Summary: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.

Top Publications

  1. Singh G, Kapoor I, Pandey S, Singh U, Singh R. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother Res. 2002;16:680-2 pubmed
    ..from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight ..
  2. Kaur G, Arora D. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;9:30 pubmed publisher
    Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments...
  3. Dolatabadi H, Goltapeh E, Jaimand K, Rohani N, Varma A. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions. J Basic Microbiol. 2011;51:33-9 pubmed publisher
    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae...
  4. Pai M, Prashant G, Murlikrishna K, Shivakumar K, Chandu G. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21:334-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy...
  5. Mohamad R, El Bastawesy A, Abdel Monem M, Noor A, Al Mehdar H, Sharawy S, et al. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare). J Med Food. 2011;14:986-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation. ..
  6. Conforti F, Statti G, Uzunov D, Menichini F. Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) coutinho seeds. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:2056-64 pubmed
    The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum seeds were determined. Differences were found in the total phenolic content of fennel...
  7. Miguel M, Cruz C, Faleiro L, Simões M, Figueiredo A, Barroso J, et al. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:319-28 pubmed
    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS...
  8. Senatore F, Oliviero F, Scandolera E, Taglialatela Scafati O, Roscigno G, Zaccardelli M, et al. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell]. Fitoterapia. 2013;90:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole. ..
  9. Lee H. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:2887-9 pubmed
    Acaricidal activities of components derived from Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using direct contact application and compared with that of the commercial ..

More Information


  1. Tripathi P, Tripathi R, Patel R, Pancholi S. Investigation of antimutagenic potential of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2013;36:35-41 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP)...
  2. Aprotosoaie A, Hancianu M, Poiata A, Tuchiluş C, Spac A, Cioană O, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2008;112:832-6 pubmed
    In our study, four samples of volatile oil from Foeniculum vulgare, cultivated in different pedoclimatic conditions, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and chemical composition. Organisms...
  3. Shahat A, Ibrahim A, Hendawy S, Omer E, Hammouda F, Abdel Rahman F, et al. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars. Molecules. 2011;16:1366-77 pubmed publisher
    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var...
  4. Ozbek H, Ugras S, Dulger H, Bayram I, Tuncer I, Ozturk G, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:317-9 pubmed
    Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in rats...
  5. Lo Cantore P, Iacobellis N, De Marco A, Capasso F, Senatore F. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:7862-6 pubmed
    Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var...
  6. Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, Silvestro L, Oggero R. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Phytother Res. 2005;19:335-40 pubmed
    ..double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effectiveness and side effects of a phytotherapeutic agent with Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis in the treatment of infantile colic.
  7. Rahimi R, Ardekani M. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy. Chin J Integr Med. 2013;19:73-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F...
  8. Esquivel Ferriño P, Favela Hernández J, Garza Gonzalez E, Waksman N, Rios M, del Rayo Camacho Corona M. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico. Molecules. 2012;17:8471-82 pubmed publisher
    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin...
  9. Díaz Maroto M, Díaz Maroto Hidalgo I, Sánchez Palomo E, Pérez Coello M. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:5385-9 pubmed
    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L...
  10. Dadalioglu I, Evrendilek G. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:8255-60 pubmed
    ..Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill...
  11. Ozcan M, Chalchat J, Arslan D, Ateş A, Unver A. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation. J Med Food. 2006;9:552-61 pubmed
    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
  12. Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, Sidorova T, Shushunov S. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9:58-61 pubmed
    ..Side effects were not reported for infants in either group during the trial. Our study suggests that fennel seed oil emulsion is superior to placebo in decreasing intensity of infantile colic. ..
  13. Celik I, Isik I. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:66-75 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) and Salvia officinalis (SO) waters infusions against carcinogen chemical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-..
  14. Tognolini M, Ballabeni V, Bertoni S, Bruni R, Impicciatore M, Barocelli E. Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis. Pharmacol Res. 2007;56:254-60 pubmed
    In a previous screening work, Foeniculum vulgare essential oil emerged from a pool of 24 essential oils for its antiplatelet properties and its ability to destabilize the retraction of the coagulum...
  15. Kim T, Kim H, Lee S, Kim S. Potent inhibitory effect of Foeniculum vulgare Miller extract on osteoclast differentiation and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Int J Mol Med. 2012;29:1053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that an aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller seed (FvMs) at low concentration, which has traditionally been used as a treatment for a variety ..
