Summary: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.

Top Publications

  1. Bairy I, Reeja S, Siddharth -, Rao P, Bhat M, Shivananda P. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica on anaerobic dental microglora based on in vivo studies. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2002;45:307-10 pubmed
    ..intermedia and P. gingivalis. Use of mango leaf in conjunction with a tooth brush will be a good home care device for maintenance of oral hygiene. ..
  2. Knödler M, Conrad J, Wenzig E, Bauer R, Lacorn M, Beifuss U, et al. Anti-inflammatory 5-(11'Z-heptadecenyl)- and 5-(8'Z,11'Z-heptadecadienyl)-resorcinols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peels. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:988-93 pubmed
    ..1) and the known 5-(8'Z,11'Z-heptadecadienyl)-resorcinol (2) previously not described in Mangifera indica L. The structures of both compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies and MS...
  3. Parmar H, Kar A. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats. Biofactors. 2008;33:13-24 pubmed
    Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have ..
  4. Philip D. Mangifera indica leaf-assisted biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;78:327-31 pubmed publisher be accelerated by changing the temperature and pH of the reaction mixture consisting of aqueous AgNO3 and Mangifera Indica leaf extract...
  5. Engels C, Knödler M, Zhao Y, Carle R, Ganzle M, Schieber A. Antimicrobial activity of gallotannins isolated from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) kernels. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7712-8 pubmed publisher
    Gallotannins were extracted from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) kernels with aqueous acetone (80%, v/v) and purified using liquid-liquid extraction and two-step low-pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) on Sephadex LH-20...
  6. Chieli E, Romiti N, Rodeiro I, Garrido G. In vitro modulation of ABCB1/P-glycoprotein expression by polyphenols from Mangifera indica. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;186:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, mango (Mangifera indica L...
  7. Parmar H, Kar A. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;177:254-8 pubmed publisher
    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO)..
  8. Rivera D, Hernández I, Merino N, Luque Y, Alvarez A, Martín Y, et al. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin reduce the airway inflammation and Th2 cytokines in murine model of allergic asthma. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1336-45 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to study the effects of Mangifera indica extract and its major component mangiferin on lung inflammation response and Th2 cytokine production using a murine experimental model of allergic asthma...
  9. Rivera D, Balmaseda I, León A, Hernández B, Montiel L, Garrido G, et al. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:385-92 pubmed
    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L...

More Information


  1. Perez Staples D, Aluja M. Sperm allocation and cost of mating in a tropical tephritid fruit fly. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:839-45 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role that differential sperm storage may have in mediating sperm competition and tie our results to the unique natural history of A. obliqua. ..
  2. Veda S, Platel K, Srinivasan K. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:7931-5 pubmed
  3. Marco J, Kishimba M. Organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in young leaves of Mangifera indica from sites near a point source in Coast region, Tanzania. Chemosphere. 2007;68:832-7 pubmed
    Young leaves of Mangifera indica (mango tree) from nine sites were used as bioindicators of local atmospheric contamination by organochlorine pesticides and metabolites from a point source, an old storage site at Vikuge farm in Tanzania...
  4. Sa Nunes A, Rogerio A, Medeiros A, Fabris V, Andreu G, Rivera D, et al. Modulation of eosinophil generation and migration by Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang). Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1515-23 pubmed
    The effects of Vimang, an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), on cell migration in an experimental model of asthma was investigated...
  5. Li Y, Zou M, Feng B, Huang X, Zhang Z, Sun G. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;55:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments...
  6. Pierson J, Monteith G, Roberts Thomson S, Dietzgen R, Gidley M, Shaw P. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties. Food Chem. 2014;149:253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. ..
  7. Sultana B, Hussain Z, Asif M, Munir A. Investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stems bark, and kernel of mango (Mangifera indica L.). J Food Sci. 2012;77:C849-52 pubmed publisher
    ..850 and 0.595 to 0.665 mV, respectively. Comparison between both varieties showed chonsa exhibited better antioxidant activity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomised design (CRD) under factorial. ..
  8. Garcia D, Escalante M, Delgado R, Ubeira F, Leiro J. Anthelminthic and antiallergic activities of Mangifera indica L. stem bark components Vimang and mangiferin. Phytother Res. 2003;17:1203-8 pubmed
    This study investigated the antiallergic and anthelmintic properties of Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica family stem bark) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) administered orally to mice experimentally ..
