rhus

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.

Top Publications

  1. Tangpu V, Yadav A. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Rhus javanica ripen fruit extract in albino mice. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:39-44 pubmed
    The antidiarrhoeal effects of the methanolic extract of Rhus javanica ripen fruits (MERJ) were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhoea in Swiss albino mice...
  2. Lee J, Lee K, Kim J, Na C, Jung N, Chung G, et al. Extract from Rhus verniciflua Stokes is capable of inhibiting the growth of human lymphoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42:1383-8 pubmed
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), used as a food additive and a traditional herbal medicine, has both antioxidant and antitumor activities which are known to be closely associated with the polyphenolic compounds that it contains...
  3. Harigaya S, Honda T, Rong L, Miyakoshi T, Chen C. Enzymatic dehydrogenative polymerization of urushiols in fresh exudates from the lacquer tree, Rhus vernicifera DC. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:2201-8 pubmed
    Fresh exudates from the lacquer tree, Rhus vernicifera DC, were extracted with acetone and the solution was chromatographed to isolate monomer, dimer, trimer, and oligomer fractions of urushiols...
  4. Djakpo O, Yao W. Rhus chinensis and Galla Chinensis--folklore to modern evidence: review. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    The species Rhus chinensis Mill. (Anacardiaceae) is an important representative of the genus Rhus, which contains over 250 individual species found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide...
  5. Hong M, Kim J, Lee S, Go H, Kim J, Shin Y, et al. Early antiallergic inflammatory effects of Rhus verniciflua Stokes on human mast cells. Phytother Res. 2010;24:288-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) is a traditional medicine used in Korea, Japan and China to treat various diseases including catharsis, diaphoretic gastritis and stomach cancer...
  6. Kizil S, Turk M. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24:92-8 pubmed publisher
    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey...
  7. Lee J, Huh J, Jeon G, Yang H, Woo H, Choi D, et al. Flavonol-rich RVHxR from Rhus verniciflua Stokes and its major compound fisetin inhibits inflammation-related cytokines and angiogenic factor in rheumatoid arthritic fibroblast-like synovial cells and in vivo models. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of flavonol-rich residual layer of hexane fraction from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVHxR) and its major compound fisetin on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and ..
  8. Ouyang M, Wein Y, Zhang Z, Kuo Y. Inhibitory activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replication of pinoresinol and syringaresinol lignans and their glycosides from the root of Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6460-5 pubmed
    ..syringaresinol (6), and pinoresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana, and their structures were established using various spectroscopic techniques...
  9. Lee J, Lim K. Plant-originated glycoprotein (36 kDa) suppresses interleukin-4 and -10 in bisphenol A-stimulated primary cultured mouse lymphocytes. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010;33:421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that glycoprotein isolated from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS glycoprotein) has an inhibitory activity of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines [Interleukin (..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kim S, Park H, Lee S, Jun C, Choi B, Kim S, et al. The anti-anaphylactic effect of the gall of Rhus javanica is mediated through inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5:1820-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effect of the gall of Rhus javanica (GRJ) on the model of the immediate-type allergic reaction, and studied its possible mechanisms...
  2. Sapkota K, Kim S, Park S, Kim S. Detoxified extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes inhibits rotenone-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:213-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), traditionally used as a food supplement and in traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea, is known to possess various pharmacological properties...
  3. Son Y, Lee K, Lee J, Jang H, Kim J, Jeon Y, et al. Selective antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of flavonoids purified from Rhus verniciflua Stokes on normal versus transformed hepatic cell lines. Toxicol Lett. 2005;155:115-25 pubmed
    ..In this study, we prepared a flavonoid-containing fraction from a crude acetone extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), traditionally used as a food additive and as an herbal medicine, and named RVS chloroform-..
  4. Jang H, Kook S, Son Y, Kim J, Jeon Y, Jang Y, et al. Flavonoids purified from Rhus verniciflua Stokes actively inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1726:309-16 pubmed
    ..and butein, herein named RCMF (the RVS chloroform-methanol fraction), was prepared from a crude acetone extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS)...
