coriandrum

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.

Top Publications

  1. Lo Cantore P, Iacobellis N, De Marco A, Capasso F, Senatore F. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:7862-6 pubmed
    Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var...
  2. Chaudhry N, Tariq P. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006;19:214-8 pubmed
    ..4%) and aqueous decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10 ml/disc. The aqueous decoction of coriander did not show any antibacterial effect against tested bacterial isolates...
  3. Eguale T, Tilahun G, Debella A, Feleke A, Makonnen E. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110:428-33 pubmed
    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus...
  4. Sreelatha S, Inbavalli R. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antihyperlipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum leaf and stem in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Food Sci. 2012;77:T119-23 pubmed publisher
    In India's indigenous system of medicine, Coriandrum sativum (CS), commonly used as a food ingredient, is claimed to be useful for various ailments...
  5. Sreelatha S, Padma P, Umadevi M. Protective effects of Coriandrum sativum extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:702-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum on CCl(4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats...
  6. Aissaoui A, Zizi S, Israili Z, Lyoussi B. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. in Meriones shawi rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:652-61 pubmed publisher
    The use of an aqueous extract of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.; Apiaceae, Umbelliferae) seeds (CS-extract) in Moroccan traditional treatment of diabetes remains to be experimentally validated...
  7. Casetti F, Bartelke S, Biehler K, Augustin M, Schempp C, Frank U. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria with dermatological relevance and skin tolerance of the essential oil from Coriandrum sativum L. fruits. Phytother Res. 2012;26:420-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Kim J, Seo S, Lee S, Shin S, Park I. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7316-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii)...
  9. Singh G, Kapoor I, Pandey S, Singh U, Singh R. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother Res. 2002;16:680-2 pubmed
    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Silva F, Ferreira S, Duarte A, Mendonça D, Domingues F. Antifungal activity of Coriandrum sativum essential oil, its mode of action against Candida species and potential synergism with amphotericin B. Phytomedicine. 2011;19:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..tropicalis strain only an additive effect was observed. This study describes the antifungal activity of coriander essential oil on Candida spp., which could be useful in designing new formulations for candidosis treatment. ..
  2. Tamilarasi S, Nanthakumar K, Karthikeyan K, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. Diversity of root associated microorganisms of selected medicinal plants and influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum. J Environ Biol. 2008;29:127-34 pubmed
    ..attempt to check the influence of these plant growth promoting microorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum against Escherichia coli MTCC-443 and Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC-646, the results observed was not ..
  3. Samojlik I, Lakić N, Mimica Dukic N, Daković Svajcer K, Bozin B. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) (Apiaceae). J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8848-53 pubmed publisher
    Essential oils of Coriandrum sativum L. and Carum carvi L...
  4. Kubo I, Fujita K, Kubo A, Nihei K, Ogura T. Antibacterial activity of coriander volatile compounds against Salmonella choleraesuis. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:3329-32 pubmed
    Aliphatic (2E)-alkenals and alkanals characterized from the fresh leaves of the coriander Coriandrum sativum L. (Umbelliferae) were found to possess bactericidal activity against Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. choleraesuis ATCC 35640...
  5. Soares B, Morais S, Dos Santos Fontenelle R, Queiroz V, Vila Nova N, Pereira C, et al. Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits. Molecules. 2012;17:8439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity. ..
  6. Nair V, Singh S, Gupta Y. Evaluation of disease modifying activity of Coriandrum sativum in experimental models. Indian J Med Res. 2012;135:240-5 pubmed
    b>Coriandrum sativum (CS), has been widely used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism of action for its antiarthritic effects is not clearly known...
  7. Han X, Xue X, Zhao Y, Li Y, Liu W, Zhang J, et al. Rutin-Enriched Extract from Coriandrum sativum L. Ameliorates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Injury. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate that RE-CE is able to ameliorate IR-induced hematopoietic injury partly by reducing IR-induced oxidative stress. ..