  9. Wu B, Li Y, Wu J, Chen Q, Huang X, Chen Y, et al. Over-expression of mango (Mangifera indica L.) MiARF2 inhibits root and hypocotyl growth of Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:3189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..An auxin response factor 2 gene, MiARF2, was cloned in our previous study [1] from the cotyledon section of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv...
  10. Arrebola E, Cazorla F, Codina J, Gutiérrez Barranquero J, Pérez García A, de Vicente A. Contribution of mangotoxin to the virulence and epiphytic fitness of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Int Microbiol. 2009;12:87-95 pubmed
  11. García Rivera D, Delgado R, Bougarne N, Haegeman G, Berghe W. Gallic acid indanone and mangiferin xanthone are strong determinants of immunosuppressive anti-tumour effects of Mangifera indica L. bark in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2011;305:21-31 pubmed publisher
    Vimang is a standardized extract derived from Mango bark (Mangifera Indica L.), commonly used as anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, which has recently been used to complement cancer therapies in cancer patients...
  12. Morffi J, Rodeiro I, Hernández S, González L, Herrera J, Espinosa Aguirre J. Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012;67:223-8 pubmed
    b>Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties...
  13. Remirez D, Tafazoli S, Delgado R, Harandi A, O Brien P. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang). Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21:19-29 pubmed
    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases...
  14. Abu Bakar M, Mohamad M, Rahmat A, Burr S, Fry J. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines exposed to an extract of the seed kernel of Mangifera pajang (bambangan). Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1688-97 pubmed publisher
    An extract of Mangifera pajang kernel has been previously found to contain a high content of antioxidant phytochemicals. The present research was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of this kernel extract...
  15. Matkowski A, Kus P, Goralska E, Wozniak D. Mangiferin - a bioactive xanthonoid, not only from mango and not just antioxidant. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013;13:439-55 pubmed
    ..It can be found in many plant species, among which the mango tree (Mangifera indica) is one of the primary sources...
  16. Garcia D, Leiro J, Delgado R, Sanmartin M, Ubeira F. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin modulate mouse humoral immune responses. Phytother Res. 2003;17:1182-7 pubmed
    The present study investigated the effects of orally administered Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) on mouse antibody responses induced by inoculation with spores of ..
  17. Muoki P, Makokha A, Onyango C, Ojijo N. Potential contribution of mangoes to reduction of vitamin A deficiency in Kenya. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48:482-98 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and 21.5% for women and children respectively. Fresh or dried mangoes are a significant provitamin A source and should be included in food-based approaches aiming to reduce vitamin A deficiency. ..
  18. Wu J, Liu F, Zhan R, Li G, Zhao Y, Jinmei C, et al. Development of a sensitive molecular detection assay for mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium mangiferae. Biotechnol Lett. 2016;38:835-40 pubmed publisher
    ..It can detect as little as 10 pg fungal DNA from the DNA of mango's tissues. Our assay provides a practical method for the early diagnosis so that proper prevention of the mango malformation disease can be developed. ..
  19. Shah M, Verma K, Singh K, Kaur R. Morphological, pathological and molecular variability in Botryodiplodia theobromae (Botryosphaeriaceae) isolates associated with die-back and bark canker of pear trees in Punjab, India. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:1217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolates from cultivars Punjab Beauty, LeConte and Kieffer also had a high degree of similarity. Isolates from cultivar Smith were different from other pear isolates but showed more similarity with mango isolates. ..
  20. Li X, Cui X, Sun X, Li X, Zhu Q, Li W. Mangiferin prevents diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytother Res. 2010;24:893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..or Mangifera indica L...
  21. Chieli E, Romiti N, Rodeiro I, Garrido G. In vitro effects of Mangifera indica and polyphenols derived on ABCB1/P-glycoprotein activity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the effects of mango (Mangifera indica L...
  22. Hanning I, Nutt J, Ricke S. Salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States due to fresh produce: sources and potential intervention measures. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines outbreaks of Salmonella due to contaminated produce, the potential sources of Salmonella, and possible control measures to prevent contamination of produce. ..
  23. Gamliel Atinsky E, Sztejnberg A, Maymon M, Vintal H, Shtienberg D, Freeman S. Infection dynamics of Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease. Phytopathology. 2009;99:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sheds light on infection dynamics, colonization patters, and the disease cycle of F. mangiferae in mango. ..
