ephedra sinica

Summary

Summary: A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.

Top Publications

  1. Kockler D, McCarthy M, Lawson C. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:647-51 pubmed
    ..Questioning patients about consumption of herbal products should be part of routine medical visits...
  2. Coffey C, Steiner D, Baker B, Allison D. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a product containing ephedrine, caffeine, and other ingredients from herbal sources for treatment of overweight and obesity in the absence of lifestyle treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:1411-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of an herbal formulation to promote weight loss, as compared to placebo...
  3. Ranieri T, Ciolino L. Rapid selective screening and determination of ephedrine alkaloids using GC-MS footnote mark. Phytochem Anal. 2008;19:127-35 pubmed
    ..We have applied this approach to the rapid screening and profiling of the ephedrine alkaloids in whole Ephedra plants, liquid plant extracts, dried powder plant extracts and a variety of Ephedra-containing dietary supplements. ..
  4. Li L, Li J, Zhu Y, Fan G. Ephedra sinica inhibits complement activation and improves the motor functions after spinal cord injury in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2009;78:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ephedra sinica to the inflammation or complement system of injured spinal cord and the influence to the functional recovery ..
  5. Krizevski R, Bar E, Shalit O, Sitrit Y, Ben Shabat S, Lewinsohn E. Composition and stereochemistry of ephedrine alkaloids accumulation in Ephedra sinica Stapf. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:895-903 pubmed publisher
    b>Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae) is a widely used Chinese medicinal plant (Chinese name: Ma Huang). The main active constituents of E...
  6. Nam N, Lee C, Hong D, Kim H, Bae K, Ahn B. Antiinvasive, antiangiogenic and antitumour activity of Ephedra sinica extract. Phytother Res. 2003;17:70-6 pubmed
    A water fraction (EW), the remaining water phase from the methanol extract of Ephedra sinica after extraction with ethyl acetate and butanol, has been investigated for its antiangiogenic, antiinvasive and antitumour activities...
  7. Yamada I, Goto T, Takeuchi S, Ohshima S, Yoneyama K, Shibuya T, et al. Mao (Ephedra sinica Stapf) protects against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic failure. Cytokine. 2008;41:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it is also suggested that Mao, which activates STAT3 induced by IL-6, may be a useful therapeutic tool for fulminant hepatic failure...
  8. Haller C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;71:421-32 pubmed
    ..We assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a dietary supplement that contains these herbal stimulants...
  9. Lv M, Chen J, Gao Y, Sun J, Zhang Q, Zhang M, et al. Metabolomics based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry reveals the chemical difference in the stems and roots derived from Ephedra sinica. J Sep Sci. 2015;38:3331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..understand different traditional uses of the stems (known as Mahuang) and roots (known as Mahuanggen) of Ephedra sinica, their chemical difference should be investigated...

More Information

Publications100

  1. Fan D, Liao Q, Yan D, Ma X, Xiao X, Zhao Y. [Comparison of properties of Mahuang decoction and Maxing Shigan decoction based on biothermodynamics]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:421-4 pubmed
    ..Studying on biothermodynamics can show the difference of four properties of Traditional Chinese Medicine. So, it provides a new and useful means for the study of the properties of traditional Chinese medicine. ..
  2. Wang J, Kim B, Han K, Kim H. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders...
  3. Fields A, Kaye A, Richards T, Ibrahim I, Heavner J, DeWitt B, et al. Pulmonary vascular responses to ma huang extract. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:727-33 pubmed
    ..Ma huang has significant vasopressor activity in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat mediated predominantly by alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor activation. ..
  4. Hiyama H, Ozawa A, Kumazawa H, Takeda O. Stabilization of Ephedrine Alkaloid Content in Ephedra sinica by Selective Breeding and Stolon Propagation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40:43-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we first grew Ephedra sinica plants derived from seeds in the field for 5 years...