  8. Ma L, Zhang G, Gerner Smidt P, Tauxe R, Doyle M. Survival and growth of Salmonella in salsa and related ingredients. J Food Prot. 2010;73:434-44 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the importance of preharvest pathogen contamination control of fresh produce and proper formulation and storage of salsa...
  9. Zhou Z, Chen L, Shen M, Ma A, Yang X, Zou F. Analysis of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum Using GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution methods. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2011;59:28-34 pubmed
    The essential oils extracted from Coriandrum sativum L. were analyzed by GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution methods...
  10. Brandl M, Miller W, Bates A, Mandrell R. Production of autoinducer 2 in Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson contributes to its fitness in chickens but not on cilantro leaf surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:2653-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, inherent differences in the nutrients available to S. enterica in the phyllosphere and in the chicken intestine may underlie the differential contribution of AI-2 synthesis to the fitness of S. enterica in these environments. ..
  11. Rahman S, Parvez A, Islam R, Khan M. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011;10:10 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates...
  12. Christa S, Swetha A, Christina E, Ganesh R, Viswanathan P. Modulatory effect of Chandraprabha Vati on antimicrobial peptides and inflammatory markers in kidneys of mice with urinary tract infection. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2013;7:390-8 pubmed
    ..Chandraprabha Vati (CV) is an Indian polyherbal Siddha drug, traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory agent for arthritis and urinary ailments. This study explores its effect on mice with urinary tract infection...
  13. Nevermann K, Guzmán E. [Pesticide detection in Costarican vegetables based on the inhibition of serum and erythrocytic human cholinesterases]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004;54:444-8 pubmed
  14. Mohanraj S, Anbalagan K, Kodhaiyolii S, Pugalenthi V. Comparative evaluation of fermentative hydrogen production using Enterobacter cloacae and mixed culture: effect of Pd (II) ion and phytogenic palladium nanoparticles. J Biotechnol. 2014;192 Pt A:87-95 pubmed
    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized from PdCl2 using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract...
  15. Fraser D, Sharma A, Fletcher T, Budge S, Moncrieff C, Dodd A, et al. UV-B antagonises shade avoidance and increases levels of the flavonoid quercetin in coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Sci Rep. 2017;7:17758 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analysed the architecture, pigment accumulation and antioxidant capacity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum, also known as cilantro) plants grown with and without supplementary UV-B (1...
  16. Liu Q, Jeong H, Lee J, Hong Y, Oh Y, Kim Y, et al. Coriandrum sativum Suppresses A?42-Induced ROS Increases, Glial Cell Proliferation, and ERK Activation. Am J Chin Med. 2016;44:1325-1347 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Coriandrum sativum (C...
  17. Naeem A, Abbas T, Ali T, Hasnain A. Effect of guar gum coatings containing essential oils on shelf life and nutritional quality of green-unripe mangoes during low temperature storage. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;113:403-410 pubmed publisher
    ..unripe green mangoes (UGM) were preserved using edible coatings containing essential oils of Nigella sativa, Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Laurus nobilis derived using two different solvents (methanol and ethanol) and ..
  18. Ibrahim F, Attia H, Maklad Y, Ahmed K, Ramadan M. Biochemical characterization, anti-inflammatory properties and ulcerogenic traits of some cold-pressed oils in experimental animals. Pharm Biol. 2017;55:740-748 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral treatment of CPO showed no ulcerogenic effect, wherein no histopathological changes were observed. CPO, particularly CLO, could minimize acute inflammation. ..
  19. Sathyanarayana S, Alcedo G, Saelens B, Zhou C, Dills R, Yu J, et al. Unexpected results in a randomized dietary trial to reduce phthalate and bisphenol A exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013;23:378-84 pubmed publisher
  20. Nguyen T, Aparicio M, Saleh M. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family. Molecules. 2015;20:21421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum ..
  21. Goudeau D, Parker C, Zhou Y, Sela S, Kroupitski Y, Brandl M. The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:250-62 pubmed publisher
    ..enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. ..
