tsuga

Summary

Summary: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).

Top Publications

  1. Broeckling C, Salom S. Volatile emissions of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and the influence of hemlock woolly adelgid. Phytochemistry. 2003;62:175-80 pubmed
    The volatile emissions of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Carriere, were identified and quantified using standard and chiral gas chromatography and mass spectrometry...
  2. Foster D, Oswald W, Faison E, Doughty E, Hansen B. A climatic driver for abrupt mid-Holocene vegetation dynamics and the hemlock decline in New England. Ecology. 2006;87:2959-66 pubmed
  3. Ford C, Vose J. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems. Ecol Appl. 2007;17:1156-67 pubmed
    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains...
  4. D Amato A, Orwig D, Foster D. The influence of successional processes and disturbance on the structure of Tsuga canadensis forests. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:1182-99 pubmed
    ..g., downed CWD) and resultant tree-size distribution patterns. This silvicultural approach would emulate the often episodic nature of CWD recruitment within old-growth forests...
  5. Mausel D, Salom S, Kok L, Davis G. Establishment of the hemlock woolly adelgid predator, Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), in the Eastern United States. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:440-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e., zones 7a, 6b, and 6a) and larger release sizes in cold areas where establishment probability was low (i.e., zones 5b and 5a). Releases during fall-early spring and across the range of A. tsugae densities tested were successful...
  6. Montgomery M, Bentz S, Olsen R. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:1247-54 pubmed
    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)...
  7. Young J, Smith D, Snyder C, Lemarie D. A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline. Environ Monit Assess. 2002;76:167-83 pubmed
    ..sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA)..
  8. Wolff R, Lavialle O, Pedrono F, Pasquier E, Destaillats F, Marpeau A, et al. Abietoid seed fatty acid compositions--a review of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga and preliminary inferences on the taxonomy of Pinaceae. Lipids. 2002;37:17-26 pubmed
    The seed fatty acid (FA) compositions of Abietoids (Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga) are reviewed in the present study in conclusion to our survey of Pinaceae seed FA compositions...
  9. Duff C, Gries G, Mori K, Shirai Y, Seki M, Takikawa H, et al. Does pheromone biology of Lambdina athasaria and L. pellucidaria contribute to their reproductive isolation?. J Chem Ecol. 2001;27:431-42 pubmed
    ..Finite taxonomic classification of PPL and SHL must await careful assessment of further criteria, such as morphometrics, molecular comparisons and ecological analyses. ..

More Information

Publications92

  1. Wallin K, Latty T, Ross D. Orientation behavior of the predator Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to hemlock woolly adelgid and host tree odors in a multi-chambered olfactometer. Environ Entomol. 2011;40:864-72 pubmed publisher
    ..its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid, and foliage of hemlock woolly adelgid, host hemlocks (Tsuga spp.), and other conifers...
  2. Benton E, Grant J, Webster R, Nichols R, Cowles R, Lagalante A, et al. Assessment of Imidacloprid and Its Metabolites in Foliage of Eastern Hemlock Multiple Years Following Treatment for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in Forested Conditions. J Econ Entomol. 2015;108:2672-82 pubmed publisher
    Widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, have been caused by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (HWA) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)...
  3. Hadley J, Schedlbauer J. Carbon exchange of an old-growth eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest in central New England. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:1079-92 pubmed
    Carbon (C) exchange of an approximately 200-year-old eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L...
  4. Kavanagh K, Pangle R, Schotzko A. Nocturnal transpiration causing disequilibrium between soil and stem predawn water potential in mixed conifer forests of Idaho. Tree Physiol. 2007;27:621-9 pubmed
    ..Violating these conditions will likely result in underestimation of Psi(s). ..
  5. Dunham S, O Dell T, Molina R. Forest stand age and the occurrence of chanterelle (Cantharellus) species in Oregon's central Cascade Mountains. Mycol Res. 2006;110:1433-40 pubmed
    ..The abundance of C. cascadensis increased substantially with decreasing elevation indicating that landscape features other than stand age may be more useful in predicting its occurrence. ..
  6. Daley M, Phillips N, Pettijohn J, Hadley J. Hydraulic responses to environmental perturbations in Tsuga canadensis and Betula lenta. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1341-8 pubmed
    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L). Carr.) is a late-successional species found across the northeastern United States of America that is currently threatened by the exotic pest, hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand)...
  7. Ally D, Ritland K. A case study: looking at the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure in different life history stages of old-growth mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). J Hered. 2007;98:73-8 pubmed
    We examined fine-scale genetic structure of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) in an old-growth stand and an adjacent seedling population, with the goal of detecting the effects of fragmentation...
  8. Kohler G, Stiefel V, Wallin K, Ross D. Predators associated with the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest. Environ Entomol. 2008;37:494-504 pubmed
    ..woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is causing widespread mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L. Carrière, in the eastern United States. In western North America, feeding by A...
  9. Reinhart K, Johnson D, Clay K. Conspecific plant-soil feedbacks of temperate tree species in the southern Appalachians, USA. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40680 pubmed publisher
    ..Most species (four of six) were unaffected by soil source. Two species (Prunus serotina and Tsuga canadensis) had enhanced growth in pots inoculated with soil from conspecific trees vs. heterospecifics...
  10. Li M, Xiao W, Wang S, Cheng G, Cherubini P, Cai X, et al. Mobile carbohydrates in Himalayan treeline trees I. Evidence for carbon gain limitation but not for growth limitation. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1287-96 pubmed
    ..For comparison, we investigated a low-altitude species (Tsuga yunnanensis (Franch.) Pritz...
  11. Pezet J, Elkinton J, Gomez S, McKenzie E, Lavine M, Preisser E. Hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale induce changes in foliar and twig volatiles of eastern hemlock. J Chem Ecol. 2013;39:1090-100 pubmed publisher
    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is in rapid decline because of infestation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; 'HWA') and, to a lesser extent, the invasive elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; 'EHS')...
  12. Coots C, Lambdin P, Grant J, Rhea R. Spatial and temporal distribution of residues of imidacloprid and its insecticidal 5-hydroxy and olefin and metabolites in eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae) in the southern Appalachians. J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:2399-406 pubmed
    Widespread mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L...
  13. Hickin M, Preisser E. Effects of Light and Water Availability on the Performance of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Environ Entomol. 2015;44:128-35 pubmed publisher
    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) is a dominant shade-tolerant tree in northeastern United States that has been declining since the arrival of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Determining where A...
  14. Sudianto E, Wu C, Lin C, Chaw S. Revisiting the Plastid Phylogenomics of Pinaceae with Two Complete Plastomes of Pseudolarix and Tsuga. Genome Biol Evol. 2016;8:1804-11 pubmed publisher
    ..genera, we sequenced the plastomes of two previously unavailable genera, Pseudolarix amabilis (122,234 bp) and Tsuga chinensis (120,859 bp). Both plastomes share similar gene repertoire and order...
  15. Zimmermann B. Characterization of pollen by vibrational spectroscopy. Appl Spectrosc. 2010;64:1364-73 pubmed publisher
  16. Selvam A, Tsai S, Liu C, Chen I, Chang C, Yang S. Microbial communities and bacterial diversity of spruce, hemlock and grassland soils of Tatachia Forest, Taiwan. J Environ Sci Health B. 2010;45:386-98 pubmed publisher
  17. Eschtruth A, Battles J. Acceleration of exotic plant invasion in a forested ecosystem by a generalist herbivore. Conserv Biol. 2009;23:388-99 pubmed publisher
    ..of 3 exotic plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, and Berberis thunbergii) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (U.S.A.). This work was conducted in 10 eastern hemlock (T...
  18. Miller Pierce M, Orwig D, Preisser E. Effects of hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale on eastern hemlock growth and foliar chemistry. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:513-9 pubmed publisher
    In the eastern United States, two invasive specialist insects share a native host plant, Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis...
  19. Templer P, Arthur M, Lovett G, Weathers K. Plant and soil natural abundance delta (15)N: indicators of relative rates of nitrogen cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. Oecologia. 2007;153:399-406 pubmed
    ..fine roots and organic soil from single-species stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum)...
  20. Moore G, Bond B, Jones J, Phillips N, Meinzer F. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA. Tree Physiol. 2004;24:481-91 pubmed
    ..menziesii trees, and was 1.45 times higher in old P. menziesii compared with old western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) trees...
  21. Havill N, Shiyake S, Lamb Galloway A, Foottit R, Yu G, Paradis A, et al. Ancient and modern colonization of North America by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an invasive insect from East Asia. Mol Ecol. 2016;25:2065-80 pubmed publisher
    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America...
  22. Ettinger A, HilleRisLambers J. Climate isn't everything: competitive interactions and variation by life stage will also affect range shifts in a warming world. Am J Bot. 2013;100:1344-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, climate change will have less dramatic effects in low elevation closed-canopy forest communities, where growth is less strongly limited by climate, especially at young life stages. ..
  23. Radville L, Chaves A, Preisser E. Variation in plant defense against invasive herbivores: evidence for a hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis). J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no similar systemic defensive response in the EHS treatment. Our results showed that two herbivores in the same feeding guild had dramatically different outcomes on the health of their shared host. ..
  24. St Clair S, Lynch J. Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity. Tree Physiol. 2005;25:85-92 pubmed
    ..and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)) and three evergreen (eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss...
  25. Warren C, Livingston N, Turpin D. Responses of gas exchange to reversible changes in whole-plant transpiration rate in two conifer species. Tree Physiol. 2003;23:793-803 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the foliage of both species is partially autonomous with respect to water. ..
  26. Parker G, Davis M, Chapotin S. Canopy light transmittance in Douglas-fir--western hemlock stands. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:147-57 pubmed
    ..Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg...
  27. Feucht W, Schmid M, Treutter D. DNA and Flavonoids Leach out from Active Nuclei of Taxus and Tsuga after Extreme Climate Stresses. Plants (Basel). 2015;4:710-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This was studied in needles from the current year's growth of the following species and varieties: Tsuga canadensis, Taxus baccata, T. aurea, T. repens, T. nana, and T. compacta...
  28. Kakitani T, Hata T, Kajimoto T, Koyanaka H, Imamura Y. Characteristics of a bioxalate chelating extraction process for removal of chromium, copper and arsenic from treated wood. J Environ Manage. 2009;90:1918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although oxalic acid was ineffective for copper extraction, the addition of sodium hydroxide during the oxalic acid extraction process rendered it effective. ..
  29. Turcotte R, Lagalante A, Jones J, Cook F, Elliott T, Billings A, et al. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Imidacloprid Within the Crown of Eastern Hemlock. J Insect Sci. 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriére in the United States...
  30. Marcelino J, Gouli S, Parker B, Skinner M, Schwarzberg L, Giordano R. Host plant associations of an entomopathogenic variety of the fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, recovered from the elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa. J Insect Sci. 2009;9:25 pubmed publisher
    ..been detected in populations of the scale Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), of several northeastern states...
  31. Dilling C, Lambdin P, Grant J, Rhea R. Spatial and temporal distribution of imidacloprid in eastern hemlock in the southern Appalachians. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:368-73 pubmed
    ..Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic insect species dramatically reducing populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrieré, throughout the eastern United States...
  32. Eschtruth A, Battles J. Deer herbivory alters forest response to canopy decline caused by an exotic insect pest. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:360-76 pubmed
    ..woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) infestations have resulted in the continuing decline of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) throughout much of the eastern United States...
  33. Booth R, Brewer S, Blaauw M, Minckley T, Jackson S. Decomposing the mid-Holocene Tsuga decline in eastern North America. Ecology. 2012;93:1841-52 pubmed
    The mid-Holocene decline of Tsuga canadensis (hereafter Tsuga) populations across eastern North America is widely perceived as a synchronous event, driven by pests/pathogens, rapid climate change, or both...
  34. Polster J, Dithmar H, Walter F. Are histones the targets for flavan-3-ols (catechins) in nuclei?. Biol Chem. 2003;384:997-1006 pubmed
    Binding of flavan-3-ols to nuclei is characteristic of Tsuga canadensis (coniferous tree)...
  35. Meinzer F, Warren J, Brooks J. Species-specific partitioning of soil water resources in an old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock forest. Tree Physiol. 2007;27:871-80 pubmed
    ..We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest in southwestern Washington State...
  36. Stadler B, Muller T, Orwig D. The ecology of energy and nutrient fluxes in hemlock forests invaded by hemlock woolly adelgid. Ecology. 2006;87:1792-804 pubmed
  37. Winchester N, Lindo Z, Behan Pelletier V. Oribatid mite communities in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla trees on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Environ Entomol. 2008;37:464-71 pubmed
    ..Don) Lindl.] and Tsuga heterophylla [(Raf...
  38. Walia A, Guy R, White B. Carbon isotope discrimination in western hemlock and its relationship to mineral nutrition and growth. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:728-40 pubmed publisher
    Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla [Raf.] Sarg.) is a major component of temperate rainforests in coastal British Columbia. Forest fertilization can enhance the growth of forest trees, but results are inconsistent for western hemlock...
  39. Bennett J, Prescott C. Organic and inorganic nitrogen nutrition of western red cedar, western hemlock and salal in mineral N-limited cedar-hemlock forests. Oecologia. 2004;141:468-76 pubmed
    Western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla Raf. Sarge) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) are the main species growing in cedar-hemlock forests on Vancouver Island, Canada...
  40. Miyauchi T, Mori M, Ito K. Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1095:74-80 pubmed
    ..larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16...
  41. Ishii H, Yoshimura K, Mori A. Convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics of understory Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:989-98 pubmed publisher
    ..ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg...
  42. Trotter R, Shields K. Variation in winter survival of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) across the eastern United States. Environ Entomol. 2009;38:577-87 pubmed
    ..it has spread to at least 17 states, where it causes increased mortality among both eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis Carrière and T. caroliniana Engelmann., respectively)...
  43. Chen J, Falk M, Euskirchen E, U K, Suchanek T, Ustin S, et al. Biophysical controls of carbon flows in three successional Douglas-fir stands based on eddy-covariance measurements. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:169-77 pubmed
    ..Franco)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) sites located in the Wind River Valley of southern Washington State, USA...
  44. Cowles R, Montgomery M, Cheah C. Activity and residues of imidacloprid applied to soil and tree trunks to control hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in forests. J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:1258-67 pubmed
    ..The applications were made in the fall and the following spring. Adelgid populations on the hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) were assessed in the fall of two successive years after the treatments...
  45. Wright S, Berch S, Berbee M. The effect of fertilization on the below-ground diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Mycorrhiza. 2009;19:267-276 pubmed publisher
  46. Fidgen J, Legg D, Salom S. Binomial sequential sampling plan for hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) sistens infesting individual eastern hemlock trees. J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:1500-8 pubmed
    ..adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic insect pest that is killing eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, and Carolina hemlock, Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, in the eastern United States...
  47. Vostral C, Boyce R, Friedland A. Winter water relations of New England conifers and factors influencing their upper elevational limits. I. Measurements. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:793-800 pubmed
    ..RWC), water potentials (Psi) and cuticular conductances (g(c)) of shoots of four conifer species-eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (P. resinosa Ait...
  48. van Mantgem P, Stephenson N, Byrne J, Daniels L, Franklin J, Fulé P, et al. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science. 2009;323:521-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates...
  49. Boyce R, Vostral C, Friedland A. Winter water relations of New England conifers and factors influencing their upper elevational limits. II. Modeling. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:801-6 pubmed
    ..We used the water relations model, WINWAT, to model winter water relations of three conifer species-eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and red pine (P. resinosa Ait...
  50. Bockheim J, Crowley S. Ion cycling in hemlock-northern hardwood forests of the southern Lake Superior region: a preliminary study. J Environ Qual. 2002;31:1623-9 pubmed
    Upland forests of the southern Lake Superior region are diverse and contain a shifting mosaic of eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.] and northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)...
  51. Joseph S, Hanula J, Braman S, Byrne F. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:868-78 pubmed
    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L...
  52. Letheren A, Hill S, Salie J, Parkman J, Chen J. A Little Bug with a Big Bite: Impact of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations on Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern USA and Potential Control Strategies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..Currently available individual and integrated approaches should continue to be evaluated in the laboratory and in the field along with the development of other new and innovative methods. ..
  53. Hwang W, Kartal S, Yoshimura T, Imamura Y. Synergistic effect of heartwood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds on termite resistance of treated wood. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:90-5 pubmed
    ..The synergistic effect of wood extractives and DBF was much clearer with Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla Sarg wood samples...
  54. Fitzpatrick M, Preisser E, Ellison A, Elkinton J. Observer bias and the detection of low-density populations. Ecol Appl. 2009;19:1673-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a potential issue with site occupancy models that can arise when volunteer and experienced observers are used together in surveys...
  55. Horton T, Molina R, Hood K. Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizae in 40- and 400-year-old stands: mycobiont availability to late successional western hemlock. Mycorrhiza. 2005;15:393-403 pubmed
    ..The trends revealed in this study corroborate earlier studies suggesting a predominance of multiple host fungi in mixed communities of EM plants. The role of host-specific fungi in these stands remains unclear...
  56. Mausel D, Salom S, Kok L. Visual ability and searching behavior of adult Laricobius nigrinus, a hemlock woolly adelgid predator. J Insect Sci. 2011;11:111 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the beetles' visual ability to locate tree stems and their climbing behavior, a bole trap may be an effective collection and monitoring tool...
  57. Roberts S, Tankersley R, Orvis K. Assessing the potential impacts to riparian ecosystems resulting from hemlock mortality in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Environ Manage. 2009;44:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Adelges tsugae) is spreading across forests in eastern North America, causing mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.)...
  58. Moorcroft P, Pacala S, Lewis M. Potential role of natural enemies during tree range expansions following climate change. J Theor Biol. 2006;241:601-16 pubmed
  59. Grubin S, Ross D, Wallin K. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest. Environ Entomol. 2011;40:1410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Leucopis spp. larvae were collected year-round, but highest densities coincided with the presence of progrediens and sistens eggs and adults of A. tsugae. There was a positive correlation between Leucopis spp. and A. tsugae abundance...
  60. Mallis R, Rieske L. Arboreal spiders in eastern hemlock. Environ Entomol. 2011;40:1378-87 pubmed publisher
    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] is a foundation species in forests of eastern North America that plays a key role in ecosystem function...
  61. Hadley J, Kuzeja P, Daley M, Phillips N, Mulcahy T, Singh S. Water use and carbon exchange of red oak- and eastern hemlock-dominated forests in the northeastern USA: implications for ecosystem-level effects of hemlock woolly adelgid. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:615-27 pubmed
    Water use and carbon exchange of a red oak-dominated (Quercus rubra L.) forest and an eastern hemlock-dominated (Tsuga canadensis L...
  62. Lim S, Berbee M. Phylogenetic structure of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of western hemlock changes with forest age and stand type. Mycorrhiza. 2013;23:473-86 pubmed publisher
    ..By correlating fungal clades with habitats, this research improves understanding of how forest management can contribute to maintaining diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across a landscape. ..
  63. Butin E, Elkinton J, Havill N, Montgomery M. Comparison of numerical response and predation effects of two coccinellid species on hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae). J Econ Entomol. 2003;96:763-7 pubmed
    ..is an introduced pest in North America that is native to Asia, and is causing extensive damage to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Englemann) in the eastern United States...
  64. Kouwenberg L, Kürschner W, Visscher H. Changes in stomatal frequency and size during elongation of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Ann Bot. 2004;94:561-9 pubmed
    ..Quantitative data on the changes in stomatal density of conifers in relation to leaf development is reported...
  65. Kim K, Tucker M, Nguyen Q. Conversion of bark-rich biomass mixture into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol. 2005;96:1249-55 pubmed
    ..6 g of glucose (46% theoretical maximum), 10.5 g of mannose and galactose (98% theoretical maximum), and 2.8 g of xylose (85% theoretical maximum) were obtained per 100 g of the original dry feedstock...
  66. Marcelino J, Gouli S, Parker B, Skinner M, Giordano R. Entomopathogenic activity of a variety of the fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, recovered from the elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa. J Insect Sci. 2009;9:13 pubmed publisher
    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected...
  67. Lindner D, Burdsall H, Stanosz G. Species diversity of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in northern hardwood forests with differing management histories. Mycologia. 2006;98:195-217 pubmed
    ..Two of these species. Changes in the diversity and species composition of the wood-inhabiting fungal community could have significant implications for the diversity, health and productivity of forest ecosystems...