  5. Lv K, Li H, Ding M. Analysis of tetramethylpyrazine in Ephedrae herba by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2000;878:147-52 pubmed
    ..1-106.9%. The relative standard deviations of retention time and peak area were 0.18 and 1.5% (n=6), respectively. The detection limit of TMP was 0.03 mg/l. The contents of TMP in Ephedrae herba could easily be determined within 10 min. ..
  6. Wettach G, Falvey S. A mysterious blood pressure increase in a drilling Naval reservist. Mil Med. 2002;167:521-3 pubmed
    ..It was discovered that the reservist was unknowingly taking large doses of Ephedra sinica, or ma huang, a Chinese herbal supplement, for body-building...
  7. Yao Y, Zhang X, Wang Z, Zheng C, Li P, Huang C, et al. Deciphering the combination principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine from a systems pharmacology perspective based on Ma-huang Decoction. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:619-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work lays foundations for a more comprehensive understanding of the combination rule of TCM, which might also be beneficial to drug development and applications. ..
  8. Song H, Shim K, Ryu K, Kim T, Jung S, Yoo K. A case of ischemic colitis associated with the herbal food supplement ma huang. Yonsei Med J. 2008;49:496-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, food supplements containing Ephedra sinica or ma huang have been linked to adverse central nervous and cardiovascular events...
  9. Xu J, Yan R. Determination of the Metabolite of Ephedrine, 4-Hydroxyephedrine, by LC-MS-MS in Rat Urine and Its Application in Excretion Profiles After Oral Administration of Ephedra sinica Stapf and Processing Ephedra sinica Stapf. J Chromatogr Sci. 2017;55:162-165 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to study the changes of metabolism of Ephedra sinica Stapf caused by processing...
  10. Xin G, Hu B, Shi Z, Zheng J, Wang L, Chang W, et al. A direct ionization mass spectrometry-based approach for differentiation of medicinal Ephedra species. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;117:492-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using such an approach, three medicinal species of Ephedrae Herba, Ephedra sinica, Ephedra intermedia, and Ephedra equisetina., had been successfully differentiated...
  11. Arbo M, Franco M, Larentis E, Garcia S, Sebben V, Leal M, et al. Screening for in vivo (anti)estrogenic activity of ephedrine and p-synephrine and their natural sources Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:95-9 pubmed publisher
    Formulations containing Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) are consumed worldwide for body weight control...
  12. Xia Y, Wang Q, Liang J, Yang B, Li G, Kuang H. Development and application of a rapid and efficient CZE method coupled with correction factors for determination of monosaccharide composition of acidic hetero-polysaccharides from Ephedra sinica. Phytochem Anal. 2011;22:103-11 pubmed publisher
    Ephedrine alkaloids cannot account for all the effects of Ephedra sinica and the polysaccharides are also demonstrated to be one of the main bioactive constituents of E. sinica...
  13. Kim H, Park J, Kim J, Ko B. Effect of herbal Ephedra sinica and Evodia rutaecarpa on body composition and resting metabolic rate: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in Korean premenopausal women. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2008;1:128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..It is generally believed that a low-calorie diet is commonly followed by a resting metabolic rate decrease and ultimate weight regain. Ephedra sinica and evodia rutaecarpa are known to have sympathomimetic and anti-obesity effects.
  14. Chen W, Tsai T, Yang C, Kuo T. Effects of ephedra on autonomic nervous modulation in healthy young adults. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:563-8 pubmed publisher
  15. Zuo S, Li W, Li Q, Zhao H, Tang J, Chen Q, et al. Protective effects of Ephedra sinica extract on blood-brain barrier integrity and neurological function correlate with complement C3 reduction after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015;609:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Ephedra sinica extract was extracted and purified, which exhibits ability to block the activity of the classical and ..
  16. Li X, Liang Y, Li X. [Analysis of essential oil in herba ephedrae-ramulus cinnamomi by GC-MS and chemometric resolution method]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:187-91 pubmed
    ..2. 1.1 (2,5 ). 0 (9,10) ] deca-3,7-diene, globulol, ( E, E) -6, 10,14-trimethyl-5,9,13-pentadecatrien-2 -one, etc. have been found in HP HE-RC because of chemical reactions and physical changes during the course of decocation. ..
