hemlock

Summary

Summary: Any of several poisonous plants, commonly called poison hemlock, of the CICUTA or CONIUM genus. The hemlock tree (TSUGA) is completely unrelated being a coniferous tree of the pine family.

Top Publications

  1. Porter T, Skillman J, Moncalvo J. Fruiting body and soil rDNA sampling detects complementary assemblage of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3037-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Unless an exhaustive inventory is required, the rapidity and versatility of DNA-based sampling may be sufficient for a first assessment of the dominant taxonomic and ecological groups of fungi in forest soil. ..
  2. Uwai K, Ohashi K, Takaya Y, Ohta T, Tadano T, Kisara K, et al. Exploring the structural basis of neurotoxicity in C(17)-polyacetylenes isolated from water hemlock. J Med Chem. 2000;43:4508-15 pubmed
    Water hemlock, Cicuta virosa, belonging to the Umbelliferae, is well-known as a toxic plant responsible for lethal poisonings in humans as well as animals, causing tonic and clonic convulsions and respiratory paralysis...
  3. Hickin M, Preisser E. Effects of Light and Water Availability on the Performance of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Environ Entomol. 2015;44:128-35 pubmed publisher
    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) is a dominant shade-tolerant tree in northeastern United States that has been declining since the arrival of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Determining where A...
  4. Heath K. A fatal case of apparent water hemlock poisoning. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001;43:35-6 pubmed
    ..Bioassay caused death in mice which demonstrated clinical signs similar to water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) poisonings. Cicutoxin could not be demonstrated in postmortem tissue or gastric lavage...
  5. Reynolds T. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:1399-1406 pubmed
    b>Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine...
  6. Goring S, Mladenoff D, Cogbill C, Record S, Paciorek C, Jackson S, et al. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151935 pubmed publisher
    ..Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, ..
  7. Berger M, Chen Y, Bampali K, Ernst M, Maulide N. Expeditious synthesis of polyacetylenic water hemlock toxins and their effects on the major GABAA receptor isoform. Chem Commun (Camb). 2018;54:2008-2011 pubmed publisher
  8. Letheren A, Hill S, Salie J, Parkman J, Chen J. A Little Bug with a Big Bite: Impact of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations on Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern USA and Potential Control Strategies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    b>Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, HWA) remains the single greatest threat to the health and sustainability of hemlock in the eastern USA...
  9. Weed A, Elkinton J, Lany N. Density-Dependent Recruitment and Diapause in the Spring-Feeding Generation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Western North America. Environ Entomol. 2016;45:1352-1359 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we experimentally manipulated densities of the hemlock woolly adelgid on eastern and western hemlock trees in the western USA to evaluate the effects of density and ..