  16. Lado C, Hajdu M, Farkas E, Then M, Taba G, Szentmihalyi K. Study on the transfer of components of Aetheroleum carvi and Aetheroleum foeniculi oils. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:166-72 pubmed
    The transfer through a membrane of the main organic components and mineral elements of Carum carvi and Foeniculum vulgare volatile oils was studied. The transfer was studied from buffer solution pH 1.1 (stomach) and pH 6...
  17. Qiu J, Li H, Su H, Dong J, Luo M, Wang J, et al. Chemical composition of fennel essential oil and its impact on Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin production. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, fennel oil, when used at subinhibitory concentrations, could dose-dependently decrease the expression of S. aureus exotoxins, including ?-toxin, Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). ..
  18. Turkyilmaz Z, Karabulut R, Sonmez K, Can Başaklar A. A striking and frequent cause of premature thelarche in children: Foeniculum vulgare. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:2109-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, long-term use of preparations such as Foeniculum vulgare, which is used to eliminate gas and regulate intestinal function in children, may cause premature ..
  19. Zhang F, Li Z, Tian S, Ma L. [Analysis on changes of chemical compounds in different samples of fried Foeniculum vulgare]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:829-32 pubmed
    To analysis the changes of chemical compounds in fried Foeniculum vulgare. Cleaned F...
  20. Malo C, Gil L, Cano R, Gonzalez N, Luño V. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation. Andrologia. 2012;44 Suppl 1:710-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation. ..
  21. Aminifard M, Mohammadi S. Essential oils to control Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore these essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals to control postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on plum fruits. ..
  22. Naeem A, Abbas T, Ali T, Hasnain A. Effect of guar gum coatings containing essential oils on shelf life and nutritional quality of green-unripe mangoes during low temperature storage. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;113:403-410 pubmed publisher
    ..UGM) were preserved using edible coatings containing essential oils of Nigella sativa, Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Laurus nobilis derived using two different solvents (methanol and ethanol) and stored at ..
  23. Mimica Dukic N, Kujundzic S, Sokovic M, Couladis M. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions. Phytother Res. 2003;17:368-71 pubmed
    ..evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered...
  24. Fang L, Qi M, Li T, Shao Q, Fu R. Headspace solvent microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile compounds from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:791-7 pubmed
    ..followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSME-GC-MS) for the analysis of the volatile compounds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill is described...
  25. Puodziūniene G, Janulis V, Milasius A, Budnikas M. [Development of throat clearing herbal teas]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40:762-7 pubmed
    ..Expiry date of both throat clearing herbal teas was confirmed to be 2 years. ..
  26. Caleja C, Ribeiro A, Barros L, Barreira J, Antonio A, Beatriz P P Oliveira M, et al. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms. Food Chem. 2016;199:720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L...
  27. Nguyen T, Aparicio M, Saleh M. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family. Molecules. 2015;20:21421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in ..
  28. Yaralizadeh M, Abedi P, Najar S, Namjoyan F, Saki A. Effect of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Maturitas. 2016;84:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger studies are necessary to confirm the positive impact of fennel for vaginal conditions occurring among postmenopausal women. ..
  29. Zheljazkov V, Horgan T, Astatkie T, Schlegel V. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). J Oleo Sci. 2013;62:665-72 pubmed
    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb...
  30. Joshi H, Parle M. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. J Med Food. 2006;9:413-7 pubmed
    ..The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. extract as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice...
  31. Rezayat S, Dehpour A, Motamed S, Yazdanparast M, Chamanara M, Sahebgharani M, et al. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;26:851-859 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis...
  32. Subehan -, Zaidi S, Kadota S, Tezuka Y. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:10162-7 pubmed
    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine...
  33. Giosafatto C, Mariniello L, Ring S. Extraction and characterization of Foeniculum vulgare pectins and their use for preparing biopolymer films in the presence of phaseolin protein. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1237-40 pubmed
    Pectins from Foeniculum vulgare were extracted under acidic conditions. The obtained pectins were mainly composed of uronic acid but also contained traces of rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose...
  34. Bertoli A, Conti B, Mazzoni V, Meini L, Pistelli L. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae). Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:2063-71 pubmed publisher
    Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and ..
  35. Kim S, Chang K, Yang Y, Kim B, Ahn Y. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:1125-30 pubmed
    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper ..
  36. Toda S. Inhibitory effects of aromatic herbs on lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification by copper. Phytother Res. 2003;17:546-8 pubmed
    ..It was shown that several aromatic herbs, Caryophylli Flos, Cinnamomi Cortex, Foeniculi Fructus and Zedoariae Rhizoma, have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation or protein oxidative modification by copper. ..