  17. Haller C, Duan M, Benowitz N, Jacob P. Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28:145-51 pubmed
    ..We conclude that product inconsistency is common among some commercially available dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids and caffeine...
  18. Clark B, Schofield R. Dilated cardiomyopathy and acute liver injury associated with combined use of ephedra, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, and anabolic steroids. Pharmacotherapy. 2005;25:756-61 pubmed
  19. Schaneberg B, Crockett S, Bedir E, Khan I. The role of chemical fingerprinting: application to Ephedra. Phytochemistry. 2003;62:911-8 pubmed
    b>Ephedra sinica, known as Ma Huang, is one of the oldest medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Preparations, namely teas, of E. sinica have been used for over 5000 years as a stimulant and as an antiasthmatic...
  20. Orejola J, Matsuo Y, Saito Y, Tanaka T. Characterization of Proanthocyanidin Oligomers of Ephedra sinica. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    i>Ephedra sinica, an important plant in Chinese traditional medicine, contains a complex mixture of proanthocyanidin oligomers as major constituents; however, only the minor components have been chemically characterized...
  21. Yu L, Wang X, Luo J. [Determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and methylephedrine hydrochloride in maxingshigan decoction by CE]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:620-3 pubmed
    ..9993). The average recoveries were 98.0%, 97.0% and 97.8%, the precisions of the method were 2.31%, 2.21% and 2.00% (n=6), respectively. The method is convenient, rapid and accurate for the quality control of maxingshigan decoction. ..
  22. Lee M. The history of Ephedra (ma-huang). J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2011;41:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Ephedra and ephedrine products are now banned in many countries, as they are a major source for the production of the addictive compound methamphetamine (crystal meth). ..
  23. Jacob P, Haller C, Duan M, Yu L, Peng M, Benowitz N. Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28:152-9 pubmed
    ..Using this method, low nanogram-per-milliliter concentrations of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, methylpseudoephedrine, and caffeine can be quantitated in a 12-min LC-MS-MS run. ..
  24. Tellez M, Khan I, Schaneberg B, Crockett S, Rimando A, Kobaisy M. Steam distillation-solid-phase microextraction for the detection of Ephedra sinica in herbal preparations. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1025:51-6 pubmed
    ..allowed for the detection by GC-MS of very small amounts of a diagnostic peak for the authentication of Ephedra sinica, in a short period of time and using only small sample sizes...
  25. Brown A. Kidney toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 3 of 5 series. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;107:502-519 pubmed publisher
    ..States are chocolate vine or mu tong (Caulis aristolochiae), guang fang ji (Aristolochia fangchi), ma huang (Ephedra sinica), and Tenshin Tokishigyaku-ka-goshuyu-shokyo-to...
  26. Shaw D. Toxicological risks of Chinese herbs. Planta Med. 2010;76:2012-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As TCM is widely used by patients, improved pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology can contribute valuable safety information, relevant to clinical use...
  27. Xia Y, Wang T, Sun L, Liang J, Yang B, Kuang H. A New UPLC-MS/MS Method for the Characterization and Discrimination of Polysaccharides from Genus Ephedra Based on Enzymatic Digestions. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    i>Ephedra sinica polysaccharides have been reported to possess important activities, so quality evaluation of polysaccharides from the genus Ephedra is urgent...
  28. Li L, Zhu Y. [Effects of complement inhibiting component of Ephedra sinica on immunological inflammation following acute spinal cord injury in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2012;32:1385-9 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of complement inhibiting component of Ephedra sinica on immunological inflammation following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats...
  29. Wang Q, Shu Z, Xing N, Xu B, Wang C, Sun G, et al. A pure polysaccharide from Ephedra sinica treating on arthritis and inhibiting cytokines expression. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;86:177-88 pubmed publisher
    In our previous study, we found that the acidic polysaccharides of Ephedra sinica had immunosuppressive effect to treat rheumatoid arthritis and the pure polysaccharide ESP-B4 was the main composition of the acidic polysaccharides...
