heracleum

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.

Top Publications

  1. Guleria S, Saini R, Jaitak V, Kaul V, Lal B, Rahi P, et al. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Heracleum thomsonii (Clarke) from the cold desert of the western Himalayas. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) essential oil of freshly collected aerial parts of Heracleum thomsonii (Umbeliferae) from the western Himalayas was studied by GC-FID and GC-MS...
  2. Niu X, Li S, Jiang B, Zhao Q, Sun H. Constituents from the roots of Heracleum rapula Franch. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2002;4:33-41 pubmed
    ..along with 17 known coumarins and one steroid, was isolated from the roots of Heracleum rapula Franch. Four coumarin glucosides, including the new one, were obtained from the water-soluble fraction...
  3. Mileski K, Ćirić A, Trifunović S, Ristić M, Soković M, Matevski V, et al. Heracleum orphanidis: chemical characterisation, and comparative evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with specific interest in the influence on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Food Funct. 2016;7:4061-4074 pubmed
    GC-FID and GC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum orphanidis Boiss...
  4. Webster D, Taschereau P, Lee T, Jurgens T. Immunostimulant properties of Heracleum maximum Bartr. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106:360-3 pubmed
    The root of Heracleum maximum Bartr. (Umbelliferae), known to possess direct antifungal and anti-mycobacterial properties, has been reported anecdotally to possess antiviral properties...
  5. Cook A, Marion G, Butler A, Gibson G. Bayesian inference for the spatio-temporal invasion of alien species. Bull Math Biol. 2007;69:2005-25 pubmed
    ..the use of such techniques we apply them to the analysis of data detailing the spread of an invasive plant, Heracleum mantegazzianum, across Britain in the 20th Century using geo-referenced covariate information describing local ..
  6. Iscan G, Demirci F, Kurkcuoglu M, Kivanc M, Baser K. The bioactive essential oil of Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt. Z Naturforsch C. 2003;58:195-200 pubmed
    The essential oil of Heracleum sphondylium L subsp. ternatun (Velen.) Brummit (Umbelliferae) was isolated from crushed seeds by means of hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Major components were identified as 1-octanol (50...
  7. McViety J, Swindells K, Boon R, Mughal Z. The day of the triffids?. Emerg Med J. 2010;27:883-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a case report of two children who presented with a widespread bullous erythematous rash secondary to exposure to the hogweed plant. ..
  8. Luu Y, Li L, Zhang C, Xiao Y. [Studies on chemical constituents in roots of Heracleum rapula]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:667-8 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents in roots of Heracleum rapula. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and ODS, and identified by spectroscopic methods...
  9. Baba M, Jin Y, Mizuno A, Suzuki H, Okada Y, Takasuka N, et al. Studies on cancer chemoprevention by traditional folk medicines XXIV. Inhibitory effect of a coumarin derivative, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, against tumor-promotion. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:244-6 pubmed
    7-Isopentenyloxycoumarin (1) was isolated from Heracleum lanatum MICHX. (Umbelliferae). Compound 1 inhibited phospholipid metabolism and Epstein-Barr virus activation caused by a potent tumor promoter...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ušjak L, Petrovic S, Drobac M, Sokovic M, Stanojkovic T, Ciric A, et al. Essential oils of three cow parsnips - composition and activity against nosocomial and foodborne pathogens and food contaminants. Food Funct. 2017;8:278-290 pubmed publisher
    Although some widespread, native cow parsnips (Heracleum L. spp., Apiaceae) had broad medicinal and culinary applications throughout history, the knowledge about their volatile constituents is insufficient...
  2. Orhan I, Tosun F, Sener B. Coumarin, anthroquinone and stilbene derivatives with anticholinesterase activity. Z Naturforsch C. 2008;63:366-70 pubmed
    ..4), 8-methoxypsoralen (5), bergapten (6), and iso-bergapten (7)], a furanocoumarin mixture obtained from Heracleum crenatifolium Boiss...