  22. Sathya K, Saravanathamizhan R, Baskar G. Ultrasound assisted phytosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle. Ultrason Sonochem. 2017;39:446-451 pubmed publisher
    The present work deals with the ultrasound assisted green synthesis of iron oxide nano particle using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract as a reducing agent. The synthesized iron oxide nanoparticle was confirmed by UV spectra...
  23. Ramesh A, Maheswari S. Dissipation of sulfosulfuron in soil and wheat plant under predominant cropping conditions and in a simulated model ecosystem. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3396-400 pubmed
    ..Apart from this, after harvest, the succeeding crops coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L...
  24. Suh M, Schultz D, Ohlrogge J. What limits production of unusual monoenoic fatty acids in transgenic plants?. Planta. 2002;215:584-95 pubmed
    Unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are major constituents (greater than 80%) in seeds of Coriandrum sativum L...
  25. Sahib N, Anwar F, Gilani A, Hamid A, Saari N, Alkharfy K. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals--a review. Phytother Res. 2013;27:1439-56 pubmed publisher
    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses...
  26. Hata F, Ventura M, Carvalho M, Miguel A, Souza M, Paula M, et al. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop. Exp Appl Acarol. 2016;69:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L...
  27. Cortés Eslava J, Gomez Arroyo S, Villalobos Pietrini R, Espinosa Aguirre J. Metabolic activation of three arylamines and two organophosphorus insecticides by coriander (Coriandrum sativum) a common edible vegetable. Toxicol Lett. 2001;125:39-49 pubmed
    ..The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used employing coriander (Coriandrum sativum) suspended cell cultures as the activating system...
  28. Reyes M, Reyes Esparza J, Angeles O, Rodriguez Fragoso L. Mutagenicity and safety evaluation of water extract of Coriander sativum leaves. J Food Sci. 2010;75:T6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity and safety of Coriandrum sativum extract. The mutagenic effects of C. sativum extract were evaluated by Ames test...
  29. Foley D, Euper M, Caporaso F, Prakash A. Irradiation and chlorination effectively reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) without negatively affecting quality. J Food Prot. 2004;67:2092-8 pubmed
    Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at levels approximating 10(7) CFU/g was dipped in 200 ppm chlorine solution followed by low-dose gamma irradiation...
  30. Chung I, Ahmad A, Kim S, Naik P, Nagella P. Composition of the essential oil constituents from leaves and stems of Korean Coriandrum sativum and their immunotoxicity activity on the Aedes aegypti L. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012;34:152-6 pubmed publisher
    The leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied...
  31. Nejad Ebrahimi S, Hadian J, Ranjbar H. Essential oil compositions of different accessions of Coriandrum sativum L. from Iran. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24:1287-94 pubmed publisher
    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) has been cultivated for a many years in different parts of Iran. The chemical profiles of different accessions were analysed by means of GC-MS. The essential oil content of the dried seeds varied from 0...
  32. Dima C, PătraÅŸcu L, Cantaragiu A, Alexe P, Dima Å. The kinetics of the swelling process and the release mechanisms of Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil from chitosan/alginate/inulin microcapsules. Food Chem. 2016;195:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The diffusional exponent (n) values of Peppas equation explains a non Fickian transport mechanism and diffusion or diffusion-swelling controlled process. ..
  33. Hsu W, Simonne A, Jitareerat P. Fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs during refrigerated storage. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1997-2001 pubmed
    ..The results also reinforce the concept that, once contaminated, bacterial pathogens can persist on fresh herbs throughout a normal distribution time...
  34. Michalczyk M, Macura R, Tesarowicz I, Banaś J. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef. Meat Sci. 2012;90:842-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef. ..
  35. Brandl M, Mandrell R. Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in the cilantro phyllosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:3614-21 pubmed
    ..Our studies support the hypothesis that preharvest contamination of crops by S. enterica plays a role in outbreaks linked to fresh fruits and vegetables. ..
  36. Srinivasan K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56:399-414 pubmed
    ..In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.
  37. Kochman M, Gordin A, Alon T, Amirav A. Flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a supersonic molecular beam. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1129:95-104 pubmed
    ..The combination of flow modulation GC x GC with GC-MS with SMB (supersonic GC-MS) was explored with complex matrices such as diesel fuel analysis and pesticide analysis in agricultural products. ..