  30. Jing H, Guo H, Wang Z, Wang M, Zhang B. [Determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in Herba Ephedrae and Maxing Shigan Tang by capillary zone electrophoresis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:980-3 pubmed
    ..81 and 4.93 mg x L(-1), respectively. The average recoveries for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were 97.5% and 98.6% with RSD less than 5.0%. The method is simple, rapid, cost-effective and precise with satisfactory results. ..
  31. Lurie I, Li L, Toske S. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography of seized drugs and related compounds with sub 2 ?m particle columns. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:9336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, because high organic content mobile phases are highly amenable to mass spectrometric detection, the use of HILIC with tandem mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of seized drugs is described. ..
  32. Lee A, Jang Y, Hong S, Chang S, Park S, Kim S, et al. Ephedrine-induced mitophagy via oxidative stress in human hepatic stellate cells. J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42:461-473 pubmed publisher
    The herb Ephedra sinica (also known as Chinese ephedra or Ma Huang), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains alkaloids identical to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents...
  33. Wei F, Luo J, Chen F, Wang Y. [Influence of decoction methods and compatibility on content of cinnamaldehyde in Mahuang decoction]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:664-6 pubmed
    ..To develop a GC-MS method for the determination of cinnamaldehyde and study on the influence of decoction methods and compatibility on the contents of cinnamaldehyde in Mahuang decoction...
  34. Zhang X, Luo J. [Effects of herba ephedrae, honey-fried herba ephedrae and maxingshigan decoction on autonomic activities of mice]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:236-9 pubmed
    ..Under the condition of this study, regarding autonomic activity as index, both ZMH-L and MX-L can reduce center stimulation in some extent. ..
  35. Yeom M, Lee H, Kim G, Lee H, Shim I, Oh S, et al. Anti-arthritic effects of Ephedra sinica STAPF herb-acupuncture: inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006;100:41-50 pubmed
    Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of water distillates of Ephedra sinica STAPF (ES), in herb-acupuncture, on the inflammatory responses of arthritis was investigated using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/..
  36. Boozer C, Daly P, Homel P, Solomon J, Blanchard D, Nasser J, et al. Herbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:593-604 pubmed
    ..To examine long-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal Ma Huang and Kola nut supplement (90/192 mg/day ephedrine alkaloids/caffeine)...
  37. Kim H, Cho Y, Leem K, Lee D, Kim E, Kim M, et al. Effects of ephedrae herba on melanogenesis and gene expression profiles using cDNA microarray in B16 melanocytes. Phytother Res. 2006;20:748-54 pubmed
    Ephedrae Herba (EH) is obtained by drying the stems of Ephedra sinica Stapf (family Ephedraceae). EH has been used clinically to treat colds and to reduce edema in skin...
  38. Hayashi K, Shimura K, Makino T, Mizukami H. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory. J Nat Med. 2010;64:70-4 pubmed publisher
    ..D., describes that when herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and kakkonto (gegen-tang) are prepared, ephedra herb is first boiled alone, the ..
  39. Estes J, Stolpman D, Olyaei A, Corless C, Ham J, Schwartz J, et al. High prevalence of potentially hepatotoxic herbal supplement use in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Arch Surg. 2003;138:852-8 pubmed
    ..The use of potentially hepatotoxic herbal and dietary supplements is highly prevalent in the fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) patient population at our institution, and this subgroup of patients has a worse prognosis...
  40. Wilasrusmee C, Siddiqui J, Bruch D, Wilasrusmee S, Kittur S, Kittur D. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of herbal products. Am Surg. 2002;68:860-4 pubmed
    ..We conclude that green tea, dong quai, ginseng, milk thistle, and ginger have effects on in vitro immune assays that may be relevant in transplantation in humans...