  3. Nakamori T, Taniguchi M, Shibano M, Wang N, Baba K. Chemical studies on the root of Heracleum candicans Wall. J Nat Med. 2008;62:403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..spirobifuranocoumarins, candibirins B-E (3-6); and two trifuranocoumarins, canditririns A and B (7 and 8), were isolated from the roots of Heracleum candicans Wall. Their structures were established using chemical and spectral means.
  4. Aziz M, Khan A, Adnan M, Ullah H. Traditional uses of medicinal plants used by Indigenous communities for veterinary practices at Bajaur Agency, Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2018;14:11 pubmed publisher
    ..New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra...
  5. Khosravi A, Shokri H, Fahimirad S. Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates. J Mycol Med. 2016;26:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates...
  6. Dostal P, Müllerová J, Pysek P, Pergl J, Klinerová T. The impact of an invasive plant changes over time. Ecol Lett. 2013;16:1277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we explored the impact of an invasive plant Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) at 24 grassland sites invaded for different periods of time (from 11 to 48 years)..
  7. Derraik J. Heracleum mantegazzianum and Toxicodendron succedaneum: plants of human health significance in New Zealand and the National Pest Plant Accord. N Z Med J. 2007;120:U2657 pubmed
    ..for inclusion in the NPPA, two species were examined primarily due to their significance to human health: Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed, cow parsnip, wild parsnip) and Toxicodendron succedaneum (rhus tree, wax tree, ..
  8. Jamshidparvar A, Javandel F, Seidavi A, Peña Blanco F, Martínez Marín A, Avilés Ramírez C, et al. Effects of golpar (Heracleum persicum Desf.) and probiotics in drinking water on performance, carcass characteristics, organ weights, blood plasma constituents, and immunity of broilers. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:23571-23577 pubmed publisher
    Increasing levels of Heracleum persicum (golpar) in drinking water were studied in broilers...
  9. Bogucka Kocka A, Krzaczek T. The furanocoumarins in the roots of Heracleum sibiricum L. Acta Pol Pharm. 2003;60:391-3 pubmed
    From roots of Heracleum sibiricum L (cow parsnip) collected natural state, a raw crystalline furanocoumarin precipitate was obtained containing four compounds: bergapten, isopimpinellin, pimpinellin, sphondin...
  10. Eun J, Choi B, Park J, Lee G, Lee T, Kim D, et al. Open channel block of hKv1.5 by psoralen from Heracleum moellendorffii Hance. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28:269-73 pubmed
    ..derivative, psoralen (7H-furo[3,2-g][1]benzopyran-7-one), was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance. We examined the effects of psoralen on a human Kv1.5 potassium channel (hKv1...
  11. Dissemond J. [When the sun burns. Hands off hogweed!]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005;147:57 pubmed
  12. Panahi Y, Dadjou Y, Pishgoo B, Akbari A, Sahebkar A. Antioxidant Activity of Heracleum persicum Fruit Extract: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Diet Suppl. 2016;13:530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplementation with Heracleum persicum fruit-a common dietary spice-in modulating systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress in subjects ..
  13. Donath T, Eckstein R. Litter effects on seedling establishment interact with seed position and earthworm activity. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2012;14:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, changes in the amount of litter cover and the invertebrate community play a significant role in plant community composition. ..
  14. Habibi Z, Eshaghi R, Mohammadi M, Yousefi M. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rechingeri Manden from Iran. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24:1013-7 pubmed publisher
    The chemical composition of the essential oil from Heracleum rechingeri was analysed using GC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds, accounting for 94.62% of the extracted essential oil, were identified...
  15. Li X, Jiang X, Yang K, Wang L, Wen S, Wang F. Prenylated Coumarins from Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2016;6:233-237 pubmed
    ..3), and 6-hydroxycoumurrayin (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata, respectively...
  16. Zdrojewicz Z, Stebnicki M, Stebnicki M. [Sosnowsky's hogweed - toxicology and threat to health]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2016;41:165-168 pubmed
    Sosnowsky's hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) is a genus of plants in the family Apiaceae which also includes Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier)...
