ephedra

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.

Top Publications

  1. Huang J, Giannasi D, Price R. Phylogenetic relationships in Ephedra (Ephedraceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;35:48-59 pubmed
    ..genes maturase K and ribulose-1,5 biphosphate carboxylase large subunit were obtained from species of Ephedra (Ephedraceae) representing the geographic range and morphological diversity of the genus...
  2. Boozer C, Daly P, Homel P, Solomon J, Blanchard D, Nasser J, et al. Herbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:593-604 pubmed
    ..To examine long-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal Ma Huang and Kola nut supplement (90/192 mg/day ephedrine alkaloids/caffeine)...
  3. Loera I, Sosa V, Ickert Bond S. Diversification in North American arid lands: niche conservatism, divergence and expansion of habitat explain speciation in the genus Ephedra. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;65:437-50 pubmed publisher
    A lineage of 12 arid land shrubby species in the gymnosperm genus Ephedra (Gnetales) from North America is used to evaluate the influence of climate on speciation...
  4. Bitsko R, Reefhuis J, Louik C, Werler M, Feldkamp M, Waller D, et al. Periconceptional use of weight loss products including ephedra and the association with birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008;82:553-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the association between periconceptional use of weight loss products and major structural birth defects...
  5. Vukovich M, Schoorman R, Heilman C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:47-53 pubmed
    ..randomized, double-blind cross-over study was performed evaluating the acute effects of caffeine (150 mg)/herbal ephedra (Ma Huang; 20 mg ephedra alkaloids) versus a placebo...
  6. Huang J, Price R. Estimation of the age of extant Ephedra using chloroplast rbcL sequence data. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:435-40 pubmed
    The distinctive gymnosperm genus Ephedra is sometimes considered to have originated over 200 million years (Myr) ago on the basis of "ephedroid" fossil pollen...
  7. Nelson R. FDA issues alert on ephedra supplements in the USA. Lancet. 2004;363:135 pubmed
  8. Preuss H, DiFerdinando D, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview. J Med. 2002;33:247-64 pubmed
    ..Many companies are now substituting Citrus aurantium for ephedra in their formulations...
  9. Peters R, Adams L, Barnes J, Hines L, Jones D, Krebs K, et al. Beliefs and social norms about ephedra onset and perceived addiction among college male and female athletes. Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40:125-35 pubmed
    In Spring 2003, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with ephedra initiation and perceived addiction to the drug among 43 primarily minority athletes, attending a historically Black ..

More Information

Publications77

  1. Krizevski R, Bar E, Shalit O, Levy A, Hagel J, Kilpatrick K, et al. Benzaldehyde is a precursor of phenylpropylamino alkaloids as revealed by targeted metabolic profiling and comparative biochemical analyses in Ephedra spp. Phytochemistry. 2012;81:71-9 pubmed publisher
    Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are phenylpropylamino alkaloids widely used in modern medicine. Some Ephedra species such as E...
  2. Kim B, Cao L, Kim J. Common responses in gene expression by Ephedra herba in brain and heart of mouse. Phytother Res. 2011;25:1440-6 pubmed publisher
    The physiological activities of Ephedra herba have been investigated extensively, particularly in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems...
  3. Okada T, Mikage M, Sekita S. Molecular characterization of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Ephedra sinica. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:2194-9 pubmed
    The cDNAs (Espals) encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were cloned from Ephedra sinica by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers and by 5' and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
  4. Andraws R, Chawla P, Brown D. Cardiovascular effects of ephedra alkaloids: a comprehensive review. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2005;47:217-25 pubmed
    The Ephedra alkaloids have received much press lately secondary to reported adverse events in those using whole extracts as "dietary supplements" for weight loss or athletic performance enhancement...
  5. Rydin C, Pedersen K, Friis E. On the evolutionary history of Ephedra: Cretaceous fossils and extant molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16571-6 pubmed
    Gnetales comprise three unusual genera of seed plants, Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia. Their extraordinary morphological diversity suggests that they are survivors of an ancient, more diverse group...
  6. Kalman D, Incledon T, Gaunaurd I, Schwartz H, Krieger D. An acute clinical trial evaluating the cardiovascular effects of an herbal ephedra-caffeine weight loss product in healthy overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:1363-6 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to determine the acute effects of a commercial weight loss supplement containing herbal ephedrine and caffeine on cardiovascular function in healthy overweight adults...
  7. Shekelle P, Hardy M, Morton S, Maglione M, Mojica W, Suttorp M, et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289:1537-45 pubmed
    b>Ephedra and ephedrine sometimes are used for weight loss or enhanced athletic performance, but the efficacy and safety of these compounds are uncertain.
  8. Charatan F. Ephedra supplement may have contributed to sportsman's death. BMJ. 2003;326:464 pubmed
  9. Kim H, Choi Y, Erkelens C, Lefeber A, Verpoorte R. Metabolic fingerprinting of Ephedra species using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005;53:105-9 pubmed
    The metabolomic analysis of Ephedra species was performed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. A broad range of metabolites could be detected by 1H-NMR spectroscopy without any chromatographic separation...
  10. Ray S, Phadke S, Patel C, Hackman R, Stohs S. Short-term and long-term in vivo exposure to an ephedra- and caffeine-containing metabolic nutrition system does not induce cardiotoxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Arch Toxicol. 2005;79:330-40 pubmed
    ..The MNSO contain extracts of citrus, ephedra, guarana, gingko, green tea and Ocimum...
  11. Kalman D. An acute clinical trial evaluating the cardiovascular effects of an herbal ephedra-caffeine weight loss product in healthy overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:1355-6 pubmed
  12. Hackman R, Havel P, Schwartz H, Rutledge J, Watnik M, Noceti E, et al. Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1545-56 pubmed
    To determine the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement with a low dose of ephedra and caffeine in overweight/obese premenopausal female subjects.
  13. Soni M, Carabin I, Griffiths J, Burdock G. Safety of ephedra: lessons learned. Toxicol Lett. 2004;150:97-110 pubmed
    The safe use of ephedra represents the best possible outcome of a convergence of variables, some with troubling potential outcomes. Commercially used ephedra and its products is prepared from Ephedra spp...
  14. Jordan J, Shannon J, Diedrich A, Black B, Robertson D, Biaggioni I. Water potentiates the pressor effect of ephedra alkaloids. Circulation. 2004;109:1823-5 pubmed
    The use of ephedra alkaloids in over-the-counter preparations has been associated with potentially serious cerebrovascular events...
  15. Naik S, Freudenberger R. Ephedra-associated cardiomyopathy. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:400-3 pubmed
    To report 2 cases of cardiomyopathy associated with use of dietary supplements containing ephedra. case summaries: A 19-year-old white man presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of exertional shortness of breath and ..
  16. Abourashed E, El Alfy A, Khan I, Walker L. Ephedra in perspective--a current review. Phytother Res. 2003;17:703-12 pubmed
    Although the traditional use of Ephedra 'ma huang' has been established for thousands of years, its resurgence in the US as a herbal dietary supplement is currently a matter of national controversy...
  17. Qin A, Wang M, Cun Y, Yang F, Wang S, Ran J, et al. Phylogeographic evidence for a link of species divergence of Ephedra in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions to the Miocene Asian aridification. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56243 pubmed publisher
    ..and trnS-trnfM sequences were used to investigate the differentiation and phylogeographical history of 14 Ephedra species from the QTP and northern China, based on a sampling of 107 populations...
  18. Grippo A, Capps K, Rougeau B, Gurley B. Analysis of flavonoid phytoestrogens in botanical and ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:1375-82 pubmed
    ..Because botanical and dietary supplements are plant products and need not be processed or purified due to their FDA classification as foods, they may contain unexpected phytoestrogens, such as flavonoids...
  19. Fleming R. The effect of ephedra and high fat dieting: a cause for concern! A case report. Angiology. 2007;58:102-5 pubmed
    ..A review of the literature reveals several problems with some of these supplements, including Ephedra. Potentially serious adverse effects include dysrhythmias, heart failure, myocardial infarction, changes in blood ..
  20. McBride B, Karapanos A, Krudysz A, Kluger J, Coleman C, White C. Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic effects of a multicomponent dietary supplement containing ephedra and caffeine: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291:216-21 pubmed
    Metabolife 356, a multicomponent dietary supplement containing ephedra and caffeine (DSEC) in addition to several other components, is the top-selling dietary weight loss supplement...
  21. Morgenstern L, Viscoli C, Kernan W, Brass L, Broderick J, Feldmann E, et al. Use of Ephedra-containing products and risk for hemorrhagic stroke. Neurology. 2003;60:132-5 pubmed
    This case-control study examined the association between Ephedra use and risk for hemorrhagic stroke. For use of Ephedra at any dose during the 3 days before the stroke, the adjusted OR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.32 to 3.11)...
  22. Marcus D, Grollman A. Ephedra-free is not danger-free. Science. 2003;301:1669-71; author reply 1669-71 pubmed
  23. Haller C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;77:560-71 pubmed
    Serious adverse health events have been reported with the use of dietary supplements containing ephedra and guarana...
  24. Guharoy R, Noviasky J. Time to ban ephedra--now. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003;60:1580-2 pubmed
  25. Parsaeimehr A, Sargsyan E, Javidnia K. A comparative study of the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity and total content of phenolic compounds of cell cultures and wild plants of three endemic species of Ephedra. Molecules. 2010;15:1668-78 pubmed publisher
    ..out to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and total phenol content of three wild species of Ephedra compared with their respective callus cultures...
  26. Takeuchi S, Homma M, Inoue J, Kato H, Murata K, Ogasawara T. [Case of intractable ventricula fibrillation by a multicomponent dietary supplement containing ephedra and caffeine overdose]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2007;20:269-71 pubmed
    Multicomponent dietary supplement containing ephedra and caffeine (DSEC) was widely used for weight loss and energy enhancement...
  27. Ghafoor S, Shah M, Ahmad H, Swati Z, Shah S, Pervez A, et al. Molecular characterization of Ephedra species found in Pakistan. Genet Mol Res. 2007;6:1123-30 pubmed
    b>Ephedra, also known as "ma huang", is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value...
  28. Bagheri Gavkosh S, Bigdeli M, Shams Ghahfarokhi M, Razzaghi Abyaneh M. Inhibitory effects of Ephedra major Host on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Mycopathologia. 2009;168:249-55 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Ephedra major Host, an important medicinal plant with various biological activities, on growth and aflatoxin (AF) production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999...
  29. Holstege C, Mitchell K, Barlotta K, Furbee R. Toxicity and drug interactions associated with herbal products: ephedra and St. John's Wort. Med Clin North Am. 2005;89:1225-57 pubmed
    ..Adverse reactions to herbal remedies should be reported to the FDA MedWatch at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch. As withany therapeutic agent, risk of use must always be weighed against potential benefits...
  30. Bent S, Tiedt T, Odden M, Shlipak M. The relative safety of ephedra compared with other herbal products. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:468-71 pubmed
    b>Ephedra is widely used in dietary supplements that are marketed to promote weight loss or increase energy; however, the safety of this product has been questioned because of numerous case reports of adverse events.
  31. Yuan D, Sunouchi H, Sakurai T, Saito K, Kano Y. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines (XXVII). Interaction between Ephedra Herb and Gypsum under hyperthermal conditions in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:872-4 pubmed
    ..b>Ephedra Herb [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM...
  32. Yang Y, Wang Q. The earliest fleshy cone of Ephedra from the early cretaceous Yixian Formation of northeast China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53652 pubmed publisher
    Bracts of female cones of extant gymnosperm Ephedra (Joint fir) are either colorful and fleshy (section Ephedra), or dry-winged and membranous (section Alatae), or dry and coriaceous (section Asarca), which have played a crucial role in ..
  33. Haller C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;71:421-32 pubmed
    Serious cardiovascular toxicity has been reported in people taking dietary supplements that contain ma huang (Ephedra) and guarana (caffeine)...
  34. Chen C, Biller J, Willing S, Lopez A. Ischemic stroke after using over the counter products containing ephedra. J Neurol Sci. 2004;217:55-60 pubmed
    Dietary supplements containing Ephedra used for weight loss and physical performance enhancement such as "herbal ecstasy" are widely available, and it is estimated that at least 1% of the adult population have taken these ..
  35. Greenway F, De Jonge L, Blanchard D, Frisard M, Smith S. Effect of a dietary herbal supplement containing caffeine and ephedra on weight, metabolic rate, and body composition. Obes Res. 2004;12:1152-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing herbal caffeine (70 mg/dose) and ephedra (24 mg/dose; C&E) on metabolic rate, weight loss, body composition, and safety parameters.
  36. Rezkalla S, Mesa J, Sharma P, Kloner R. Myocardial infarction temporally related to ephedra--a possible role for the coronary microcirculation. WMJ. 2002;101:64-6 pubmed
    ..We report a 25-year-old male with myocardial infarction after receiving a diet pill containing ephedra. Coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries with very slow flow, suggestive of microcirculation ..
  37. Williams A, Cribb P, Cooke M, Hayes A. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes...
  38. Rydin C, Pedersen K, Crane P, Friis E. Former diversity of Ephedra (Gnetales): evidence from Early Cretaceous seeds from Portugal and North America. Ann Bot. 2006;98:123-40 pubmed
    The extant species of the seed plant group Gnetales (Ephedra, Gnetum and Welwitschia) have been considered a remnant of a much greater, now extinct, diversity due to the pronounced differences in form and ecology among the genera...
  39. Meadows M. Public health officials caution against ephedra use. Health officials caution consumers against using dietary supplements containing ephedra. The stimulant can have dangerous effects on the nervous system and heart. FDA Consum. 2003;37:8-9 pubmed
  40. Wolf L, Wolf M, Snavely M, Staudenmeier J. NEJM study detailing the causative link between ephedra-containing supplements and adverse cardiovascular and neurovascular. Mil Med. 2002;167:ii pubmed
  41. Jamil M, ul Haq I, Mirza B, Qayyum M. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2012;11:11 pubmed publisher
    Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L...
  42. Roh J, Lee H, Lim J, Kim J, Yang H, Yoon Y, et al. Effect of Gangjihwan on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;206:315-326 pubmed publisher
    Gangjihwan (DF), a polyherbal drug composed of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C. A. Mayer (Ephedraceae), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini (Borraginaceae), and Rheum palmatum L...
  43. Milic M, Bao X, Rizos D, Liu F, Ziegler M. Literature review and pilot studies of the effect of QT correction formulas on reported beta2-agonist-induced QTc prolongation. Clin Ther. 2006;28:582-90 pubmed
    ..The study-drug group took 3 pills of the ephedra preparation per day for 2 days and then 6 pills per day for the next 2 days...
  44. Rasmussen C, Glisson J, Minor D. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:467-71 pubmed publisher
    ..fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice)...
  45. Mark S, McMillan T. Severity of menopausal symptoms and use of both conventional and complementary/alternative theories. Menopause. 2004;11:497; author reply 497-8 pubmed
  46. Gardner S, Franks A, Gurley B, Haller C, Singh B, Mehta J. Effect of a multicomponent, ephedra-containing dietary supplement (Metabolife 356) on Holter monitoring and hemostatic parameters in healthy volunteers. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91:1510-3, A9 pubmed
  47. Philibert R, Mac J. An association of Ephedra use with psychosis and autonomic hyperactivity. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2004;16:167-9 pubmed
    b>Ephedra extract is used in a number of dietary supplements taken for a variety of purposes including weight loss...
  48. Henry K, Edwards R, Oetting E. Use of ephedra among rural-dwelling U.S. adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2007;42:949-59 pubmed
    Prior to 2004, ephedra had been readily available to adolescents...
  49. Ben Arye E, Lavie O, Samuels N, Khamaisie H, Schiff E, Raz O, et al. Safety of herbal medicine use during chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer: a "bedside-to-bench" approach. Med Oncol. 2017;34:54 pubmed publisher
    ..the following: wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum), European mistletoe (Viscum album), ginger (Zingiber officinale), Ephedra (Ephedra campylopoda), and Oriental mistletoe (Viscum cruciatum)...
  50. Puebla G, Iglesias A, Gómez M, Prámparo M. Fossil record of Ephedra in the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian), Argentina. J Plant Res. 2017;130:975-988 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us ..
  51. Seqinbateer -, Khasbagan -, Wurina -, Wei X. [Study on physiological characteristics of seed germination of Ephedra sinica]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:656-9 pubmed
    To study the characteristics of the Ephedra sinica seed germination, to provide a basis for its cultivation...
  52. Wooltorton E, Sibbald B. Ephedra/ephedrine: cardiovascular and CNS effects. CMAJ. 2002;166:633 pubmed
  53. Sachdeva R, Sivasankaran S, Fishman R, Zarich S, McPherson C. Coronary thrombosis related to use of Xenadrine RFA. Tex Heart Inst J. 2005;32:74-7 pubmed
    Recently, ephedra was removed from the U.S. marketplace due to a heightened concern that dietary supplements containing ephedra may present "an unreasonable risk of illness or injury." This is the 1st time the U.S...
  54. Coghlan M, Haile J, Houston J, Murray D, White N, Moolhuijzen P, et al. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002657 pubmed publisher
    ..data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic...
  55. Dhar R, Stout C, Link M, Homoud M, Weinstock J, Estes N. Cardiovascular toxicities of performance-enhancing substances in sports. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:1307-15 pubmed
    ..Although mounting evidence led to the recent ban of ephedra (ma huang), other performance-enhancing substances continue to be used frequently at all levels, from elementary ..
  56. Tang J, Zhou X, Ji H, Zhu D, Wu L. Effects of ephedra water decoction and cough tablets containing ephedra and liquorice on CYP1A2 and the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats. Phytother Res. 2012;26:470-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Ephedra water decoction (EWD) and cough tablets containing ephedra and liquorice (maxing cough tablets, MXCT) have been used widely in the treatment of asthma...
  57. Wang M, Marriott P, Chan W, Lee A, Huie C. Enantiomeric separation and quantification of ephedrine-type alkaloids in herbal materials by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1112:361-8 pubmed
    ..g., simply by visualizing the presence or absence of the enantiomeric pairs of (+/-) ephedrine and (+/-)-N-methylephedrine in the GC x GC chromatograms...
  58. Maglione M, Miotto K, Iguchi M, Jungvig L, Morton S, Shekelle P. Psychiatric effects of ephedra use: an analysis of Food and Drug Administration reports of adverse events. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:189-91 pubmed
    As part of a synthesis of evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of ephedra, the authors describe data on psychiatric adverse events from reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  59. Corrigan F, Jennett J. Ephedra alkaloids and brief relapse in EMDR-treated obsessive compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;110:158; author reply 159 pubmed
  60. Chavez M. More evidence supporting the ban of ephedra dietary supplements. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:895-7 pubmed
  61. Fontanarosa P, Rennie D, DeAngelis C. The need for regulation of dietary supplements--lessons from ephedra. JAMA. 2003;289:1568-70 pubmed
  62. Kim H, Park J, Kim J, Ko B. Effect of herbal Ephedra sinica and Evodia rutaecarpa on body composition and resting metabolic rate: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in Korean premenopausal women. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2008;1:128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..It is generally believed that a low-calorie diet is commonly followed by a resting metabolic rate decrease and ultimate weight regain. Ephedra sinica and evodia rutaecarpa are known to have sympathomimetic and anti-obesity effects.
  63. Yan R, Ji H, Wu Y, Kerr P, Fang Y, Yang L. An investigation into the kinetics and mechanism of the removal of cyanobacteria by extract of Ephedra equisetina root. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42285 pubmed publisher
    An aqueous extract of Ephedra equisetina root was found to induce cyanobacterial cell death...
  64. Miller S. Safety concerns regarding ephedrine-type alkaloid-containing dietary supplements. Mil Med. 2004;169:87-93 pubmed
    The U.S. Air Force has adopted a policy "strongly discourag(ing) the use of ... ephedra." However, the literature regarding this topic is limited and widely opinioned...
  65. Xiao P, Wang Y, Chen H. [Some research clues on Chinese herbal medicine for SARS prevention and treatment]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28:481-3 pubmed
    ..To provide some research clues from Chinese herbal medicine for SARS prevention and treatment...
  66. Dick T. Lord Jim: everything under control (except you). Emerg Med Serv. 2004;33:25 pubmed
  67. Wang J, Kim B, Han K, Kim H. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders...
  68. Kalman D, Antonio J, Kreider R. The relative safety of ephedra compared with other herbal products. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:1006; author reply 1006-7 pubmed