More Information

Publications52

  1. Gouli V, Gouli S, Marcelino J, Skinner M, Parker B. Entomopathogenic Fungi Associated with Exotic Invasive Insect Pests in Northeastern Forests of the USA. Insects. 2013;4:631-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Elongate hemlock scale, European fruit lecanium, hemlock woolly adelgid and pear thrips were analyzed for the presence of ..
  2. Mathisen A. Mineral waters, electricity, and hemlock: devising therapeutics for children in eighteenth-century institutions. Med Hist. 2013;57:28-44 pubmed publisher
  3. Panter K, Gardner D, Stegelmeier B, Welch K, Holstege D. Water hemlock poisoning in cattle: Ingestion of immature Cicuta maculata seed as the probable cause. Toxicon. 2011;57:157-61 pubmed publisher
    It is well understood that water hemlock tubers are highly toxic to animals and to humans. However, this is the first time that immature seed from (Cicuta maculata) has been implicated in livestock poisoning...
  4. Ingwell L, Preisser E. Using citizen science programs to identify host resistance in pest-invaded forests. Conserv Biol. 2011;25:182-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Hanavan R, Pontius J, Hallett R. A 10-Year Assessment of Hemlock Decline in the Catskill Mountain Region of New York State Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques. J Econ Entomol. 2015;108:339-49 pubmed publisher
    The hemlock woolly adelgid is a serious pest of Eastern and Carolina hemlock in the eastern United States...
  6. Havill N, Shiyake S, Lamb Galloway A, Foottit R, Yu G, Paradis A, et al. Ancient and modern colonization of North America by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an invasive insect from East Asia. Mol Ecol. 2016;25:2065-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America...
  7. Dayan A. What killed Socrates? Toxicological considerations and questions. Postgrad Med J. 2009;85:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..death of Socrates in 399 BCE, as reported by Plato in the Phaedo, is usually attributed to poisoning with common hemlock. His progressive centripetal paralysis is characteristic of that poison...
  8. Turcotte R, Lagalante A, Jones J, Cook F, Elliott T, Billings A, et al. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Imidacloprid Within the Crown of Eastern Hemlock. J Insect Sci. 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    Systemic imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide to control the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriére in the United States...
  9. Wright S, Berch S, Berbee M. The effect of fertilization on the below-ground diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Mycorrhiza. 2009;19:267-276 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared fungal species composition in western hemlock control plots with plots last fertilized 7 years ago with nitrogen (N) or nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P)...
  10. Dunham S, O Dell T, Molina R. Spatial analysis of within-population microsatellite variability reveals restricted gene flow in the Pacific golden chanterelle (Cantharellus formosus). Mycologia. 2006;98:250-9 pubmed
    ..Cantharellus formosus) in a 50 y old forest stand dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with spatial autocorrelation analysis...
  11. Arsenault A, Havill N, Mayfield A, Wallin K. Behavioral Responses of Laricobius spp. and Hybrids (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid and Adelgid Host Tree Odors in an Olfactometer. Environ Entomol. 2015;44:1562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..osakensis (Shiyake and Montgomery) (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) have been released for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in eastern North America. L...
  12. Russo N, Cheah C, Tingley M. Experimental Evidence for Branch-to-Bird Transfer as a Mechanism for Avian Dispersal of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Environ Entomol. 2016;45:1107-1114 pubmed
    Birds have long been hypothesized as primary dispersal agents of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Although A...
  13. Brtalik D, Stopyra J, Hannum J. Intravenous Poison Hemlock Injection Resulting in Prolonged Respiratory Failure and Encephalopathy. J Med Toxicol. 2017;13:180-182 pubmed publisher
    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a common plant with a significant toxicity. Data on this toxicity is sparse as there have been few case reports and never a documented poisoning after intravenous injection...
  14. Panter K, Baker D, Kechele P. Water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) toxicoses in sheep: pathologic description and prevention of lesions and death. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1996;8:474-80 pubmed
    Water hemlock causes numerous livestock losses in North America every year. Description of pathologic and serum biochemical changes has been lacking in the literature...
  15. Morgan R. Sequoia over Hemlock: life termination's noniatrogenic third alternative. Psychol Rep. 1994;75:217-8 pubmed
    ..The choice to die with or without dignity based on medical opinion is a restricted field. A third option of not dying at all or at least attempting this outcome via new physicians is proposed. ..
  16. Lopez T, Cid M, Bianchini M. Biochemistry of hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) alkaloids and their acute and chronic toxicity in livestock. A review. Toxicon. 1999;37:841-65 pubmed
    ..The losses produced by C. maculatum chronic toxicity may be largely underestimated, at least in some regions, because of the difficulty in associate malformations in offspring with the much earlier maternal poisoning. ..
  17. Hotti H, Seppänen Laakso T, Arvas M, Teeri T, Rischer H. Polyketide synthases from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). FEBS J. 2015;282:4141-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated PKS genes or their fragments from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L...
  18. Panter K, James L, Gardner D. Lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock. J Nat Toxins. 1999;8:117-34 pubmed
    ..Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Nicotiana spp. including N. tabacum and N...
  19. Darr M, McAvoy T, Brewster C, Salom S. Field-Cage Evaluation of Survival, Reproduction, and Feeding Behavior of Adult Scymnus coniferarum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Environ Entomol. 2016;45:1527-1535 pubmed publisher
    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive pest of eastern (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann) forests in the eastern United States...
  20. Ayayee P, Yang F, Rieske L. Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant-Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore. Insects. 2014;5:364-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We used microindentation to quantify the micromechanical properties of hemlock, Tsuga spp., to quantify the hardness of the feeding site of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae...
  21. Cortinovis C, Caloni F. Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:5301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Datura stramonium (jimson weed), Equisetum palustre (marsh horsetail), Senecio spp...
  22. Hotti H, Rischer H. The killer of Socrates: Coniine and Related Alkaloids in the Plant Kingdom. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC...
  23. Wilson C, Vendettuoli J, Orwig D, Preisser E. Impact of an Invasive Insect and Plant Defense on a Native Forest Defoliator. Insects. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carriére) in the United States is threatened by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand)...