  41. Mehendale S, Bauer B, Yuan C. Ephedra-containing dietary supplements in the US versus ephedra as a Chinese medicine. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32:1-10 pubmed
    ..This article reviews and contrasts the usage of ephedra as a dietary supplement in the US against an herbal medication in TCM. The potential adverse effects of ephedra-containing dietary supplements are also reviewed...
  42. Traboulsi A, Viswanathan R, Coplan J. Suicide attempt after use of herbal diet pill. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:318-9 pubmed
  43. Jia L, Zhao Y, Xing X, Wang J, Zou W, Li R, et al. [Investigation of differences between cold and hot nature of Mahuang decoction and Maxing Shigan decoction based on cold/hot plate differentiating assay]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2741-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the objectivity and authenticity of the difference of the Cold and Hot nature between Mahuang decoction and Maxingshigan decoction based on the cold/hot plate differentiating assay...
  44. Nishiguchi M, Kinoshita H, Higasa K, Taniguchi T, Ouchi H, Minami T, et al. [The false positive reaction of the Triage panel drug-of-abuse by herbal drugs ma-huang (Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae))]. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi. 2001;55:331-8 pubmed
    ..As both cases have a history of ingesting the herbal drug, Ma-huang (Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae)), containing ephedrine, we examined the relationship between false-positive reactions on Triage ..
  45. Wang R, Zhang Q, Jia Z, Fan J, Xu L, Xie H, et al. [Studies on fingerprint spectrum of Ephedra sinica from Gansu province]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:254-5 pubmed
    To set up the fingerprint spectrum of Ephedra sinica from Gansu province and its extract for controlling the quality.
  46. Wu Z, Luo J, Tan X. [Research on the influence of compatibility on fingerprint of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in mahuang decoctions by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:209-12 pubmed
    ..To set up the HPLC fingerprint of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in decoctions prepared from various combinations of the recipe named Mahuang decoctions and study the influence of compatibility on fingerprint of G. wralensis in decoctions...
  47. Lv M, Sun J, Wang M, Fan H, Zhang Z, Xu F. Comparative analysis of volatile oils in the stems and roots of Ephedra sinica via GC-MS-based plant metabolomics. Chin J Nat Med. 2016;14:133-140 pubmed publisher
    With a great difference in therapeutic effects of Mahuang (MH, the stems of Ephedra sinica) and Mahuanggen (MHG, the roots of Ephedra sinica), chemical differences between MH and MHG should be investigated...
  48. Hou J, Zheng J, Shamsi S. Simultaneous chiral separation of ephedrine alkaloids by MEKC-ESI-MS using polymeric surfactant II: application in dietary supplements. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1426-34 pubmed
    ..019 mg/g, for (-)-norephedrine from 0.36 to 0.0031 mg/g, for (+)-norpseudoephedrine from 0.68 to 0.0052 mg/g, for (-)-methylephedrine from 1.18 to 0.0092 mg/g and for (+)-methylpseudoephedrine from 0.086 to 0.00037 mg/g in the SRMs...
  49. Liang S, Tan X, Chen F, Luo J. [Comparative analysis of volatile oils of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin decoction and its major constituted herbs by GC-MS]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:896-901 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the correlativity between volatile oils of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin decoction and its major constituted herbs in composition and proportion...
  50. Yang C, Liang G, He Z, Cao P, Tian W, Cai L. [Determination of glycyrrhizic acid in different decoctions of sanaotang by HPLC and comparison with antifugal effects in vitro]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1031-4 pubmed
    ..the single traditional Chinese herb with water separately, then mixed the abstracts) of Sanaotang (composed of Ephedra sinica, Prunus armeniaca and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) and to compare with their anti-bacterial activities in vitro.
  51. Song S, Ma Q, Tang Q, Chen F, Xing X, Guo Y, et al. Stereoselective metabolism of amygdalin-based study of detoxification of Semen Armeniacae Amarum in the Herba Ephedrae-Semen Armeniacae Amarum herb pair. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;179:356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Mahuang acts to enhance and control the effects of Xingren in the MX combination. These results illustrate the rationale behind the combination of Mahuang and Xingren. ..