  37. Hata F, Ventura M, Carvalho M, Miguel A, Souza M, Paula M, et al. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop. Exp Appl Acarol. 2016;69:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L...
  38. Uusitalo L, Salmenhaara M, Isoniemi M, García Alvarez A, Serra Majem L, Ribas Barba L, et al. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers. Food Chem. 2016;194:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. ..
  39. Xiao Z, Chen J, Niu Y, Chen F. Characterization of the key odorants of fennel essential oils of different regions using GC-MS and GC-O combined with partial least squares regression. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1063:226-234 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to find out the similarities among different samples and the result indicated that three main groups were identified. ..
  40. Hawrelak J, Cattley T, Myers S. Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A preliminary in vitro study. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14:380-4 pubmed
  41. Modaress Nejad V, Asadipour M. Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12:423-7 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the level of pain relief. ..
  42. Chang Y, Lee S, Na J, Chang P, Han J. Protection of Grain Products from Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Contamination by Anti-Insect Pest Repellent Sachet Containing Allyl Mercaptan Microcapsule. J Food Sci. 2017;82:2634-2642 pubmed publisher
    ..Allium Sativum), ginger (Zingiber Officinalis), black pepper (Piper nigrum), onion (Allium cepa), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) as well as major compounds (allyl disulfide, AD; allyl mercaptan, AM) isolated from of garlic and onion ..
  43. Raffo A, Nicoli S, Leclercq C. Quantification of estragole in fennel herbal teas: implications on the assessment of dietary exposure to estragole. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:370-5 pubmed publisher
  44. Coelho J, Cristino A, Matos P, Rauter A, Nobre B, Mendes R, et al. Extraction of volatile oil from aromatic plants with supercritical carbon dioxide: experiments and modeling. Molecules. 2012;17:10550-73 pubmed publisher
    ..fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L...
  45. Azrak B, Willershausen B, Meyer N, Callaway A. Course of changes in salivary pH-values after intake of different beverages in young children. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2008;6:159-64 pubmed
    ..01). With regard to dental health, a regular consumption of orange juice or sweetened instant teas should be discouraged. ..
  46. Sharopov F, Valiev A, Satyal P, Gulmurodov I, Yusufi S, Setzer W, et al. Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from Tajikistan. Foods. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    The essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is rich in lipophilic secondary metabolites, which can easily cross cell membranes by free diffusion...
  47. Zhang C, Tian X, Zhang K, Li G, Wang H, Wang J. Protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare root bark extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:5722-5731 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare root bark (FVRB), a traditional Uyghur medicine, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice...
  48. Liu Z, Lu C, Chen J. [Correlation comparison of uterotrophic assay and E-SCREEN assay for estrogenic activities]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004;33:458-60 pubmed
  49. Jazani N, Zartoshti M, Babazadeh H, Ali daiee N, Zarrin S, Hosseini S. Antibacterial effects of Iranian fennel essential oil on isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009;12:738-41 pubmed
    ..baumannii infections. However, more adequate studies must be carried out to verify the possibility of using it for fighting bacterial infections in human. ..
  50. Antonio R, Souza R, Furlan M, Pedro C, Cassas F, Honda S, et al. Investigation of urban ethnoveterinary in three veterinary clinics at east zone of São Paulo city, Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;173:183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..9%). The plants most cited were Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The most frequent route of administration, part utilized and mode of preparation was oral (80...
  51. Mariniello L, Giosafatto C, Moschetti G, Aponte M, Masi P, Sorrentino A, et al. Fennel waste-based films suitable for protecting cultivations. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:3008-14 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate the fennel-phaseolin film prepared in the presence of transglutaminase to be a promising candidate for a new environmentally friendly mulching bioplastic. ..
  52. Calvo M, Cavero R. Medicinal plants used for ophthalmological problems in Navarra (Spain). J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;190:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..From the therapeutic point of view, Allium sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., C. officinalis, and S. chamaecyparissus ssp...
  53. Zhang Z, Lu X, Xiao L, Tang L, Zhang L, Zhang T, et al. [Antioxidant effects of the Uygur herb, Foeniculum Vulgare Mill, in a rat model of hepatic fibrosis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2012;20:221-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate therapeutic and antioxidant effects of Uygur Herb Foeniculum Vulgare Mill (FVM) in hepatic fibrosis rats. Hepatic fibrosis model was built in rats by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 olive oil mixture...