  38. Ramírez Mérida L, Morón de Salim A, Alfieri Graterol A, Gamboa O. [Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) in three markets of Valencia, Venezuela]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2009;59:318-24 pubmed
    ..monocytogenes in tomatoes and coriander is independent of the markets store; we see the necessity of a microbiological control on the irrigation system, collection and distribution to ensure the quality of the product. ..
  39. Duman F, Kaya M. Crayfish chitosan for microencapsulation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;92:125-133 pubmed publisher
    ..crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus), was used for the encapsulation of the essential oil isolated from coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) via the spray drying method. The obtained capsules were characterized using SEM, FT-IR, TGA and XRD...
  40. Kozłowska M, Gruczynska E, Scibisz I, Rudzinska M. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds. Food Chem. 2016;213:450-456 pubmed publisher
    ..DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. ..
  41. Hawrelak J, Cattley T, Myers S. Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A preliminary in vitro study. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14:380-4 pubmed
  42. Pereira A, Azevedo J, Vasconcelos V. Assessment of uptake and phytotoxicity of cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins or cylindrospermopsin on parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:1999-2009 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the parsley and coriander leaves and stems after 10 days of exposure did not accumulate microcystins or cylindrospermopsin. ..
  43. Dias M, Barros L, Sousa M, Ferreira I. Comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants from in vivo and in vitro grown Coriandrum sativum. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011;66:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro culture might be useful to explore the plants potentialities for industrial applications, controlling environmental conditions to produce higher amounts of some bioactive products. ..
  44. Coelho J, Cristino A, Matos P, Rauter A, Nobre B, Mendes R, et al. Extraction of volatile oil from aromatic plants with supercritical carbon dioxide: experiments and modeling. Molecules. 2012;17:10550-73 pubmed publisher
    ..fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), savory (Satureja fruticosa Béguinot), winter savory (Satureja montana L...
  45. Acimovic M, Oljaca S, Jacimovic G, Drazic S, Tasić S. Benefits of environmental conditions for growing coriander in Banat Region, Serbia. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1465-8 pubmed
    ..06% in both years) indicate a great potential of this plant species in Serbia, which is, however, greatly dependent on environmental conditions during year. ..
  46. Msaada K, Hosni K, Taarit M, Chahed T, Marzouk B. Variations in the essential oil composition from different parts of Coriandrum sativum L. cultivated in Tunisia. Ital J Biochem. 2007;56:47-52 pubmed
    ..obtained by hydrodistillation from different organs (flowers, leaves, stems and roots) of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) was analyzed...
  47. Ramadan M, Kroh L, Mörsel J. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:6961-9 pubmed
    ..Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass...
  48. Randall K, Drew M, Øverland M, Østbye T, Bjerke M, Vogt G, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation of coriander oil, in canola oil diets, on the metabolism of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 and [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 in rainbow trout hepatocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;166:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..011) and decreased pro-inflammatory precursor 20:4n-6 (P=0.023) in radiolabelled hepatocytes of rainbow trout. ..
  49. Srivastava N, Tiwari G, Tiwari R. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: a screening study. Indian J Med Sci. 2010;64:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera) was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2...
  50. Caputo L, Souza L, Alloisio S, Cornara L, De Feo V. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L...
  51. Dhanapakiam P, Joseph J, Ramaswamy V, Moorthi M, Kumar A. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action. J Environ Biol. 2008;29:53-6 pubmed
    b>Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients...
  52. Uchibayashi M. [The coriander story]. Yakushigaku Zasshi. 2001;36:56-7 pubmed
    ..In Latin, it was spelled coriandrum, and by way of Old French it came into English as coriander in the 14th century...
  53. Khalil R, Frank J. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on damaged leaves of spinach, lettuce, cilantro, and parsley stored at abusive temperatures. J Food Prot. 2010;73:212-20 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence that the damaged portion of a leafy green is a distinct growth niche that elicits different microbial responses in the various types of leafy greens...