  52. Miller S. Psychiatric effects of ephedra: addiction. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:2198 pubmed
  53. Kim E, Shin M, Chang H, Lee T, Jang M, Shin M, et al. Aqueous extract of ma huang suppresses neuropeptide Y expression in food-deprived rat hypothalamus. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32:659-67 pubmed
    ..ma huang suppressed the food-deprivation-induced enhancement of NPY expression. Present results suggest that ma huang curbs the food desire by suppressing the NPY expression under food-deprivation conditions...
  54. Zhao W, Deng A, Du G, Zhang J, Li Z, Qin H. Chemical constituents of the stems of Ephedra sinica. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2009;11:168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudoephedrine, N-methylephedrine, and 6-methoxykynurenic acid, have been isolated from the stems of Ephedra sinica, a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine...
  55. Shin S, Park D, Lee H, Hong Y, Choi J, Oh J, et al. The herbal composition GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica reduces obesity via skeletal muscle AMPK and PPAR?. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in skeletal muscle of obese rodents stimulates fatty acid oxidation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that pharmacological activation of AMPK might be of therapeutic benefit in obesity...
  56. Tao H, Wang L, Cui Z, Zhao D, Liu Y. Dimeric proanthocyanidins from the roots of Ephedra sinica. Planta Med. 2008;74:1823-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4), along with two known congeners, ephedrannin A ( 1) and mahuannin D ( 3), were isolated from the roots of Ephedra sinica Stapf...
  57. Pang X, Song J, Xu H, Yao H. [Using ITS2 barcode to identify ephedrae herba]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:1118-21 pubmed
    ..To identify Ephedrae Herba using the ITS2 barcode and to secure its quality and safety in medication...
  58. Zhai H, Zhang S, Gao M, Liu Y, Ou M, Meng F, et al. [Effects of Herba Ephedra Sinicae and Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis on pathology of rats with bleomycin A(5)-induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011;9:553-7 pubmed
    ..To observe the different effects between Mahuang (Herba Ephedra Sinicae) and Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) on the pathological changes of rats with bleomycin A(5)-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
  59. Baggett M, Kelly M, Korenman L, Ryan L. Neuropsychological deficits of a U.S. Army pilot following an anoxic event as a function of cardiac arrest. Mil Med. 2003;168:769-71 pubmed
    ..This case adds to the body of literature documenting the physical and neuropsychological effects of anoxia, as well as the effects of ephedrine-based supplements, such as Ma Huang...
  60. Hutchins G. Ma huang toxicity. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77:733 pubmed
  61. Kim I, Park Y, Yoon S, Lee H. Ephedrannin A and B from roots of Ephedra sinica inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators by suppressing nuclear factor-?B activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1616-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Ephedra sinica is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the active ingredients from Ephedra roots have not been characterized...
  62. Matsumoto K, Mikoshiba H, Saida T. Nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption caused by a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang (Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:628-30 pubmed
    ..The causative drug was determined by closed patch test on postlesional skin as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang (Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine...
  63. Dunnick J, Kissling G, Gerken D, Vallant M, Nyska A. Cardiotoxicity of Ma Huang/caffeine or ephedrine/caffeine in a rodent model system. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:657-64 pubmed
    ..The combination of Ma Huang or ephedrine with caffeine enhanced the cardiotoxicity over that with the herbal medicine or the active ingredient alone...
  64. Zhou B, Gao W, Zhang T, Zhang J. [Study on the preparation and quality standard of Ephedra sinica dispensing granules]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:1236-8 pubmed
    To optimize the preparation process and to set up the quality standard of Ephedra sinica Dispensing Granules.
  65. Techen N, Khan I, Pan Z, Scheffler B. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of ephedra DNA in dietary supplements. Planta Med. 2006;72:241-7 pubmed
    ..profiles of botanicals, an investigation was performed with the goal to detect, identify and verify Ephedra sinica Stapf DNA in dietary supplements such as plant mixtures and tablets/capsules...