  17. Kim W, Moon B, Yang S, Han K, Choi G, Lee A. Rapid Authentication of the Herbal Medicine Plant Species Aralia continentalis Kitag. and Angelica biserrata C.Q. Yuan and R.H. Shan Using ITS2 Sequences and Multiplex-SCAR Markers. Molecules. 2016;21:270 pubmed publisher
    ..Further confusion arises from the distribution of dried Levisticum officinale and Heracleum moellendorffii roots as the same medicine...
  18. Razzaghi Abyaneh M, Saberi R, Sharifan A, Rezaee M, Seifili R, Hosseini S, et al. Effects of Heracleum persicum ethyl acetate extract on the growth, hyphal ultrastructure and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Mycotoxin Res. 2013;29:261-9 pubmed publisher
    The ethyl acetate extract of leaves, seeds and flowers of Heracleum persicum, a medicinal plant of Iran (family Apiaceae) inhibited growth and aflatoxin (AF) production of Aspergillus parasiticus...
  19. Bae D, Kim C, Lee J. Anti-inflammatory effects of dehydrogeijerin in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:734-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated whether Heracleum (H) moellendorffii Hance-derived dehydrogeijerin and geijerin could be used to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophage cell lines, Raw 264...
  20. Zhang H, Wu X, Mi J, Peng Y, Wang Z, Liu Y, et al. A New Anti-Inflammatory Alkaloid from Roots of Heracleum dissectum. Chem Biodivers. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..praeroside; 9), tachioside (10) and coniferin (11), were isolated from roots of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb...
  21. Makarova E, Shakhmatov E, Belyy V. Structural characteristics of oxalate-soluble polysaccharides of Sosnowsky's hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden). Carbohydr Polym. 2016;153:66-77 pubmed publisher
    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) and pectic polysaccharides were isolated from above-ground parts of Heracleum sosnowskyi...
  22. Kielbus M, Skalicka Wozniak K, Grabarska A, Jeleniewicz W, Dmoszyńska Graniczka M, Marston A, et al. 7-substituted coumarins inhibit proliferation and migration of laryngeal cancer cells in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:4347-56 pubmed
    ..counter-current chromatography was applied for successful separation of umbelliferone from fruits of Heracleum leskowii...
  23. Wang X, Li G, Li L, Zheng L, Huang R, Zhang K. Nematicidal coumarins from Heracleum candicans Wall. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:666-71 pubmed publisher
    The root extract of Heracleum candicans Wall. exhibited antagonistic activities against nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle and Panagrellus redivivus (Linn.) Goodey...
  24. Inoue A, Shibano M, Taniguchi M, Baba K, Wang N. Four novel furanocoumarin glucosides, candinosides A, B, C and D, from Heracleum candicans Wall. J Nat Med. 2011;65:116-21 pubmed publisher
    Four novel furanocoumarin glucosides, candinosides A, B, C and D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Heracleum candicans Wall. Their structures were established using chemical and spectral methods.
  25. Panahi Y, Pishgoo B, Beiraghdar F, Araghi Z, Sahebkar A, Abolhasani E. Results of a randomized,open-label,clinical trial investigating the effects of supplementation with Heracleumpersicum extract as an adjunctive therapy for dyslipidemia. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:592-601 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Apart from HDL-C, the effects of atorvastatin (20 mg/day) on other lipid profile parameters do not appear to be significantly superior to those achieved by combination therapy with H. persicum+ atorvastatin (10 mg/day). ..
  26. Alm T. Ethnobotany of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., an invasive species in Norway, or how plant names, uses, and other traditions evolve. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:42 pubmed publisher
    b>Heracleum persicum was introduced to Norway as an ornamental in the 1830's...
  27. McCue A. A mystery. Cow parsnip phytophotodermatitis. Wilderness Environ Med. 2007;18:156-9 pubmed
  28. Kolosova V, Svanberg I, Kalle R, Strecker L, Ozkan A, Pieroni A, et al. The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017;13:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the most common taxa with bear-related phytonyms were Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Heracleum sphondylium L., Acanthus mollis L., and Allium ursinum L...