  24. Oliveira R, Dutra T, Simionatto E, Re N, Kassuya C, Cardoso C. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    b>Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M...
  25. Núñez Sellés A, Delgado Hernández R, Garrido Garrido G, García Rivera D, Guevara García M, Pardo Andreu G. The paradox of natural products as pharmaceuticals. Experimental evidences of a mango stem bark extract. Pharmacol Res. 2007;55:351-8 pubmed
  26. de Oliveira K, Berger L, de Araújo S, Câmara M, de Souza E. Synergistic mixtures of chitosan and Mentha piperita L. essential oil to inhibit Colletotrichum species and anthracnose development in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins. Food Microbiol. 2017;66:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii, identified as potential anthracnose-causing agents in mango (Mangifera indica L.)...
  27. Rodriguez J, Di Pierro D, Gioia M, Monaco S, Delgado R, Coletta M, et al. Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:1333-42 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated the effect of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L (Vimang), its main ingredient mangiferin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on energy metabolism, ..
  28. Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C, Kedjarune Leggat U. Degradability of fluorapatite-leucite ceramics in naturally acidic agents. Dent Mater J. 2010;29:502-11 pubmed
    ..05). Results of this study showed that fluorapatite-leucite ceramics were affected by long-term immersion in acidic agents. ..
  29. Rodríguez Roque M, de Ancos B, Sánchez Vega R, Sánchez Moreno C, Cano M, Elez Martínez P, et al. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice-based beverages. Food Funct. 2016;7:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages. ..
  30. Pruvost O, Savelon C, Boyer C, Chiroleu F, Gagnevin L, Jacques M. Populations of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae from asymptomatic mango leaves are primarily endophytic. Microb Ecol. 2009;58:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chloroform vapor-based disinfestation assays should be useful for further studies aiming at evaluating survival sites of bacteria associated with the phyllosphere. ..
  31. Badmus J, Adedosu T, Fatoki J, Adegbite V, Adaramoye O, Odunola O. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68:23-9 pubmed
    ..inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf...
  32. Tahmassebi J, Kandiah P, Sukeri S. The effects of fruit smoothies on enamel erosion. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014;15:175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..They produced a significant erosion of enamel in vitro. The results of this study suggest that there should be increased awareness of the erosive effects of smoothies especially as their consumption seems to be on the increase. ..
  33. Sogi D, Siddiq M, Roidoung S, Dolan K. Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango (Mangifera indica L., cv. Tommy Atkin) as affected by infrared heat treatment. J Food Sci. 2012;77:C1197-202 pubmed publisher
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a major tropical fruit that has not been exploited for fresh-cut or minimally processed products on a scale similar to apples, pineapples, or melons...
  34. Pino J, Mesa J, Muñoz Y, Martí M, Marbot R. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2213-23 pubmed
    ..Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated. ..
  35. Collyer J, Chamlin S. A 13-year-old with acne vulgaris. Pediatr Ann. 2006;35:791-2 pubmed
  36. Burton Freeman B, Sandhu A, Edirisinghe I. Mangos and their bioactive components: adding variety to the fruit plate for health. Food Funct. 2017;8:3010-3032 pubmed publisher
    ..The mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) is a tropical fruit with distinctive nutritional and phytochemical composition...
  37. Sun D, Zhang C, Ran R, Cao Y, Du Z, Fu Z, et al. In Vitro Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effects of Mangiferin and Its Aglycone Norathyriol towards UDP-Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT) Isoforms. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    Mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera Indica L., has been investigated extensively because of its remarkable pharmacological effects...
  38. Rodeiro I, Donato M, Lahoz A, González Lavaut J, Laguna A, Castell J, et al. Modulation of P450 enzymes by Cuban natural products rich in polyphenolic compounds in rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;172:1-10 pubmed
    ..after exposing rat hepatocytes to four polyphenol-rich products widely used in Cuban traditional medicine (Mangifera indica L. (MSBE), Thalassia testudinum (Tt), Erythroxylum minutifolium and confusum extracts)...