  5. Kang S, Kang J, Oh M. Antiviral activities of flavonoids isolated from the bark of Rhus verniciflua stokes against fish pathogenic viruses In Vitro. J Microbiol. 2012;50:293-300 pubmed publisher
    An 80% methanolic extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes bark showed significant anti-viral activity against fish pathogenic infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in a cell-based assay ..
  6. Kim K, Jung H, Choi W, Eo W, Cheon S. A case of recurred hepatocellular carcinoma refractory to doxorubicin after liver transplantation showing response to herbal medicine product, Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report documents a case in which the administration of an herbal product, an extract of the lacquer tree, Rhus verniciflua Stokes, was associated with a decrease in the size of lung metastases in a patient with recurrent ..
  7. Jung C, Kim J, Kim J, Chung J, Choi H, Seo J, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus verniviflua Stokes by suppression of iNOS-mediated Akt and ERK pathways: in-vitro and in-vivo studies. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:679-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), which has valuable medicinal properties, has for many years been prescribed for inflammation in east Asian medicine...
  8. Cheon S, Kim K, Kim S, Jung H, Choi W, Eo W. Efficacy and safety of Rhus verniciflua stokes extracts in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Forsch Komplementmed. 2011;18:77-83 pubmed publisher
    Systemic treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have modest survival benefits but high toxicity. Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), the lacquer tree, is an ancient traditional medicine being used for the treatment of ..
  9. Beretta G, Rossoni G, Santagati N, Facino R. Anti-ischemic activity and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect of hydrolysable tannins from the leaves of Rhus coriaria (Sumac) in isolated rabbit heart and thoracic aorta. Planta Med. 2009;75:1482-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to investigate the cardioprotective activity of hydrolysable gallotannins from Rhus coriaria L. leaves extract (RCLE) in isolated rabbit heart preparations, submitted to low-flow ischemia/reperfusion damage...
  10. Kim I, Park Y, Shin K, Ha J, Choi J, Jung H, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the extract from Kalopanax pictus, Pueraria thunbergiana and Rhus verniciflua. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94:165-73 pubmed
    The combined extracts obtained from three Chinese herb medicine, Kalopanax pictus, Pueraria thunbergiana and Rhus verniciflua, have been used as therapeutics for diabetes mellitus in Korea...
  11. Lee S, Jung H, Eo W, Lee S, Kim S, Shim B. Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract as a potential option for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: report of two cases. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:1383-5 pubmed publisher
  12. Song D, Lee J, Lee E, Jung S, Nho C, Cha K, et al. Inhibitory effects of polyphenols isolated from Rhus verniciflua on Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10. BMB Rep. 2010;43:268-72 pubmed
    ..Total extract from the bark of Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes)) showed AKR1B10 inhibitory activity...
  13. Song N, Yoon H, Kim K, Jung S, Jang W, Seo C, et al. Butein is a novel anti-adipogenic compound. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:1385-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for its various biological activities including anti-adipogenic effects...
  14. Lee S, Nan J, Zhao Y, Woo S, Park E, Kang T, et al. The chalcone butein from Rhus verniciflua shows antifibrogenic activity. Planta Med. 2003;69:990-4 pubmed
    Butein is known to be the major component of the bark of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (Anacardiaceae)...
  15. Oh S, Haw C, Lee M. Clinical and immunologic features of systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of Rhus (Toxicodendron). Contact Dermatitis. 2003;48:251-4 pubmed
    ..We reviewed and analysed the clinical and immunologic features of 42 patients with SCD caused by ingestion of Rhus (Toxicodendron), 24 males and 18 females, average age 44 years (range 24-72)...
  16. Shrestha S, Park J, Lee D, Cho J, Cho S, Yang H, et al. Rhus parviflora and its biflavonoid constituent, rhusflavone, induce sleep through the positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:213-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus parviflora is referred as 'Tintidikah' in traditional medicinal system of south Asia (Ayurveda). It is used in treatment of V?ta vik?ra, a condition related to neurological complications as well as cure for stomach disorders...
  17. Kim J, Jung C, Jang B, Go H, Park J, Choi Y, et al. Selective cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines of phenolic-rich ethyl-acetate fraction from Rhus verniciflua Stokes. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:609-20 pubmed
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) is a plant with a long history of medicinal use in Eastern Asia. RVS has been widely used to treat gastritis, stomach cancer and atherosclerosis...