  66. Chu X, Xu Z, Zhan G, Wu D, Qiu M, Jia W. [Study on the proportion & mechanism of reliving asthma of drug partnership comprising herbal Ephedrae sinica & Pheretima aspergilum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:236-9 pubmed
    ..To study the proportion and mechanism of relieving asthma of drug partnership comprising herbal Ephedrae & Pheretima...
  67. Liu Y, Luo J. [Effects of among compositions of Herba Ephedrae decoction on genic xpression of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, IL-4 and leukotriene C4 in asthmatic mice]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:246-9 pubmed
    ..To explore the regularity of recipe composition by observing inhibitory effects on the genic expression of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, IL-4 and the leukotriene C4 in asthmatic mice...
  68. Bajaj J, Knox J, Komorowski R, Saeian K. The irony of herbal hepatitis: Ma-Huang-induced hepatotoxicity associated with compound heterozygosity for hereditary hemochromatosis. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1925-8 pubmed
  69. Boerth J, Caley C. Possible case of mania associated with ma-huang. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23:380-3 pubmed
    Several commercially available weight-loss supplements contain ma-huang, an herb derived from Ephedra sinica. Previous reports have raised awareness that ma-huang supplements may precipitate symptoms consistent with mania in susceptible ..
  70. Zhang X, Luo J. [Effect of Herba ephedrae, honey-fried Herba ephedrae and Maxingshigan decoction on pentobabital sodium sleep experiment in mice]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:121-2 pubmed
    ..To observe the effects of Herba ephedrae, honey-fried Herba ephedrae and Maxingshigan decoction on pentobabital sodium sleep experiment in mice...
  71. Liang G, He Z, Wu K, Jin F, Li X, Feng H. [Studies on factors influencing on ephedrine contents in Maxing Shigan decoction]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:2600-3 pubmed
    ..To investigate the factors influencing on the ephedrine contents in different compositions of Maxingshigan decoction...
  72. Lin W, Guo S, Huang H, Chen R, Feng S, Li Y, et al. [Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2009;29:1847-50 pubmed
  73. Zang X, Shang M, Xu F, Liang J, Wang X, Mikage M, et al. A-type proanthocyanidins from the stems of Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) and their antimicrobial activities. Molecules. 2013;18:5172-89 pubmed publisher
    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of the EtOH extract of the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica, which is known as Ephedrae Herba in Traditional Chinese Medicine, led to the isolation and identification of 12 A-..
  74. Hoover J, Kaye A, Ibrahim I, Fields A. Ma huang and alpha subtype adrenoceptors in the cat pulmonary vascular bed. J Diet Suppl. 2008;5:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that ma huang induces a pressor response in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat and identify the alpha (1)-adrenoceptor subtype pathway(s) involved in the mediation or modulation of these effects...
  75. Sun Q, Cao H, Zhou Y, Wang X, Jiang H, Gong L, et al. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical constituents in Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin decoction based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Biomed Chromatogr. 2016;30:1820-1834 pubmed publisher
    ..A highly sensitive and efficient method was established for chemical constituents studying, including identification and quantification of Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin decoction. ..
  76. Li H, Ding M, Lu K, Yu J. [Separation and determination of ephedrine alkaloids and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazine in Ephedra herba by HPLC]. Se Pu. 2001;19:161-3 pubmed
    ..The contents of E, PE, NE, NPE, TMP in Ephedra herba, traditional medicine Xiao-er qingfeiwan and Lu-si kewan were determined respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the contents ranged between 1.1%-3%...
  77. Yi X, Chen D, Liu J, Liu Q. [Determination of twelve elements in ephedrine extraction by microwave digestion-AAS]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2003;23:81-3 pubmed
    ..The proposed method is simple, rapid, of nonpollution and safe. It was has been applied to the determination of trace elements in ephedrine extraction and provided useful data for production in factory...
