects of Petroselinum Crispum on Estrogen Receptor-positive Benign and Malignant Mammary Cells (MCF12A/MCF7). Anticancer Res. 2017;37:95-102 pubmed
    ..PCE showed antiproliferative effects in MCF7 and MCF12A cells. Further investigation is required to determine whether this effect can be solely attributed to its phytoestrogens. ..
  16. Sato K, Kohzuma T, Dennison C. Active-site structure and electron-transfer reactivity of plastocyanins. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:2101-12 pubmed
    ..The effect of the protonation of the His87 ligand in PCu(I) on the ESE reactivity has been investigated. When the influence of the acidic patch is minimized, the ESE rate constant decreases at high [H(+)]...
  17. Bolkent S, Yanardag R, Ozsoy Sacan O, Karabulut Bulan O. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study. Phytother Res. 2004;18:996-9 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. ..
  18. Hsu W, Simonne A, Jitareerat P. Fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs during refrigerated storage. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1997-2001 pubmed
    ..The results also reinforce the concept that, once contaminated, bacterial pathogens can persist on fresh herbs throughout a normal distribution time...
  19. Fellbrich G, Romanski A, Varet A, Blume B, Brunner F, Engelhardt S, et al. NPP1, a Phytophthora-associated trigger of plant defense in parsley and Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;32:375-90 pubmed
  20. Pereira A, Azevedo J, Vasconcelos V. Assessment of uptake and phytotoxicity of cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins or cylindrospermopsin on parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:1999-2009 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the parsley and coriander leaves and stems after 10 days of exposure did not accumulate microcystins or cylindrospermopsin. ..
  21. Kobayashi M, Watanabe S, Gotoh T, Koizumi H, Itoh Y, Akiyama M, et al. Minor but key chlorophylls in photosystem II. Photosynth Res. 2005;84:201-7 pubmed
    ..marina. Chl d was artificially formed by the treatment of Chl a with papain in aqueous organic solvents. Further, we will raise a key question on the mechanisms of water oxidation in PS II. ..
  22. Chormova D, Franková L, Defries A, Cutler S, Fry S. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity by high-throughput screening. Phytochemistry. 2015;117:220-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied a high-throughput fluorescent dot-blot screen to search for inhibitors of Petroselinum xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity in vitro...
  23. Swiedrych A, Stachowiak J, Szopa J. The catecholamine potentiates starch mobilization in transgenic potato tubers. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2004;42:103-9 pubmed
    ..This may originate from glucose accumulation and glycolysis activation. The obtained transgenic potato provides material for further detailed studies of the physiological function of catecholamines in plants. ..
  24. Baytak S, Kendüzler E, Türker A, Gök N. Penicillium digitatum immobilized on pumice stone as a new solid phase extractor for preconcentration and/or separation of trace metals in environmental samples. J Hazard Mater. 2008;153:975-83 pubmed
    ..The accuracy of the procedure was checked by determining copper, zinc and lead in standard reference tea samples (GBW-07605). ..
  25. Leonard E, Chemler J, Lim K, Koffas M. Expression of a soluble flavone synthase allows the biosynthesis of phytoestrogen derivatives in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;70:85-91 pubmed
    ..The metabolic engineering strategy presented demonstrates that plant-specific flavones are successfully produced in E. coli for the first time by incorporating a soluble flavone synthase confined only in Apiaceae. ..
  26. Stankevičius M, Akuņeca I, Jãkobsone I, Maruska A. Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. J Sep Sci. 2011;34:1261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Six spice plant samples, namely onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots and leaves, celery (Apium graveolens) roots and leaves and leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) ..
  27. Dartsch P. The potential of Asparagus-P to inactivate reactive oxygen radicals. Phytother Res. 2008;22:217-22 pubmed publisher
  28. Khalil R, Frank J. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on damaged leaves of spinach, lettuce, cilantro, and parsley stored at abusive temperatures. J Food Prot. 2010;73:212-20 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence that the damaged portion of a leafy green is a distinct growth niche that elicits different microbial responses in the various types of leafy greens...
  29. Maleki A, Zarasvand M. Heavy metals in selected edible vegetables and estimation of their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:335-40 pubmed
    ..were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)] cultivated around Sanandaj City...
  30. Nawrocki J, Mazur S. Effectiveness of some means using against root rot on parsley seedling root. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2004;69:693-6 pubmed
    ..Spring dressing was better, but not only in controls were many parsley plants decaying in the fields. Among substances used for spring dressing of seedling roots, the best efficacy exhibited Zaprawa Funaben T and Sportak Alpha 380 EC. ..
  31. Wei A, Shibamoto T. Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1737-42 pubmed
    ..6%) in celery seed, benzyl acetate (22.9%) in jasmine, alpha-pinene (33.7%) in juniper berry, myristicin (44%) in parsley seed, patchouli alcohol (28.8%) in patchouli, citronellol (34.2%) in rose, and germacrene (19.1%) in ylang-ylang. ..
  32. Ukai M, Kameya H, Nakamura H, Shimoyama Y. An electron spin resonance study of dry vegetables before and after irradiation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2008;69:1417-22 pubmed
    ..0030 of the irradiated DV increased lineally with radiation doses. Progressive saturation behavior of the DV indicates a unique saturation and the signals obeyed various relaxation processes...