  29. Taniguchi M, Inoue A, Shibano M, Wang N, Baba K. Five condensed furanocoumarins from the root of Heracleum candicans Wall. J Nat Med. 2011;65:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..C-E (1-3), a new spirotetrafuranocoumarin, canditetrarin A (4), and a new tetrafuranocoumarin, canditetrarin B (5), were isolated from the roots of Heracleum candicans Wall. Their structures were established using spectral methods.
  30. Carroll M, Berenbaum M. Lutein sequestration and furanocoumarin metabolism in parsnip webworms under different ultraviolet light regimes in the montane west. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:277-305 pubmed
    ..We examined furanocoumarin production in western North American populations of Heracleum lanatum and Pastinaca sativa that, at different latitudes and altitudes, experience different ultraviolet (UV) ..
  31. Hoseinifar S, Zoheiri F, Lazado C. Dietary phytoimmunostimulant Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) has more remarkable impacts on skin mucus than on serum in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;59:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive ..
  32. Cieśla L, Bogucka Kocka A, Hajnos M, Petruczynik A, Waksmundzka Hajnos M. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography with adsorbent gradient as a method of chromatographic fingerprinting of furanocoumarins for distinguishing selected varieties and forms of Heracleum spp. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1207:160-8 pubmed publisher
    There are a lot of taxonomic classifications of the genus Heracleum, and many authors indicate they need revision...
  33. Jakubowicz O, Zaba C, Nowak G, Jarmuda S, Zaba R, Marcinkowski J. Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:327-8 pubmed
    b>Heracleum Sosnowskyi was discovered in 1772 and described as a separate species in 1944 by I. P. Mandenova. Its name is derived from the surname of a botanist studying Caucasian flora, Prof. D.I. Sosnowski...
  34. Karimian Teherani D, Kinaciyan T, Tanew A. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to Heracleum giganteum. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2008;24:99-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Heracleum plants occur in numerous species worldwide and may cause phototoxic reactions due to its content of various furocoumarins...
  35. Hajhashemi V, Sajjadi S, Heshmati M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Heracleum persicum essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract in animal models. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124:475-80 pubmed publisher
    Fruits of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) are used as pain killer in Iranian folkloric medicine...
  36. Karuppusamy S, Muthuraja G. Radical scavenging activities of Heracleum aquilegifolium Wight (Apiaceae) fruit oils in vitro. Z Naturforsch C. 2010;65:653-9 pubmed
    The fruits of Heracleum aquilegifolium Wight (Apiaceae) were collected from Western Ghats of the Indian Peninsula. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation...
  37. Henry P, Le Lay G, Goudet J, Guisan A, Jahodová S, Besnard G. Reduced genetic diversity, increased isolation and multiple introductions of invasive giant hogweed in the western Swiss Alps. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:2819-31 pubmed publisher
    The giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) has successfully invaded 19 European countries as well as parts of North America...
  38. Sayyah M, Moaied S, Kamalinejad M. Anticonvulsant activity of Heracleum persicum seed. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98:209-11 pubmed
    The anticonvulsant activity of acetone extract of the seeds of Heracleum persicum (Umbelliferae) was examined against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice...
  39. Doi M, Nakamori T, Shibano M, Taniguchi M, Wang N, Baba K. Candibirin A, a furanocoumarin dimer isolated from Heracleum candicans WALL. Acta Crystallogr C. 2004;60:o833-5 pubmed
    ..a new furanocoumarin dimer, was isolated from Heracleum candicans WALL...
  40. Veselkin D, Ivanova L, Ivanov L, Mikryukova M, Bolshakov V, Betekhtina A. Rapid use of resources as a basis of the Heracleum sosnowskyi invasive syndrome. Dokl Biol Sci. 2017;473:53-56 pubmed publisher
    The functional properties of the invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi were compared with those of the native Heracleum sibiricum. The leaf and root traits, as well as those of a whole plant and of the mycorrhiza formation, were studied. H...