  78. LoVecchio F, Sawyers B, Eckholdt P. Transient ischemic attack associated with Metabolife 356 use. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23:199-200 pubmed
  79. Lin S, Ke X, Wei G. [Investigate into of effective constituent transference of herba Ephedrae and cortex Magnoliae officinalis in preparation course of Shujin Kechuan capsule]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1950-2 pubmed
    ..Investigate into transport rate and retention rate transference of principal effective constituent in Shujin Kechuang capsule, a new development Chinese patent medicine for theraphy asthma...
  80. Hong H, Chen H, Xu F, Zang X, Yang D, Wang X, et al. [Surveys on resources and varieties on Chinese markets of crude drug mahuang]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:1129-32 pubmed
    ..At the same time, wild resources of Mahuang must be preserved strictly, i.e., proper method of cutting Ephedra plant could prevent the damage of the resource...
  81. Chen Z, Hu G. [Effect of modified shegan mahuang decoction on cytokines in children patients with cough and variant asthma]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2010;30:208-10 pubmed
    ..To study the influence of modified Shegan Mahuang Decoction (SGMH) on cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-13 in children suffered from cough and variant asthma (C&VA)...
  82. Woolf A, Watson W, Smolinske S, Litovitz T. The severity of toxic reactions to ephedra: comparisons to other botanical products and national trends from 1993-2002. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43:347-55 pubmed
    ..This study's purpose was to compare toxicity from botanical products containing ephedra to nonephedra products...
  83. Stahl C, Borlongan C, Szerlip M, Szerlip H. No pain, no gain--exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis associated with the performance enhancer herbal supplement ephedra. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:CS81-4 pubmed
    ..We describe a rare case of severe rhabdomyolysis provoked by ingestion of a performance-enhancer herbal supplement containing ephedra...
  84. Foxford R, Sahlas D, Wingfield K. Vasospasm-induced stroke in a varsity athlete secondary to ephedrine ingestion. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13:183-5 pubmed
  85. Munarriz R, Hwang J, Goldstein I, Traish A, Kim N. Cocaine and ephedrine-induced priapism: case reports and investigation of potential adrenergic mechanisms. Urology. 2003;62:187-92 pubmed
    ..However, the effects of cocaine and ephedrine on adrenergic regulation of cavernosal tissue and the potential role of sympathetic dysregulation in the development of priapism have not been studied...
  86. Trujillo W, Sorenson W. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements and botanicals by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: collaborative study. J AOAC Int. 2003;86:657-68 pubmed
  87. Wang L, Kakiuchi N, Mikage M. Studies of Ephedra plants in Asia. Part 6: Geographical changes of anatomical features and alkaloids content of Ephedra sinica. J Nat Med. 2010;64:63-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ephedra sinica Stapf is the main botanical origin of the Chinese herbal drug Mahuang, Ephedra Herb. Eighty-five samples of E...
  88. Li X, Zhang T, Sampson H, Zou Z, Beyer K, Wen M, et al. The potential use of Chinese herbal medicines in treating allergic asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;93:S35-44 pubmed
  89. Li S, Xiao N, Zhang X. [Effect of ephedrine on neuronal plasticity in neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1684-7 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of ephedrine on neural plasticity after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats...
  90. Trujillo W, Sorenson W, Laluzerne P, Scheuerell C. Comparison of various dilutions and solid-phase extraction cleanup on the determination of ephedrine-type alkaloids and internal standard recovery in ephedra botanical raw material and powdered extract. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:1028-47 pubmed
    ..It is also recommended that the SPE column used should be evaluated on its need for the sample dilutions made to fit the newly recommended standard graph...
  91. Wang Z, Cui Y, Ding G, Zhou M, Ma X, Hou Y, et al. Mahuannin B an adenylate cyclase inhibitor attenuates hyperhidrosis via suppressing ?2-adrenoceptor/cAMP signaling pathway. Phytomedicine. 2017;30:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Although they come from the same plant, Ephedra sinica Stapf, but have play opposing roles in clinical applications...