  33. Laniewska Moroz L, Warmińska Radyko I, Dajnowiec M, Kaczkan M. Use of lactic and propionic acid bacteria in the production of fermented parsley juice. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2001;66:601-4 pubmed
    ..The Propionibacterium strains selected by elimination were used as components of vaccine containing: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  34. Pápay Z, Kósa A, Boldizsár I, Ruszkai A, Balogh E, Klebovich I, et al. [Pharmaceutical and formulation aspects of Petroselinum crispum extract]. Acta Pharm Hung. 2012;82:3-14 pubmed
    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) is a very popular spice and vegetable in Europe, it is widely spread and easy to grow. It's herb and fruits are known to be diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant and hepatoprotective...
  35. Abu Ghazaleh B. Fecal coliforms of wastewater treatment plants: antibiotic resistance, survival on surfaces and inhibition by sodium chloride and ascorbic acid. New Microbiol. 2001;24:379-87 pubmed
    ..All resistant strains tested survived on various types of surfaces (e.g. glass, stainless steel, agar, cabbage, parsley and sand) significantly better than sensitive strains. ..
  36. Yildiz L, Başkan K, Tütem E, Apak R. Combined HPLC-CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay of parsley, celery leaves, and nettle. Talanta. 2008;77:304-13 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to identify the essential antioxidant compounds present in parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and celery (Apium graveolens) leaves belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) ..
  37. Hostetler G, Riedl K, Schwartz S. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds. ..
  38. Wahba N, Ahmed A, Ebraheim Z. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese. ..
  39. Torres A, Hoy C. Relationship between carrot weevil infestation and parsley yield. J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:1213-20 pubmed
    ..Based upon this estimated economic injury level, we suggest an action threshold of 1% of plants containing carrot weevil oviposition scars earlier in the growing season when controls could be applied to prevent the damage. ..
  40. Katz V, Fuchs A, Conrath U. Pretreatment with salicylic acid primes parsley cells for enhanced ion transport following elicitation. FEBS Lett. 2002;520:53-7 pubmed
  41. Tun N, Holk A, Scherer G. Rapid increase of NO release in plant cell cultures induced by cytokinin. FEBS Lett. 2001;509:174-6 pubmed
    ..These results imply that NO may act in cytokinin signal transduction. ..
  42. Nawrocki J. The protection of parsley seedlings (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. ssp. microcarpum) against damping-off. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:993-7 pubmed
    ..Preparate Amistar was the best seed dressing for parsley cultivar 'Cukrowa' and 'Kinga'. During glasshouse experiments in control the highest number of decaying seedlings had cultivar 'Berlinska', in field experiments 'Kinga'. ..
  43. Lee J, Rudd J, Macioszek V, Scheel D. Dynamic changes in the localization of MAPK cascade components controlling pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression during innate immunity in parsley. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22440-8 pubmed
  44. Jimenez Alvarez D, Giuffrida F, Golay P, Cotting C, Lardeau A, Keely B. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products. ..
  45. Ikeda K, Schiltz E, Fujii T, Takahashi M, Mitsui K, Kodera Y, et al. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase modified with polyethylene glycol: potential therapeutic agent for phenylketonuria. Amino Acids. 2005;29:283-7 pubmed
    ..Recombinant PAL originated from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) chemically conjugated with activated PEG2 [2,4-bis(O-methoxypolyethyleneglycol)-6-chloro-s-triazine] ..
  46. Le M, Lanaspa M, Cicerchi C, Rana J, Scholten J, Hunter B, et al. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157458 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?M). Extracts of Angelica archangelica, Garcinia mangostana, Petroselinum crispum, and Scutellaria baicalensis exhibited ketohexokinase inhibitory activity and blocked fructose-induced ..
  47. Park K, Choi J, Abd El Aty A, Cho S, Park J, Kim B, et al. Determination of spinetoram and its metabolites in amaranth and parsley using QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2012;134:2552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time spinetoram and its metabolites were quantified using LC-MS/MS in minor crops. ..
  48. Sbrana C, Fortuna P, Giovannetti M. Plugging into the network: belowground connections between germlings and extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia. 2011;103:307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the multigenomic nature of AMF, the mingling of germling nuclei with those of the mycorrhizal network through perfect fusions might represent a means for the maintenance of genetic diversity in the absence of sexual recombination...
  49. Duffy E, Cisneros Zevallos L, Castillo A, Pillai S, Ricke S, Acuff G. Survival of salmonella transformed to express green fluorescent protein on Italian parsley as affected by processing and storage. J Food Prot. 2005;68:687-95 pubmed
    ..After 7 days of storage, there were no viable internalized Salmonella cells detected. Storage temperature represents an important control point for the safety of fresh parsley. ..
  50. Dorman H, Lantto T, Raasmaja A, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley. Food Funct. 2011;2:328-37 pubmed publisher
    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol...
  51. Mahmoud B. Effect of x-ray treatments on pathogenic bacteria, inherent microbiota, color, and texture on parsley leaves. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9:922-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1-1.5 X-ray were observed. The results of investigation indicated that X-ray is an effective technology to eliminate E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and Shigella flexneri, and to extend the shelf life of parsley leaves. ..
  52. Miyahisa I, Funa N, Ohnishi Y, Martens S, Moriguchi T, Horinouchi S. Combinatorial biosynthesis of flavones and flavonols in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;71:53-8 pubmed
    ..Further introduction of the flavone synthase I gene from Petroselinum crispum under the control of the T7 promoter and the synthetic ribosome-binding sequence in pACYCDuet-1 caused ..
  53. Kanofsky K, Lehmeyer M, Schulze J, Hehl R. Analysis of Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern-Responsive Synthetic Promoters with the Parsley Protoplast System. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1482:163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the use of the parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system for analyzing MAMP-responsive synthetic promoters is described...