  39. Corral Aguayo R, Yahia E, Carrillo Lopez A, Gonzalez Aguilar G. Correlation between some nutritional components and the total antioxidant capacity measured with six different assays in eight horticultural crops. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..From HPE, vitamin C and TSP contents were highly correlated with AOC for all assays, while from LPE, TC and beta-carotene contents possessed a high correlation with AOC only in the DMPD assay...
  40. Kim H, Banerjee N, Ivanov I, Pfent C, Prudhomme K, Bisson W, et al. Comparison of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) in a preclinical model of colitis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60:1912-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that extracts rich in gallo- and ellagitannins act on different molecular targets in the protection against ulcerative colitis. ..
  41. Abdollahzadeh J, Zare R, Phillips A. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Botryosphaeria and Neofusicoccum species in Iran, with description of Botryosphaeria scharifii sp. nov. Mycologia. 2013;105:210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..High diversity within Iranian population of N. parvum suggests the need to revise and reassess the morphological species description of N. parvum and closely related species. ..
  42. Sirijariyawat A, Charoenrein S, Barrett D. Texture improvement of fresh and frozen mangoes with pectin methylesterase and calcium infusion. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:2581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present analysis allow for a better appreciation of the role of PME, calcium and appropriate infusion conditions in improving the texture of both fresh and frozen-thawed mangoes. ..
  43. Bhattacherjee A. Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;90:233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. ..
  44. Oliveira B, Costa H, Ventura J, Kondratyuk T, Barroso M, Correia R, et al. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Food Chem. 2016;204:37-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry...
  45. Kassi F, Bellet V, Drakulovski P, Krasteva D, Roger F, Valérie B, et al. Comparative typing analyses of clinical and environmental strains of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex from Ivory Coast. J Med Microbiol. 2018;67:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples from Eucalyptus camaldulensis (n=136), Mangifera indica (n=13) and pigeon droppings (n=518) were collected from different sites close to the living environment ..
  46. Montoya P, Ayala A, López P, Cancino J, Cabrera H, Cruz J, et al. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico. Environ Entomol. 2016;45:328-37 pubmed publisher
  47. Hannan A, Asghar S, Naeem T, Ikram Ullah M, Ahmed I, Aneela S, et al. Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013;26:715-9 pubmed
    ..D). Zone of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and S. typhimurium (ATCC14028) was 20±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). MIC of AMLE was Reported in range from 10-50 mg/ml. The present study described the inhibitory effects of mango leaves against S. typhi. ..
  48. Patiño Vera M, Jimenez B, Balderas K, Ortiz M, Allende R, Carrillo A, et al. Pilot-scale production and liquid formulation of Rhodotorula minuta, a potential biocontrol agent of mango anthracnose. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;99:540-50 pubmed
    ..Yeast suspensions applied to mango trees reduced the fruit anthracnose severity in levels similar or better than chemical fungicides. ..
  49. Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C, Kedjarune Leggat U. Chemical durability and microhardness of dental ceramics immersed in acidic agents. Acta Odontol Scand. 2010;68:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the microhardness and surface elemental compositions of ceramics immersed in acidic agents...
  50. Kumar D, Yadav K, Muthukumar M, Garg N. Production and characterization of alpha-amylase from mango kernel by Fusarium solani NAIMCC-F-02956 using submerged fermentation. J Environ Biol. 2013;34:1053-8 pubmed
    ..The optimum amylase activity was achieved at pH 5.0 at 40 degrees C. The Michaelis constant (KM), Vmax and activation energy (-Ea) were found to be 3.7 mg ml(-1), 0.24 U mg(-1) and 42.39 kJ mole(-1), respectively. ..
  51. de Lourdes Cardeal Z, Guimarães E, Parreira F. Analysis of volatile compounds in some typical Brazilian fruits and juices by SPME-GC method. Food Addit Contam. 2005;22:508-13 pubmed
    ..More than 100 VOC were identified in the fruit and juices studied by GC-MS. The method was employed to quantify ethanol, naphthalene and benzoic acid in four different species of Brazilian fruit and their juices. ..
  52. Pruvost O, Verniere C, Vital K, Guerin F, Jouen E, Chiroleu F, et al. Insertion sequence- and tandem repeat-based genotyping techniques for Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae. Phytopathology. 2011;101:887-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential of the MLVA scheme for molecular epidemiology studies of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae is discussed...
  53. Nery P, Nogueira F, Oliveira N, Martins E, Duarte E. Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:2467-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L...