  41. Walker N, Hulme P, Hoelzel A. Population genetics of an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum: implications for the role of life history, demographics and independent introductions. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:1747-56 pubmed
    The population genetic structure of an invasive, nonindigenous riparian weed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the northeast of England was investigated using microsatellite DNA markers...
  42. Konovalova M, Markov P, Durnev E, Kurek D, Popov S, Varlamov V. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of pectin and chitosan cryogels for biomedical application. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2017;105:547-556 pubmed publisher
    ..For cryogel preparation, apple pectin (AP), Heracleum L. pectin (HP), and chitosan samples with different physical and chemical characteristics were used...
  43. Ušjak L, Petrovic S, Drobac M, Soković M, Stanojkovic T, Ćirić A, et al. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Heracleum verticillatum Pan?i? and H. ternatum Velen. (Apiaceae) Essential Oils. Chem Biodivers. 2016;13:466-76 pubmed publisher
    In this work, the chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Heracleum verticillatum Pan?i? and H. ternatum Velen. root, leaf, and fruit essential oils were investigated. The composition was analyzed by GC and GC/MS...
  44. Pavela R, Maggi F, Cianfaglione K, Bruno M, Benelli G. Larvicidal activity of essential oils of five Apiaceae taxa and some of their main constituents against Culex quinquefasciatus. Chem Biodivers. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..insecticidal potential of the essential oils from five Apiaceae taxa, namely Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium subsp...
  45. Davari M, Ezazi R. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Zhumeria majdae, Heracleum persicum and Eucalyptus sp. against some important phytopathogenic fungi. J Mycol Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in recent study, essential oils (EOs) from Zhumeria majdae, Heracleum persicum (two Iranian endemic plants) and Eucalyptus sp...
  46. O Neill T, Johnson J, Webster D, Gray C. The Canadian medicinal plant Heracleum maximum contains antimycobacterial diynes and furanocoumarins. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:232-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Heracleum maximum is amongst the most commonly used plants by the indigenous peoples of North America...
  47. Miladinović D, Ilić B, Mihajilov Krstev T, Nikolic D, Cvetković O, Marković M, et al. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Heracleum sibiricum. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8:1309-11 pubmed
    The composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Heracleum sibiricum L. (Apiaceae) was studied. The aerial part of plant was hydro-distilled and chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS...
  48. Alm T. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:72 pubmed publisher
    ..Cicuta virosa, Lathyrus japonicus, Leymus arenarius, Primula vulgaris, and Scopolia carniolica in Norway, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum in Denmark, Phoenix dactylifera and P...
  49. Liu Y, Zhang C, Li L, Xiao Y. [Studies on chemical constituents in roots of Heracleum rapula]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:309-11 pubmed
    To study the chemical constituents in roots of Heracleum rapula. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and ODS, and identified by spectroscopic methods...
  50. Alam M, Seo B, Zhao P, Lee S. Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Heracleum moellendorffii via ERK1/2-Mediated MITF Downregulation. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    In this study, the anti-melanogenic effects of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance extract (HmHe) and the mechanisms through which it inhibits melanogenesis in melan-a cells were investigated...
  51. Skalicka Wozniak K, Głowniak K. Pressurized liquid extraction of coumarins from fruits of Heracleum leskowii with application of solvents with different polarity under increasing temperature. Molecules. 2012;17:4133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As a matrix, fruits of Heracleum leskowii have been used...
  52. Dehghan H, Sarrafi Y, Salehi P. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of 11 herbal plants from Hyrcania region, Iran. J Food Drug Anal. 2016;24:179-188 pubmed publisher
    ..extracts of various parts of Allium paradoxum, Buxus hyrcana, Convolvulus persicus, Eryngium caucasicum, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella affinis, Parrotia persica, Primula heterochroma, Pyrus boissieriana, Ruscus hyrcanus, and ..
  53. Shakhmatov E, Atukmaev K, Makarova E. Structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides and arabinogalactan proteins from Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;136:1358-69 pubmed publisher
    Polymers with different structures were isolated from the aboveground part of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden...