Summary: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.

Top Publications

  1. Franceschi V, Krokene P, Christiansen E, Krekling T. Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests. New Phytol. 2005;167:353-75 pubmed
    ..The defense structures and chemicals in conifer bark are reviewed and questions about their coevolution with bark beetles are discussed...
  2. Keeling C, Bohlmann J. Genes, enzymes and chemicals of terpenoid diversity in the constitutive and induced defence of conifers against insects and pathogens. New Phytol. 2006;170:657-75 pubmed
    ..It also examines how insects and their associated pathogens interact with, elicit, and are affected by conifer-produced terpenoids...
  3. Hacke U, Jansen S. Embolism resistance of three boreal conifer species varies with pit structure. New Phytol. 2009;182:675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A thinner torus may be more flexible and better able to seal the pit aperture. The pit chamber depth is proportional to the distance that the margo needs to deflect for pit aspiration...
  4. Pittermann J, Sperry J, Hacke U, Wheeler J, Sikkema E. Torus-margo pits help conifers compete with angiosperms. Science. 2005;310:1924 pubmed
    ..The evolution of this membrane was as hydraulically important as that of vessels. Without their specialized pits, conifers would have 38 times the flow resistance, making conifer-dominated ecosystems improbable in an angiosperm world...
  5. Ujino Ihara T, Tsumura Y. Screening for genes specific to coniferous species. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1325-30 pubmed
    ..Comparisons of highly conserved nucleotide sequences in conifer lineages indicated that the nucleotide compositions of orthologous genes were similar, although no common features were found among the conifer-specific genes...
  6. Brodribb T, Cochard H. Hydraulic failure defines the recovery and point of death in water-stressed conifers. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximum recoverable water stress (Psimin) corresponded to a 95% loss of Kleaf. Thus, we conclude that xylem hydraulics represents a direct limit to the drought tolerance of these conifer species...
  7. Cochard H, Hölttä T, Herbette S, Delzon S, Mencuccini M. New insights into the mechanisms of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible Achilles' heel could be the seal between tori and pit walls or holes in the torus. The mechanism of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers could then be relatively similar to the one currently proposed for angiosperms...
  8. Li X, Wu H, Southerton S. Comparative genomics reveals conservative evolution of the xylem transcriptome in vascular plants. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:190 pubmed publisher
    ..We use comparative genomics to examine evolution of the xylem transcriptome to gain insights into xylem evolution...
  9. Rigault P, Boyle B, Lepage P, Cooke J, Bousquet J, MacKay J. A white spruce gene catalog for conifer genome analyses. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:14-28 pubmed publisher
    ..With a conifer transcriptome in full view, functional and protein domain annotations clearly highlighted the divergences between conifers and angiosperms, likely reflecting their respective evolutionary paths...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Guillet Claude C, Isabel N, Pelgas B, Bousquet J. The evolutionary implications of knox-I gene duplications in conifers: correlated evidence from phylogeny, gene mapping, and analysis of functional divergence. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:2232-45 pubmed
    ..The implications of the correlation between phylogenetic, structural, and functional information are discussed in relation to the diversification of the knox-I gene family in conifers...
  2. Ujino Ihara T, Kanamori H, Yamane H, Taguchi Y, Namiki N, Mukai Y, et al. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags of conifers and angiosperms reveals sequences specifically conserved in conifers. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;59:895-907 pubmed
    ..This correlation suggests that the multiplicity of such genes may have arisen before the divergence of gymnosperms and angiosperms...
  3. Lusk C, Pérez Millaqueo M, Saldaña A, Burns B, Laughlin D, Falster D. Seedlings of temperate rainforest conifer and angiosperm trees differ in leaf area display. Ann Bot. 2012;110:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here it is hypothesized that, in temperate rainforests, the larger leaves of angiosperms also reduce self-shading and thus enable display of larger effective foliage areas than the numerous small leaves of conifers...
  4. Abu S, Li G, Asiegbu F. Identification of Heterobasidion annosum (S-type) genes expressed during initial stages of conidiospore germination and under varying culture conditions. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:205-13 pubmed
    ..The enhanced accumulation of the gene transcripts at the different culture conditions is discussed with respect to their potential role during fungal morphogenesis and in planta growth. ..
  5. L Hirondelle S, Binder W. Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation. Photochem Photobiol. 2005;81:1094-100 pubmed
  6. Yamaguchi L, Kato M, Di Mascio P. Biflavonoids from Araucaria angustifolia protect against DNA UV-induced damage. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:615-20 pubmed publisher
  7. Barzegari A, Vahed S, Atashpaz S, Khani S, Omidi Y. Rapid and simple methodology for isolation of high quality genomic DNA from coniferous tissues (Taxus baccata). Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:833-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon our findings, we propose this simple method to be considered for extraction of DNA from leathery plant tissues...
  8. Khasa D, Fung M, Logan B. Early growth response of container-grown selected woody boreal seedlings in amended composite tailings and tailings sand. Bioresour Technol. 2005;96:857-64 pubmed
    ..The results also indicated that peat and pulp waste were the best amendment treatments for both hybrid poplars and coniferous species whereas the agriboost and mix (combination of pulp waste and fly ash) were the worst. ..
  9. Mencuccini M, Hölttä T, Petit G, Magnani F. Sanio's laws revisited. Size-dependent changes in the xylem architecture of trees. Ecol Lett. 2007;10:1084-93 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with Sanio's law only for large trees and reject the MST assumptions that vertical tapering in conduit diameter is universal and independent of rank number. ..
  10. Freitas A, Almeida M, Andrighetti Fröhner C, Cardozo F, Barardi C, Farias M, et al. Antiviral activity-guided fractionation from Araucaria angustifolia leaves extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;126:512-7 pubmed publisher
  11. Sorochinsky B, Zelena L. Is the cytoskeleton involved in the irradiation-induced abnormal morphogenesis of coniferous plants?. Cell Biol Int. 2003;27:275-7 pubmed
  12. Ning L, Shi H, Zhou H, Liu S. [Quantitative characteristics of soil aggregates under different vegetations in upper reach of Minjiang River]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2005;16:1405-10 pubmed
    ..Significant correlations were found among the three quantitative characteristics, which could be used to indicate the stability of soil aggregates. ..
  13. Duquesnoy E, Castola V, Casanova J. Identification and quantitative determination of carbohydrates in ethanolic extracts of two conifers using 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res. 2008;343:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined that carbohydrates represented from 15% to 35% of the crude extracts in which pinitol was the principal constituent accompanied by arabinitol, mannitol, glucose and fructose. ..
  14. Van Renterghem T, Botteldooren D. Numerical evaluation of tree canopy shape near noise barriers to improve downwind shielding. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;123:648-57 pubmed publisher
    ..With increasing wind speed, the optimum pressure resistance coefficient increases. Coniferous trees are more suited than deciduous trees to increase the downwind noise barrier efficiency. ..
  15. Diehl P, Fontenla S. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2010;42:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. ..
  16. Begum S, Shibagaki M, Furusawa O, Nakaba S, Yamagishi Y, Yoshimoto J, et al. Cold stability of microtubules in wood-forming tissues of conifers during seasons of active and dormant cambium. Planta. 2012;235:165-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that the secondary cell wall might be responsible for the cold stability of microtubules in differentiating secondary xylem cells of conifers. ..
  17. Drew D, Allen K, Downes G, Evans R, Battaglia M, Baker P. Wood properties in a long-lived conifer reveal strong climate signals where ring-width series do not. Tree Physiol. 2013;33:37-47 pubmed publisher
  18. Feng Z, Wang J, Rößler R, Kerp H, Wei H. Complete tylosis formation in a latest Permian conifer stem. Ann Bot. 2013;111:1075-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, they may represent an ecophysiological response to the constant environmental stimuli. ..
  19. Kojima M, Becker V, Altaner C. An unusual form of reaction wood in Koromiko [Hebe salicifolia G. Forst. (Pennell)], a southern hemisphere angiosperm. Planta. 2012;235:289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..salicifolia reaction wood. Reaction wood of H. salicifolia varies from normal wood in having a higher microfibril angle, which is likely to determine the direction of generated maturation stresses. ..
  20. Loudermilk E, Scheller R, Weisberg P, Yang J, Dilts T, Karam S, et al. Carbon dynamics in the future forest: the importance of long-term successional legacy and climate-fire interactions. Glob Chang Biol. 2013;19:3502-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The future of forest ecosystem C cycling in many forested systems worldwide may depend more on major disturbances and landscape legacies related to land use than on projected climate change alone. ..
  21. Mi N, Yu G, Wen X, Sun X, Wang S. [Responses of subtropical conifer plantation to future climate change: a simulation study]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2008;19:1877-83 pubmed
    ..Under the future climate changing scenario (the year 2100), the net primary productivity of this plantation ecosystem would be increased by 22%, suggesting that this ecosystem is still capable of sequestrating carbon. ..
  22. Chiang Y, Shih H, Chang L, Li W, Lin H, Ju L. Isolation of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers from an endangered and endemic species, Podocarpus nakaii (Podocarpaceae). Am J Bot. 2011;98:e306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..nakaii. In addition, the markers are useful for further phytogeographic and speciation studies in P. fasciculus, P. macrophyllus var. macrophyllus, and P. macrophyllus var. maki, which are closely related species. ..
  23. Yilmaz O, Sevgi O, Koc A. Determination of incoming solar radiation in major tree species in Turkey. J Environ Biol. 2012;33:817-21 pubmed
    ..The monthly and annual solar radiation values of sites and light requirements of forest trees ranked similarly. ..
  24. Zad S, Koshnevice M. Damping-off in conifer seedling nurseries in Noshahr and Kelardasht. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2001;66:91-3 pubmed
    ..horizontalis with F. solani and Pinus nigra and Cupressus semperivirens var. horizontalis with F. oxysporum was high whereas that of Cupressus arizonica with F. sambucinum, F. mondiforme and F. clamydosporum was moderate. ..
  25. Mizoue N, Dobbertin M. Detecting differences in crown transparency assessments between countries using the image analysis system CROCO. Environ Monit Assess. 2003;89:179-95 pubmed
  26. Burgess S, Dawson T. Predicting the limits to tree height using statistical regressions of leaf traits. New Phytol. 2007;174:626-36 pubmed
  27. da Silva P, Cortez V, da Silveira R. New species of Stropharia from Araucaria angustifolia forests of southern Brazil. Mycologia. 2009;101:539-44 pubmed
    ..Stropharia venusta is characterized by the reddish to pinkish pileus, large basidiospores (12-15 microm long) and subclavate cheiloleptocystidia. ..
  28. Han Z, Han M, Wu J, Yang L. [Modules biomass structure and growth pattern of Acanthopanax senticosus population in different habitats]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:1164-8 pubmed
    ..There was the same regulation of heterogeneous speed growth in the relative weight increase of the leaves, stems and ramets of the population under the three habitat conditions. ..
  29. Chaabi M, Antheaume C, Weniger B, Justiniano H, Lugnier C, Lobstein A. Biflavones of Decussocarpus rospigliosii as phosphodiesterases inhibitors. Planta Med. 2007;73:1284-6 pubmed
    ..Biflavone (5) showed selective and potent inhibition of the PDE4 isoform (IC50=1.48+/-0.21 microM) and was almost as active as the reference drug Rolipram (IC50=1.1+/-0.2 microM). ..
  30. Tian X, Yin L, Shu L, Wang M. [Carbon emission from forest fires in Daxing' anling region in 2005-2007]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2009;20:2877-83 pubmed
    ..76 x 10(6) t, with 0.34 x 10(6), 0.83 x 10(6), 0.27 x 10(6), and 0.32 x 10(6) t from larch (Larix gmelini) forest, conifer and broadleaves mixed forest, broad-leaved forest, and grassland, respectively. ..
  31. Morris H, Plavcová L, Cvecko P, Fichtler E, Gillingham M, Martínez Cabrera H, et al. A global analysis of parenchyma tissue fractions in secondary xylem of seed plants. New Phytol. 2016;209:1553-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate that both temperature and growth form are important drivers of RAP fractions. These findings should help pave the way to better understand the various functions of RAP in plants. ..
  32. Rosling A, Cox F, Cruz Martínez K, Ihrmark K, Grelet G, Lindahl B, et al. Archaeorhizomycetes: unearthing an ancient class of ubiquitous soil fungi. Science. 2011;333:876-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Klavina D, Pennanen T, Gaitnieks T, Velmala S, Lazdins A, Lazdina D, et al. The ectomycorrhizal community of conifer stands on peat soils 12 years after fertilization with wood ash. Mycorrhiza. 2016;26:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..2%), while in control plots, it was Tylospora asterophora (18.5%) and Lactarius tabidus (20.3%). Our results showed that forest fertilization with wood ash has long-lasting effect on diversity and composition of ECM fungal communities. ..
  34. Bowman W, Turnbull M, Tissue D, Whitehead D, Griffin K. Sapwood temperature gradients between lower stems and the crown do not influence estimates of stand-level stem CO(2) efflux. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1553-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that detailed measurements of within-stand temperature gradients are unlikely to greatly improve the accuracy of tree- or stand-level estimates of stem CO(2) efflux. ..
  35. Tan A, Konczak I, Ramzan I, Sze D. Native Australian fruit polyphenols inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:444-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The same fruit also caused direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) as detected using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay...
  36. León J, González M, Gallardo J. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia]. Rev Biol Trop. 2011;59:1883-94 pubmed
  37. Allen M, Kitajima K. In situ high-frequency observations of mycorrhizas. New Phytol. 2013;200:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Soil respiration is related to the daily change in hyphal production, but not hyphal mortality. Continuous sensor and observation systems can provide more accurate assessments of soil carbon dynamics. ..
  38. Kivimäenpää M, Selldén G, Sutinen S. Ozone-induced changes in the chloroplast structure of conifer needles, and their use in ozone diagnostics. Environ Pollut. 2005;137:466-75 pubmed
    ..For sound ozone diagnostics all three symptoms must be present in the samples studied. The symptoms in relation to needle anatomy and physiology is discussed, and recommendations for sampling and analysis are given. ..
  39. Matsunami K, Otsuka H, Takeda Y. Structural revisions of blumenol C glucoside and byzantionoside B. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:438-41 pubmed
    ..The empirical rules of (13)C-NMR chemical shift to determine the absolute stereochemistry of C-9 of 9-hydroxymegastigmane 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were also discussed. ..
  40. Hwang W, Kartal S, Yoshimura T, Imamura Y. Synergistic effect of heartwood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds on termite resistance of treated wood. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:90-5 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the synergism between wood extractives and either DBF or DDAC using both the sapwood and heartwood portions of the same wood species...
  41. Van Winkle S, Pullman G. The combined impact of pH and activated carbon on the elemental composition of a liquid conifer embryogenic tissue initiation medium. Plant Cell Rep. 2003;22:303-11 pubmed
    ..8. Due to its impurity content and difficulty associated with its neutralization, non-acid-washed AC may be a poor choice for use in tissue culture medium. ..
  42. Terskikh V, Feurtado J, Borchardt S, Giblin M, Abrams S, Kermode A. In vivo 13C NMR metabolite profiling: potential for understanding and assessing conifer seed quality. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:2253-65 pubmed
  43. Liu H, Huang J, Guo Y. [Impacts of different vegetation types and soil properties on runoff chemical characteristics]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2006;27:655-60 pubmed
    ..Moreover, since anions were easy to be leaching, SO4(2-), NO3-, Cl- in groundwater displayed a positive correlation to that in soil profile. ..
  44. Vieira L, Santa Catarina C, de Freitas Fraga H, dos Santos A, Steinmacher D, Schlögl P, et al. Glutathione improves early somatic embryogenesis in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert) O. Kuntze by alteration in nitric oxide emission. Plant Sci. 2012;195:80-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results indicate that the modification of the embryogenic cultures redox state might be an effective strategy to develop more efficient embryogenic systems in A. angustifolia. ..
  45. Schmeda Hirschmann G, Astudillo L, Sepúlveda B, Rodriguez J, Theoduloz C, Yáñez T, et al. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of natural and semisynthetic labdane diterpenes from Araucaria araucana resin. Z Naturforsch C. 2005;60:511-22 pubmed
    ..A concentration-dependent cell viability inhibition was found with IC50 values ranging from 27 up to > 1000 microM. The relationship between the cytotoxicity data and lipophilicity of the products is also discussed. ..
  46. Del Fueyo G, Caccavari M, Dome E. Morphology and structure of the pollen cone and pollen grain of the Araucaria species from Argentina. Biocell. 2008;32:49-60 pubmed
  47. He C, Convertino M, Feng Z, Zhang S. Using LiDAR data to measure the 3D green biomass of Beijing urban forest in China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75920 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents an improvement over the conventional method because it not only provides a basis to evalue indices of Beijing urban greenings, but also introduces a new technique to assess 3D green biomass in other cities. ..
  48. Yang R, Yao T, Xu B, Jiang G, Zheng X. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in conifer needles in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Environ Pollut. 2008;153:92-100 pubmed
    ..A number of environmental factors controlling the distribution of OCPs in regional scale were also discussed in this paper. ..
  49. Delzon S, Douthe C, Sala A, Cochard H. Mechanism of water-stress induced cavitation in conifers: bordered pit structure and function support the hypothesis of seal capillary-seeding. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:2101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis of seal capillary-seeding as the most likely mode of air-seeding, and suggest that the adhesion of the torus to the pit border may be the main determinant of cavitation resistance in conifers. ..
  50. Burrows G, Offord C, Meagher P, Ashton K. Axillary meristems and the development of epicormic buds in wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis). Ann Bot. 2003;92:835-44 pubmed
    ..It appears likely that this slow but continued development provides a ready source of additional or replacement leaders and thus new branches and leaves...
  51. Mikusiński G, Angelstam P, Sporrong U. Distribution of deciduous stands in villages located in coniferous forest landscapes in Sweden. Ambio. 2003;32:520-6 pubmed
    ..However, for detailed studies better thematic resolution is needed to determine biologically relevant differences in quality of deciduous stands...
  52. Gajewska J, Miszczyk A, Markiewicz Z. Characteristics of bacterial strains inhabiting the wood of coniferous trees. Pol J Microbiol. 2004;53:283-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of the potentially pathogenic species Bacillus cereus 1, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Aeromonas salmonicida and Chryseomonas luteola was also demonstrated...
  53. Pittermann J, Sperry J, Wheeler J, Hacke U, Sikkema E. Mechanical reinforcement of tracheids compromises the hydraulic efficiency of conifer xylem. Plant Cell Environ. 2006;29:1618-28 pubmed
  54. Li X, Han S, Hu Y, Zhao Y. [Decomposition of litter organic matter and its relations to C, N and P release in secondary conifer and broadleaf mixed forest in Changbai Mountains]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2008;19:245-51 pubmed
    ..Our study showed that percent of C, N and P mass remaining can be predicted by percent of organic matter mass remaining...
  55. Quijano Celis C, Gaviria M, Consuelo V, Ontiveros I, Echeverri L, Morales G, et al. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Retrohpyllum rospigliosii fruits from Colombia. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1133-4 pubmed
    ..3%). The in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil was studied against seven bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method. The strongest activity of the oil was against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus cereus...
  56. Ribeiro C, Cardoso E. Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Microbiol Res. 2012;167:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..As far as we know, this is the first study to include the species Ewingella americana as a PGPR...
  57. MacKay J, Dean J, Plomion C, Peterson D, Canovas F, Pavy N, et al. Towards decoding the conifer giga-genome. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;80:555-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Researchers are also making plans to use comparative analyses that will help to turn the data into a valuable resource for enhancing and protecting the world's conifer forests...
  58. Leslie A, Beaulieu J, Rai H, Crane P, Donoghue M, Mathews S. Hemisphere-scale differences in conifer evolutionary dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16217-21 pubmed publisher
  59. Kürschner W, Batenburg S, Mander L. Aberrant Classopollis pollen reveals evidence for unreduced (2n) pollen in the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131708 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that polyploidy may have also reduced the extinction risk of these conifers during the End-Triassic biotic crisis. ..
  60. Strengbom J, Walheim M, Näsholm T, Ericson L. Regional differences in the occurrence of understorey species reflect nitrogen deposition in Swedish forests. Ambio. 2003;32:91-7 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that even low rates of N-deposition may decrease the abundance of the most dominant species in coniferous forest ground flora...
  61. Chung J, Lin T, Tan Y, Lin M, Hwang S. Genetic diversity and biogeography of Cunninghamia konishii (Cupressaceae), an island species in Taiwan: a comparison with Cunninghamia lanceolata, a mainland species in China. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;33:791-801 pubmed
    ..lanceolata. In conclusion, the migration patterns of Cunninghamia from mainland China may have been established following multiple sources, migrant-pools, long-distance dispersal events, and via different directions...
  62. Pajuste K, Frey J, Asi E. Interactions of atmospheric deposition with coniferous canopies in Estonia. Environ Monit Assess. 2006;112:177-96 pubmed
    ..6-2.0 and 0.6-1.2 kg ha(-1) per year in spruce and pine stands, respectively. The internal circulation of K(+) was significantly higher (8.9-10.9 kg ha(-1) per year) in spruce stands than in pine stands (2.7-4.4 kg ha(-1) per year)...
  63. Liang C, Wang G, Liu L, Ji G, Fang L, Liu Y, et al. ConiferEST: an integrated bioinformatics system for data reprocessing and mining of conifer expressed sequence tags (ESTs). BMC Genomics. 2007;8:134 pubmed
    ..While these data are widely used for characterizing various genomes, they also present a serious challenge for data quality control and validation due to their inherent deficiencies, particularly for species without genome sequences...
  64. Snowberg L, Benkman C. The role of marker traits in the assortative mating within red crossbills, Loxia curvirostra complex. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:1924-32 pubmed
  65. Ferro A, Tammi C. Field note: irrigation of tree stands with groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane. Int J Phytoremediation. 2009;11:425-40 pubmed publisher
    ..A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage...
  66. Sato M, Yunoki K, Ohkubo T, Seki K, Tanaka Y, Ohnishi M. Content and fatty acid composition of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in conifer leaves grown in Hokkaido, Japan. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:1283-5 pubmed
    ..In Picea, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was low, and those of oleic and linoleic acid were high. The essential oil residues of Abies sachalinensis leaves were found to be a potential source of SQDG material...
  67. Fenn M, Allen E, Weiss S, Jovan S, Geiser L, Tonnesen G, et al. Nitrogen critical loads and management alternatives for N-impacted ecosystems in California. J Environ Manage. 2010;91:2404-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, decreases in N deposition are needed for long-term ecosystem protection and sustainability, and this is the only strategy that will protect epiphytic lichen communities...
  68. Li Y, Zeng S, Huang W. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2011;22:631-6 pubmed
    ..In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content...
  69. Durzan D. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenetic parthenogenesis in embryonal cells of Araucaria angustifolia: interpolation of progenesis and asexual heterospory in an artificial sporangium. Sex Plant Reprod. 2012;25:227-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Dispersal of female and male parthenospores displayed heteromorphic asexual heterospory in an aqueous environment...
  70. Coulerie P, Nour M, Maciuk A, Eydoux C, Guillemot J, Lebouvier N, et al. Structure-activity relationship study of biflavonoids on the Dengue virus polymerase DENV-NS5 RdRp. Planta Med. 2013;79:1313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sotetsuflavone (8), with an IC50 = 0.16 µM, is the most active compound of this series and is the strongest inhibitor of the Dengue virus NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase described in the literature. ..
  71. Chen R, Jiang L, Chen J, Qiao G. DNA barcoding reveals a mysterious high species diversity of conifer-feeding aphids in the mountains of southwest China. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20123 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings revealed the high species diversity of the aphids with DNA barcoding. ..
  72. Moreira Souza M, Trufem S, Gomes da Costa S, Cardoso E. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. Mycorrhiza. 2003;13:211-5 pubmed
    ..Generally, spore richness and diversity were highest during the warmer and more humid period and in the native forest plants...
  73. De Schrijver A, Nachtergale L, Staelens J, Luyssaert S, De Keersmaeker L. Comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density Corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand. Environ Pollut. 2004;131:93-105 pubmed
    ..The lower nitrogen throughfall deposition in the birch stand was reflected in a 60% lower nitrate percolation at 1m depth compared with pine. Nitrate soil percolation is linked to losses of aluminium and base cations...
  74. Mantovani A, Morellato L, Dos Reis M. Internal genetic structure and outcrossing rate in a natural population of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze. J Hered. 2006;97:466-72 pubmed
    ..The results of this study have implications for the methodologies used in conservation collections and for the use or analysis of this forest species...
  75. DeClerck F, Barbour M, Sawyer J. Species richness and stand stability in conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. Ecology. 2006;87:2787-99 pubmed
    ..In contrast resilience measures the capacity of communities to partition resources in the absence of a single limiting resource, demonstrating positive diversity effects...
  76. Sun B, Hu Z, Lu J, Zhou L, Xu C. [Nutrient leaching and acidification of Southern China coniferous forest red soil under stimulated N deposition]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:1820-6 pubmed
    ..N deposition could increase the apparent mineralization rate of soil organic nitrogen, and accelerate the nutrient losses and acidification of coniferous forest red soil...
  77. Li Y, Sperry J, Taneda H, Bush S, Hacke U. Evaluation of centrifugal methods for measuring xylem cavitation in conifers, diffuse- and ring-porous angiosperms. New Phytol. 2008;177:558-68 pubmed
    ..Close correspondence inspires confidence in both methods, each of which has unique advantages. The observation that ring-porous species operate at only a fraction of their potential conductivity at midday demands further study...
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    ..Of the 17 species found at similar frequencies on several of the podocarp species, 15 were found also on Kunzea. Many of the endophytes isolated appear to represent species of fungi not previously recognised from New Zealand...
  79. Dawidowicz A, Czapczyńska N. Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as a valuable tool for isolating essential oil components from conifers. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8:2045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This fact confirms the reliability and efficacy of SSDM for the analysis of volatile oil components...
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  81. Begum S, Kudo K, Matsuoka Y, Nakaba S, Yamagishi Y, Nabeshima E, et al. Localized cooling of stems induces latewood formation and cambial dormancy during seasons of active cambium in conifers. Ann Bot. 2016;117:465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease in the temperature of the stem is a critical factor in the control of cambial activity and xylem differentiation in trees. ..
  82. Keena M. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species. J Econ Entomol. 2003;96:43-52 pubmed
    ..Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas...
  83. Morewood W, Simmonds K, Gries R, Allison J, Borden J. Disruption by conophthorin of the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones. J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:2115-29 pubmed
  84. Tian Q, Luo Z, Chen J, Chen M, Hui F. Retrieving leaf area index for coniferous forest in Xingguo County, China with Landsat ETM+ images. J Environ Manage. 2007;85:624-7 pubmed
    ..The retrieved LAI values for January 2000 were lower than those for May 2003 because of a small seasonal variation in the coniferous forests (predominantly masson pine) and the decrease in the understorey vegetation during winter...
  85. Huang B, Lü C, Wu B, Fan L. A rhizobia strain isolated from root nodule of gymnosperm Podocarpus macrophyllus. Sci China C Life Sci. 2007;50:228-33 pubmed
    ..16S rDNA full-length sequence analysis of GXLO 02 confirmed that the representative strain GXLO 02 belongs to Rhizobium sp...
  86. Yan H, Han Y, Yang X, Le L. [Spatial relevance between natural regeneration of Picea and heterogeneity of soil available nitrogen in Guandi Mountain]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2010;21:533-40 pubmed
  87. Carpenter R, Jordan G, Mildenhall D, Lee D. Leaf fossils of the ancient Tasmanian relict Microcachrys (Podocarpaceae) from New Zealand. Am J Bot. 2011;98:1164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence dates the Microcachrys lineage to the Mesozoic and does not support the traditional placement of Microcachrys as sister to the southeastern Australian genus Pherosphaera...
  88. Teramage M, Onda Y, Kato H. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles. J Environ Manage. 2016;170:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. ..
  89. Wang Z, Zhao Z, Cheng X, Liu S, Wei Q, Scott I. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2016;127:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. ..
  90. Izzo A, Agbowo J, Bruns T. Detection of plot-level changes in ectomycorrhizal communities across years in an old-growth mixed-conifer forest. New Phytol. 2005;166:619-29 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the dynamic nature of the ectomycorrhizal community even in the absence of large-scale disturbances. The potential role of root turnover and drought stress is discussed...
  91. Lin F, Hao Z, Ye J, Jiang P. [Effects of bryophytes in dark coniferous forest of Changbai Mountains on three conifers seed germination and seedling growth]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006;17:1398-402 pubmed
    ..Living shoots in larger amounts promoted the seedling growth of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but killed shoots were inadverse...
  92. Duursma R, Kolari P, Perämäki M, Pulkkinen M, Makela A, Nikinmaa E, et al. Contributions of climate, leaf area index and leaf physiology to variation in gross primary production of six coniferous forests across Europe: a model-based analysis. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:621-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results are promising for the development of a parsimonious model of GPP...