  18. Lee S, Choi W, Yoon S. Impact of standardized Rhus verniciflua stokes extract as complementary therapy on metastatic colorectal cancer: a Korean single-center experience. Integr Cancer Ther. 2009;8:148-52 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the clinical feasibility of the standardized Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) extract for the metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), experimentally proven to have anticancer activities...
  19. Jeong G, Lee D, Song M, Park B, Kang D, Lee H, et al. Butein from Rhus verniciflua protects pancreatic ? cells against cytokine-induced toxicity mediated by inhibition of nitric oxide formation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:97-102 pubmed
    Butein (3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone), a plant polyphenol, is a major component in isolate of Rhus verniciflua STOKES (Anacardiaceae)...
  20. Chen Y, Y Y R, Lin T, Huang C, Tang W, Chen S, et al. Identification of an Alkylhydroquinone from Rhus succedanea as an Inhibitor of Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:2200-5 pubmed publisher
    The alkylhydroquinone 10'(Z)-heptadecenylhydroquinone [HQ17(1)], isolated from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea, was found to inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and to suppress melanin production in animal cells...
  21. Ren Z, Zhong Y, Kurosu U, Aoki S, Ma E, von Dohlen C, et al. Historical biogeography of Eastern Asian-Eastern North American disjunct Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) on Rhus hosts (Anacardiaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:1146-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemiptera: Aphididae: Fordini) exhibit host-alternating life cycles comprising an obligate seasonal shift between Rhus subgenus Rhus species (Anacardiaceae) and mosses (Bryophyta)...
  22. Zhang Z, Jiang C, Zhang J, Zhang H, Shi L. Ecophysiological evaluation of the potential invasiveness of Rhus typhina in its non-native habitats. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:1307-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac) is a clonal woody species that is considered potentially invasive in its non-native habitats. It is slow growing as seedlings, but grows fast once established...
  23. Battistuzzi G, Borsari M, Canters G, de Waal E, Leonardi A, Ranieri A, et al. Thermodynamics of the acid transition in blue copper proteins. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14293-8 pubmed
    ..Cu(I) ion of one histidine ligand, have been determined electrochemically for spinach and cucumber plastocyanins, Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber basic protein (CBP), and Paracoccus versutus amicyanin...
  24. Weihua Q, Hongzhang C. An alkali-stable enzyme with laccase activity from entophytic fungus and the enzymatic modification of alkali lignin. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:5480-4 pubmed
    Mycelia Sterilia YY-5, an entophytic fungus, was isolated from Rhus chinensis Mill and its extracellular enzyme had a higher laccase activity (MS-Lac)...
  25. Reid D, Bonnet S, Kemp G, van der Westhuizen J. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species. Phytochemistry. 2013;94:243-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Park P, Hur J, Kim Y, An R, Sohn D. Involvement of heme oxygenase-1 induction in inhibitory effect of ethyl gallate isolated from Galla Rhois on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1545-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that EG isolated from Galla Rhois suppresses NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via HO-1 induction. ..
  27. Huang X, Cheng L, Exterkate R, Liu M, Zhou X, Li J, et al. Effect of pH on Galla chinensis extract's stability and anti-caries properties in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:1093-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, GCE was not effective on polymicrobial biofilms at alkaline pH (8.5). To avoid enamel damage due to acidic treatment, GCE solutions should be used at about pH 5.5. ..
  28. Fu J, Zhang X, Tian J, Huang L, Zhang P, Ye F. [Investigation of compound, compatibility of Rhodiola crenulata, Cordyceps militaris, and Rhum palmatum, on metabolic syndrome treatment VI--improving hyperglycemia-mediated renal damage]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:3961-6 pubmed
    ..These effects may be related to its regulation on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, the microcirculation disturbance and the oxidative stress. ..
  29. Athamneh K, Hasasna H, Samri H, Attoub S, Arafat K, Benhalilou N, et al. Rhus coriaria increases protein ubiquitination, proteasomal degradation and triggers non-canonical Beclin-1-independent autophagy and apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11633 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria extract (RCE) on HT-29 and Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cells...
  30. Lee S, Oh P, Lim K, Lim K. 36 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Rhus verniciflua stokes inhibits G/GO-induced mitochondrial apoptotic signal pathways in BNL CL.2 cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;97:399-405 pubmed
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used to heal and treat hepatic and inflammatory diseases...
  31. Snider J, Choinski J, Wise R. Juvenile Rhus glabra leaves have higher temperatures and lower gas exchange rates than mature leaves when compared in the field during periods of high irradiance. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..leaflet temperature were obtained from leaves of two distinctively different developmental stages of smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) grown in its native habitat...
  32. Wang R, Gu Q, Wang Y, Zhang X, Yang L, Zhou J, et al. Anti-HIV-1 activities of compounds isolated from the medicinal plant Rhus chinensis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117:249-56 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported that the petroleum ether fraction, RC-1, and EtOAc fraction, RC-2, of the medicinal plant Rhus chinensis showed potent anti-HIV-1 activities...
  33. Matsuyama S, Sakimoto M. Allocation to reproduction and relative reproductive costs in two species of dioecious Anacardiaceae with contrasting phenology. Ann Bot. 2008;101:1391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..the relative reproductive allocation and costs at the shoot and whole-plant levels were examined in woody dioecious Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa, in order to examine differences between types of phenophase (i.e...
  34. Nostro A, Guerrini A, Marino A, Tacchini M, Di Giulio M, Grandini A, et al. In vitro activity of plant extracts against biofilm-producing food-related bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;238:33-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Juglans regia L., Olea europaea L., Punica granatum L. and Rhus coriaria L., were investigated. Among the extracts, P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L...
  35. Suk K, Baik S, Kim H, Park S, Paeng K, Uh Y, et al. Antibacterial effects of the urushiol component in the sap of the lacquer tree (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) on Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 2011;16:434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori infection and reduced by the urushiol and H. pylori eradication (p = .014). The urushiol has an antibacterial effect against H. pylori infection and can be used safely for H. pylori eradication in a mouse model. ..
  36. Lu C, Luo X, Luo R, Chen X, Xing L, Tang Z, et al. Assessment of antibacterial properties and the active ingredient of plant extracts and its effect on the performance of crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio var. E'erqisi, Bloch). J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). It can be concluded that plant extracts added to fish feed can act as natural antimicrobial and immunostimulants to prevent pathogenic infection, enhance immune response, and promote growth of the fish. ..
  37. Lee I, Oh S, Ahn K, Lee H. Semialactone, isofouquierone peroxide and fouquierone, three new dammarane triterpenes from Rhus javanica. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:1024-6 pubmed
    Three new dammarane triterpenes and semialactic acid were isolated from the stem bark of Rhus javanica...
  38. Im W, Park H, Lee K, Lee J, Kim Y, Kim K, et al. Fisetin-Rich Extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Improve Blood Flow Rates in Mice Fed Both Normal and High-Fat Diets. J Med Food. 2016;19:120-6 pubmed publisher
    Although it has been previously reported that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) possesses in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the precise in vivo mechanisms of RVS extracts and a main active component called fisetin have not been well ..
  39. Park K, Jung G, Lee K, Choi J, Choi M, Kim G, et al. Antimutagenic activity of flavonoids from the heartwood of Rhus verniciflua. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90:73-9 pubmed
    Pretreatment of the methanolic extract of the heartwood of Rhus verniciflua (Anacardiaceae) to rats prevented the activation of hepatic microsomal cytochrome p(450) enzymes, inhibition of hepatic glutathione S-transferase by bromobenzene ..
  40. McHugh T, Gehring C. Below-ground interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal shrubs decrease the performance of pinyon pine and the abundance of its ectomycorrhizas. New Phytol. 2006;171:171-8 pubmed
    ..Similar competitive effects may be observed in other ecosystems given that drought frequency and severity are predicted to increase for many land interiors. ..
  41. Yi T, Miller A, Wen J. Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;33:861-79 pubmed
    ..regions (trnL intron, and trnL [UAA] 3' exon-trnF [GAA] intergenic spacer) were used for phylogenetic analyses of Rhus, a genus disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe, Hawaii, North America, and Northern Central America...
  42. Ben Mansour H, Yatouji S, Mbarek S, Houas I, Delai A, Dridi D. Correlation between antibutyrylcholinesterasic and antioxidant activities of three aqueous extracts from Tunisian Rhus pentaphyllum. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..the antibutyrylcholinestrasic (anti-BuChE) and antioxidant (against some free radicals) activities of extracts from Rhus pentaphyllum. Aqueous extracts were prepared from powdered R...