  24. Benton E, Grant J, Webster R, Cowles R, Lagalante A, Saxton A, et al. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Abundance and Hemlock Canopy Health Numerous Years After Imidacloprid Basal Drench Treatments: Implications for Management Programs. J Econ Entomol. 2016;: pubmed
    b>Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae [Annand]), an invasive insect in the eastern United States, has caused widespread decline of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriére...
  25. Twieg B, Durall D, Simard S, Jones M. Influence of soil nutrients on ectomycorrhizal communities in a chronosequence of mixed temperate forests. Mycorrhiza. 2009;19:305-316 pubmed publisher
    ..were replicated on four sites, each representing critical seral stages of stand development in Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICH) forests of southern British Columbia...
  26. Limbu S, Keena M, Long D, Ostiguy N, Hoover K. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Larval Development and Predation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Environ Entomol. 2015;44:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was brought to the United States from China as a ..
  27. Liu S, Xie J, Li W, Kong W, Wang L, Zhou Q. Highly enantioselective synthesis of chiral cyclic amino alcohols and conhydrine by ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. Org Lett. 2009;11:4994-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The enantioselectivities of the reaction were up to 99.9% ee with 99:1 cis-selectivities. A practical catalytic asymmetric synthesis of all four isomers of conhydrine was also developed. ..
  28. Sussky E, Elkinton J. Survival and Near Extinction of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) During Summer Aestivation in a Hemlock Plantation. Environ Entomol. 2015;44:153-9 pubmed publisher
    Varying densities of the spring generation of the hemlock woolly adelgid were manipulated on 16 previously uninfested eastern hemlocks in an open-field plantation in Massachusetts...
  29. Jones A, Mullins D, Jones T, Salom S. Potential feeding deterrents found in hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:583-6 pubmed publisher
    The nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) has been a significant mortality agent of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) throughout a large portion of its geographic range...
  30. Schaeffer R, Wang Z, Thornber C, Preisser E, Orians C. Two invasive herbivores on a shared host: patterns and consequences of phytohormone induction. Oecologia. 2018;186:973-982 pubmed publisher
    ..Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is attacked by two invasive herbivores [elongate hemlock scale (EHS; Fiorinia externa) and ..
  31. Motley K, Havill N, Arsenault Benoit A, Mayfield A, Ott D, Ross D, et al. Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA. Bull Entomol Res. 2017;107:699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..adults were released at two different densities onto enclosed branches of A. tsugae infested eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Tennessee and New York...
  32. Kominoski J, Pringle C, Ball B, Bradford M, Coleman D, Hall D, et al. Nonadditive effects of leaf litter species diversity on breakdown dynamics in a detritus-based stream. Ecology. 2007;88:1167-76 pubmed
    ..To that end, loss of species such as eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) accompanied by predicted changes in riparian tree species composition in the southeastern ..
  33. Johnson J, Gaddis K, Cairns D, Konganti K, Krutovsky K. Landscape genomic insights into the historic migration of mountain hemlock in response to Holocene climate change. Am J Bot. 2017;104:439-450 pubmed publisher
    ..degree have microrefugial patches and long-distance dispersal been responsible for the colonization of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) on the Alaskan Kenai Peninsula...
  34. Rochefort S, Berthiaume R, Hébert C, Charest M, Bauce E. Effect of temperature and host tree on cold hardiness of hemlock looper eggs along a latitudinal gradient. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:751-9 pubmed publisher
    The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria, is an economically important insect pest of Canadian forests which overwinters as eggs...
  35. Mausel D, Kok L, Salom S. Numerical Response and Impact of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Their Native Range. Environ Entomol. 2017;46:544-551 pubmed publisher
    ..nigrinus and other predators can regulate densities of A. tsugae below eastern hemlock's physiological damage threshold in the eastern United States.
  36. Benton E, Grant J, Webster R, Nichols R, Cowles R, Lagalante A, et al. Assessment of Imidacloprid and Its Metabolites in Foliage of Eastern Hemlock Multiple Years Following Treatment for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in Forested Conditions. J Econ Entomol. 2015;108:2672-82 pubmed publisher
    Widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, have been caused by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (HWA) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)...
  37. Yang S, Tsai S, Fan H, Yang C, Hung W, Cho S. Seasonal variation of microbial ecology in hemlock soil of Tatachia Mountain, Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2006;39:195-205 pubmed
    ..in Taiwan, the environmental conditions, seasons, microbial populations, biomass and organic acid contents of hemlock soil were investigated. We also studied the effect of depth on microbial populations and biomass...
  38. Wiggins G, Grant J, Rhea J, Mayfield A, Hakeem A, Lambdin P, et al. Emergence, Seasonality, and Hybridization of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), an Introduced Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the Tennessee Appalachians. Environ Entomol. 2016;45:1371-1378 pubmed publisher
    ..LeConte), were evaluated using emergence traps and beat-sheet sampling in areas of previous release against hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. The shortest emergence period of adult L...
  39. Eveleigh E, Silk P, Leclair G, Mayo P, Francis B, Williams M. Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oral Secretions I: Biology and Function. Environ Entomol. 2015;44:1641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary experiments suggested that OS had a repellent effect on a co-occurring herbivore, the false hemlock looper, Nepytia canosaria (Walker)...
  40. Biberci E, Altuntas Y, Cobanoglu A, Alpinar A. Acute respiratory arrest following hemlock (Conium maculatum) intoxication. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40:517-8 pubmed
  41. Green B, Goulart C, Welch K, Pfister J, McCollum I, Gardner D. The non-competitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) tubers. Toxicon. 2015;108:11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work with WSS-1 cells, we documented the noncompetitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) and modulated the actions of the extract with a pretreatment of 10 μM midazolam.
  42. Naik S, Goud V, Rout P, Dalai A. Supercritical CO2 fractionation of bio-oil produced from wheat-hemlock biomass. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:7605-13 pubmed publisher
    The biomass i.e. wheat-hemlock used in this study was first characterized for its composition...
  43. Talbot J, Finzi A. Differential effects of sugar maple, red oak, and hemlock tannins on carbon and nitrogen cycling in temperate forest soils. Oecologia. 2008;155:583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the effects of tannins purified from sugar maple, red oak, and eastern hemlock leaf litter on microbial activity and N cycling in soils from northern hardwood-conifer forests of the ..