  68. Purves D, Lichstein J, Strigul N, Pacala S. Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17018-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, the PPA predicted that, on these soils, stands are now succeeding to dominance by other late-successional species (e.g., Fraxinus nigra, A. rubrum)...
  69. Holzmueller E, Jose S, Jenkins M. The relationship between fire history and an exotic fungal disease in a deciduous forest. Oecologia. 2008;155:347-56 pubmed
    ..Consequently, prescribed fire may offer a management tool to reduce the impacts of fungal disease in forest ecosystems that developed under historic burning regimes...
  70. Mausel D, Kok L, Salom S. Numerical Response and Impact of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Their Native Range. Environ Entomol. 2017;46:544-551 pubmed publisher
    ..nigrinus and other predators can regulate densities of A. tsugae below eastern hemlock's physiological damage threshold in the eastern United States. ..
  71. Mallis R, Rieske L. Web orientation and prey resources for web-building spiders in eastern hemlock. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:1466-72 pubmed publisher
    We examined the arthropod community on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, in the context of its role in providing potential prey items for hemlock-associated web-weaving spiders...
  72. Cun Y, Wang X. Plant recolonization in the Himalaya from the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Geographical isolation contributed to high population differentiation. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;56:972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, range-wide genetic variation of the Himalayan hemlock (Tsuga dumosa), an important forest species in the HHM, was surveyed using DNA markers from three genomes...
  73. Lagalante A, Lewis N, Montgomery M, Shields K. Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by Adelges tsugae. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:2389-403 pubmed
    The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season...
  74. Feucht W, Treutter D, Polster J. Flavanol binding of nuclei from tree species. Plant Cell Rep. 2004;22:430-6 pubmed
    ..Staining of the nuclei was most pronounced in both Tsuga canadensis and Taxus baccata, variable in Metasequoia glyptostroboides, faint in Coffea arabica and minimal in ..
  75. Janisch J, Harmon M. Successional changes in live and dead wood carbon stores: implications for net ecosystem productivity. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:77-89 pubmed
  76. Eller A, McGuire K, Sparks J. Responses of sugar maple and hemlock seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide under altered above- and belowground nitrogen sources. Tree Physiol. 2011;31:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We used open-top chambers to fumigate sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) with ambient or elevated CO? and NO? (elevated concentrations were 760 ppm and 40 ppb, respectively)...
  77. Brantley S, Ford C, Vose J. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests. Ecol Appl. 2013;23:777-90 pubmed
    Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr...
  78. Choi Y, Kim G, Lim Y, Kim S, Imamura Y, Yoshimura T, et al. Characterization of a strong CCA-treated wood degrader, unknown Crustoderma species. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2009;95:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), Pseudotsuga menziesii (39.7%), and Tsuga heterophylla (38...
  79. Wilson B, Gartner B. Effects of phloem girdling in conifers on apical control of branches, growth allocation and air in wood. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:347-53 pubmed
    ..branch remained directly connected to the apex and distal branches) released the branch from apical control in Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr., Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco...
  80. Thomas S, Winner W. Photosynthetic differences between saplings and adult trees: an integration of field results by meta-analysis. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:117-27 pubmed
    ..We also present data on ontogenetic changes in photosynthesis for Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg...
  81. Kohler G, Stiefel V, Wallin K, Ross D. Parasitoids reared from predators of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), and the hymenopterous parasitoid community on western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest. Environ Entomol. 2008;37:1477-87 pubmed
    ..Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), are common on orchard, ornamental, and roadside western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent. However, these infestations rarely cause T. heterophylla mortality...
  82. Eisenback B, Mullins D, Salom S, Kok L. Evaluation of ELISA for imidacloprid detection in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) wood and needle tissues. Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..used against the exotic invasive insect hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, a pest of eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] trees in the eastern United States...
  83. El Kassaby Y, Dunsworth B, Krakowski J. Genetic evaluation of alternative silvicultural systems in coastal montane forests: western hemlock and amabilis fir. Theor Appl Genet. 2003;107:598-610 pubmed
    ..the effects of silvicultural systems on genetic parameters of amabilis fir (Abies amabilis and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assessed by comparing an average number of alleles per locus, the percent polymorphic loci, and ..