  43. Mehrdad M, Zebardast M, Abedi G, Koupaei M, Rasouli H, Talebi M. Validated high-throughput HPLC method for the analysis of flavonol aglycones myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in Rhus coriaria L. using a monolithic column. J AOAC Int. 2009;92:1035-43 pubmed
    ..column was developed and validated for the separation and quantification of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in Rhus coriaria L...
  44. Frasconi M, Favero G, Boer H, Koivula A, Mazzei F. Kinetic and biochemical properties of high and low redox potential laccases from fungal and plant origin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..four different laccases from Trametes hirsuta (ThL), Trametes versicolor (TvL), Melanocarpus albomyces (r-MaL) and Rhus vernicifera (RvL) were characterized from both biochemical and electrochemical points of view...
  45. Kim J, Kim H, Jung C, Hong M, Hong M, Bae H, et al. Inhibition of cell cycle progression via p27Kip1 upregulation and apoptosis induction by an ethanol extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes in AGS gastric cancer cells. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:201-8 pubmed
    Botanical preparations are widely used by patient with cancer in Korea, Japan and China. Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has traditionally been used as a medicinal ingredient for the therapy of stomach and uterine cancer...
  46. Kim K, Moon E, Choi S, Kim S, Lee K. Polyphenols from the bark of Rhus verniciflua and their biological evaluation on antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Phytochemistry. 2013;92:113-21 pubmed publisher
    Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the extract of Rhus verniciflua bark resulted in the identification of six polyphenols, rhusopolyphenols A-F (1-6), together with four known compounds including (2R,3S,10S)-7,8,9,..
  47. Wan Y, Miyakoshi T, Du Y, Chen L, Hao J, Kennedy J. Mechanism of monolignol biotransformation by Rhus laccases in water-miscible organic solutions. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;50:530-3 pubmed publisher
    Several important monolignols such as coniferyl alcohol were catalyzed using Rhus laccase (RL) from Rhus vernicifera in a water/acetone solution. The enzymatic mechanism is discussed in detail...
  48. Lee K, Chung K, Seo J, Yim S, Park H, Choi J, et al. Sulfuretin from heartwood of Rhus verniciflua triggers apoptosis through activation of Fas, Caspase-8, and the mitochondrial death pathway in HL-60 human leukemia cells. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:2835-44 pubmed publisher
    Sulfuretin, a flavonoid isolated from heartwood of Rhus verniciflua, has been reported to have anti-cancer activities but the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear...
  49. Svenningsen A, Madsen K, Liljefors T, Stafford G, van Staden J, J├Ąger A. Biflavones from Rhus species with affinity for the GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:276-80 pubmed
    In South Africa Rhus pyroides is traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy...
  50. Kim J, Go H, Jin D, Kim H, Hong M, Chung W, et al. Inhibition of the PI3K-Akt/PKB survival pathway enhanced an ethanol extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in AGS gastric cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett. 2008;265:197-205 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has been used in traditional Eastern Asia medicine for the treatment of gastritis and stomach cancer, although the mechanism for its biological activity remains to be elucidated...
  51. Niemetz R, Gross G. Enzymology of gallotannin and ellagitannin biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:2001-11 pubmed
    ..Quercus pedunculata; Quercus rubra) and from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) revealed that this pivotal intermediate is synthesized from beta-glucogallin (1-O-galloyl-beta-D-..
  52. Wan Y, Lu R, Du Y, Honda T, Miyakoshi T. Does Donglan lacquer tree belong to Rhus vernicifera species?. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007;41:497-503 pubmed
    The lacquer trees in Donglan of Guangxi Province, China, were identified totally as the species Rhus succedanea found in Vietnam and Taiwan region, based on the results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), an easy ..
  53. Zheng W, Zhang H, Jin Y, Wang Q, Chen L, Feng Z, et al. Butein inhibits IL-1?-induced inflammatory response in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes and slows the progression of osteoarthritis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;42:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Butein, a polyphenolic compound isolated from the stem bark of cashews and Rhus verniciflua Stokes, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects...