toxic plants


Summary: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.

Top Publications

  1. Pillay V, Bhagyanathan P, Krishnaprasad R, Rajesh R, Vishnupriya N. Poisoning due to white seed variety of Abrus precatorius. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:317-9 pubmed
    ..He recovered after a prolonged duration of hospital treatment without any subsequent complications or sequelae. The case is being reported on account of its rarity...
  2. Liang A, Ye Z. [General situation of the toxicity researches on Senecio]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:93-7 pubmed China were also recapitulated. The proposals for the application and development of Senecio spp. were put forward. ..
  3. Keinanen M, Oldham N, Baldwin I. Rapid HPLC screening of jasmonate-induced increases in tobacco alkaloids, phenolics, and diterpene glycosides in Nicotiana attenuata. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:3553-8 pubmed
    ..5-, 1.4-, and 1.9-fold, respectively) but left others, such as rutin, unchanged. Such broad-based analytical screens will help characterize environmental and genetic changes in secondary metabolite profiles...
  4. Sullivan R, Hagen E. Psychotropic substance-seeking: evolutionary pathology or adaptation?. Addiction. 2002;97:389-400 pubmed
  5. Nesse R. Evolution and addiction. Addiction. 2002;97:470-1 pubmed
  6. Bagchi M, Balmoori J, Bagchi D, Stohs S, Chakrabarti J, Das D. Role of reactive oxygen species in the development of cytotoxicity with various forms of chewing tobacco and pan masala. Toxicology. 2002;179:247-55 pubmed
    ..The results, thus, document that the cytotoxic effects of the chewing tobaccos including pan masalas are mediated through the production of the reactive oxygen species...
  7. Hoque M, Somvanshi R, Singh G, Mogha I. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder in normal, fern fed and enzootic bovine haematuria-affected cattle. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2002;49:403-7 pubmed
    ..Post-sonographic urinalysis, biopsy and necropsy of selected cases further confirmed the sonographic findings...
  8. Sharma D. Betel quid and areca nut are carcinogenic without tobacco. Lancet Oncol. 2003;4:587 pubmed
  9. Kent A, Jensen S, Doncaster C. Model of microtine cycles caused by lethal toxins in non-preferred food plants. J Theor Biol. 2005;234:593-604 pubmed
    ..Fewer criteria could be met in variations on the model, in which the non-preferred food was equally as nutritious as the preferred food or was continuously toxic...

More Information

Publications152 found, 100 shown here

  1. Al Qura n S. Ethnobotanical survey of folk toxic plants in southern part of Jordan. Toxicon. 2005;46:119-29 pubmed
  2. Feng Z, Liu R, DeAngelis D. Plant-herbivore interactions mediated by plant toxicity. Theor Popul Biol. 2008;73:449-59 pubmed publisher
  3. Winz R, Baldwin I. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. IV. Insect-Induced ethylene reduces jasmonate-induced nicotine accumulation by regulating putrescine N-methyltra. Plant Physiol. 2001;125:2189-202 pubmed
    ..sexta herbivory. We conclude that attack from this nicotine-tolerant specialist insect causes N. attenuata to produce ethylene, which directly suppresses the nitrogen-intensive biosynthesis of nicotine...
  4. Janion M, Bakowski D, Brzyzkiewicz H. [Disturbances of rhythm and atrio-ventricular conduction in digitalis overdose. Case reports]. Przegl Lek. 2001;58:54-7 pubmed
    ..Short review of toxic manifestations of digitalis was made and the treatment of digitalis intoxication was outlined. ..
  5. Hamill F, Apio S, Mubiru N, Bukenya Ziraba R, Mosango M, Maganyi O, et al. Traditional herbal drugs of Southern Uganda, II: literature analysis and antimicrobial assays. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:57-78 pubmed
    ..Many species proved active against microorganisms in several susceptibility assays conducted in Uganda and the US. ..
  6. Parikh J, Gokani V, Doctor P, Kulkarni P, Shah A, Saiyed H. Acute and chronic health effects due to green tobacco exposure in agricultural workers. Am J Ind Med. 2005;47:494-9 pubmed
    ..No significant difference is observed as regards to chronic health effects among tobacco workers and control workers. ..
  7. Haupt H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2002;21:164 pubmed
  8. Matsuo T, Sugaya S, Yasukawa J, Aigaki T, Fuyama Y. Odorant-binding proteins OBP57d and OBP57e affect taste perception and host-plant preference in Drosophila sechellia. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e118 pubmed publisher
    ..citrifolia. Our finding of the genes involved in host-plant determination may lead to further understanding of mechanisms underlying taste perception, evolution of plant-herbivore interactions, and speciation...
  9. Shihadeh A. Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:143-52 pubmed
  10. Haupt H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants. Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2004;23:80-1 pubmed
  11. Moore R, Knottenbelt D, Matthews J, Beynon R, Whitfield P. Biomarkers for ragwort poisoning in horses: identification of protein targets. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:30 pubmed publisher
    ..This model has the potential to form the basis of a novel proteomic strategy aimed at identifying surrogate protein biomarkers of ragwort exposure in horses and other livestock. ..
  12. Duby G, Degand H, Boutry M. Structure requirement and identification of a cryptic cleavage site in the mitochondrial processing of a plant F1-ATPase beta-subunit presequence. FEBS Lett. 2001;505:409-13 pubmed
    ..In vitro processing confirmed these data and showed that processing was sensitive to o-phenanthroline, thus catalyzed by mitochondrial processing peptidase. ..
  13. Flåøyen A, di Menna M, Wilkins A, Sandvik M, Berndt S. Summer variation in the concentration of steroidal sapogenins in and the degree of fungal infection on Narthecium ossifragum plants from Møre og Romsdal County, Norway. Vet Res Commun. 2004;28:225-34 pubmed
    ..Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis performed on the chemical and fungal results suggest that sporulation may have occurred in the fungi in response to increase in sapogenin concentrations. ..
  14. Nishiyama T, Oka H, Miyoshi M, Aibiki M, Maekawa S, Shirakawa Y. [Case of accidental ingestion of caster beans: acute intoxication by ricin]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2005;18:149-50 pubmed
  15. Chandra P, Mulla U. Areca nut: the hidden Indian 'gateway' to future tobacco use and oral cancers among youth. Indian J Med Sci. 2007;61:319-21 pubmed
  16. Felpin F, Girard S, Vo Thanh G, Robins R, Villiéras J, Lebreton J. Efficient enantiomeric synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine alkaloids from tobacco. J Org Chem. 2001;66:6305-12 pubmed
  17. Jäger A. Is traditional medicine better off 25 years later?. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100:3-4 pubmed
  18. Kumar G, Gautam N. Allelotoxicity of Parthenium leaf extracts on cytomorphological behaviour of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). J Environ Biol. 2008;29:243-7 pubmed
    ..This study suggests better understanding of allelochemicals interaction and their incorporation into the betterment of crop. ..
  19. Liu Q, Zhou L, Zheng N, Zhuo L, Liu Y, Liu L. Poisoning deaths in China: type and prevalence detected at the Tongji Forensic Medical Center in Hubei. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;193:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further regulatory enforcement should be carried out by government to restrict and manage the use of pesticides and rodenticides which are most toxic to humans...
  20. Assayed M, Abd El Aty A. Cruciferous plants: phytochemical toxicity versus cancer chemoprotection. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009;9:1470-8 pubmed
    ..The controversy in the referred actions contributed to crucifers' phytochemicals has been exclusively discussed. ..
  21. Cook D, Gardner D, Pfister J, Stonecipher C, Robins J, Morgan J. Effects of Elevated CO2 on the Swainsonine Chemotypes of Astragalus lentiginosus and Astragalus mollissimus. J Chem Ecol. 2017;43:307-316 pubmed publisher
    ..influence plant population density, growth, fitness, and toxin concentrations and thus influence the risk of toxic plants to grazing livestock...
  22. Scott D, Palmer R, Stapleton J. Dose-years as an improved index of cumulative tobacco smoke exposure. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:735-6 pubmed
    ..Cotinine concentrations, however, may remain stable in smokers over the longer term. Therefore, dose-years, and more specifically cotinine-years, may represent an improved index of cumulative tobacco smoke exposure. ..
  23. Plesse B, Criqui M, Durr A, Parmentier Y, Fleck J, Genschik P. Effects of the polyubiquitin gene Ubi. U4 leader intron and first ubiquitin monomer on reporter gene expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Plant Mol Biol. 2001;45:655-67 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the ubiquitin leader intron is not only a quantitative determinant of gene expression but may also influence the tissue-specific expression pattern. ..
  24. Ali S, Taylor W. The 3' non-coding region of a C4 photosynthesis gene increases transgene expression when combined with heterologous promoters. Plant Mol Biol. 2001;46:325-33 pubmed
    ..In both cases Me1 3' does not alter the expression pattern for either promoter. We conclude that Me1 3' can be used as a transcription terminator to increase transgene expression in C3 dicot plants. ..
  25. Agelet A, Vallès J. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Pallars (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Part II. New or very rare uses of previously known medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:211-27 pubmed
    ..A previous paper reported the general results and the new or very scarcely reported medicinal vascular plants, and a further one will deal with medicinal non vascular plants. ..
  26. Göpel C, Maras A, Schmidt M. [Hawaiian baby rose wood: case report of an argyreia nervosa induced toxic psychosis]. Psychiatr Prax. 2003;30:223-4 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of the clinical picture is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. ..
  27. Haupt H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2004;23:23-4 pubmed
  28. Panda K, Chattopadhyay R, Chattopadhyay D, Chatterjee I. Cigarette smoke-induced protein oxidation and proteolysis is exclusively caused by its tar phase: prevention by vitamin C. Toxicol Lett. 2001;123:21-32 pubmed
    ..The revelation of the acute toxicity of the tar phase with respect to CS-induced oxidative damage also urges the necessity of trapping it more effectively by suitable cigarette filters to reduce the health damage caused to smokers. ..
  29. Steegborn C, Laber B, Messerschmidt A, Huber R, Clausen T. Crystal structures of cystathionine gamma-synthase inhibitor complexes rationalize the increased affinity of a novel inhibitor. J Mol Biol. 2001;311:789-801 pubmed
    ..The described structures suggest improvements for known inhibitors and give guidelines for the development of new lead compounds. ..
  30. Braun K, Romero J, Liddell C, Creamer R. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed. Mycol Res. 2003;107:980-8 pubmed
    ..However, with the paucity of Embellisia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study...
  31. Ocampo Roosens L, Ontiveros Nevares P, Fernández Lucio O. Intoxication with buckthorn (Karwinskia humboldtiana): report of three siblings. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007;10:66-8 pubmed
    ..The clinical diagnosis of intoxicated patients can be difficult without a history of the fruit ingestion. We present a report of three siblings with buckthorn intoxication...
  32. Muller J, Wang Y, Franzen R, Santi L, Salamini F, Rohde W. In vitro interactions between barley TALE homeodomain proteins suggest a role for protein-protein associations in the regulation of Knox gene function. Plant J. 2001;27:13-23 pubmed
    ..A characteristic phenotype is induced by the overexpression of JuBel2 in transgenic tobacco plants. ..
  33. Burda A, Wahl M, Fischbein C, DesLauriers C. Atypical poisonings with botanicals raise suspicion of malicious activity. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004;46:341 pubmed
    ..Heightened toxicovigilance since the terrorist actions of 9/11 has raised concerns for malicious use of highly toxic botanicals, as the 3 cases reported illustrate...
  34. Haupt H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants. Forsythia suspensa]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2003;22:319 pubmed
  35. . Cardiac glycosides: William Withering (1741-1799). J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2005;14:61-2 pubmed
  36. Haupt H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2002;21:247 pubmed
  37. Hou A, Zhao Q, Li M, Jiang B, Lin Z, Sun H, et al. Cytotoxic 7,20-epoxy ent-kauranoids from Isodon xerophilus. Phytochemistry. 2001;58:179-83 pubmed
    ..Compounds 4 and 7 exhibited broad cytotoxicity against four kinds of human tumor cells (K562, HL-60, HCT, and MKN-28 cells) in the range of 2.23-15.35 and 0.30-8.61 microg/ml, respectively. ..
  38. Ralphs M, Welsh S, Gardner D. Distribution of locoweed toxin swainsonine in populations of Oxytropis lambertii. J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:701-7 pubmed
    ..The other varieties, articulata and lambertii, also did not contain swainsonine. It is suspected that a plant fungal endophyte may be responsible for the high variability in swainsonine content in populations of O. lambertii. ..
  39. Iaconelli S, Simmen B. Taste thresholds and suprathreshold responses to tannin-rich plant extracts and quinine in a primate species (Microcebus murinus). J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:2315-26 pubmed
  40. Firestone D, Sloane C. Not your everyday anisocoria: angel's trumpet ocular toxicity. J Emerg Med. 2007;33:21-4 pubmed
    ..The patient and his family were spared expensive and time-consuming tests (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging) or further referral. His symptoms resolved spontaneously in 3 days...
  41. Clemens S. Molecular mechanisms of plant metal tolerance and homeostasis. Planta. 2001;212:475-86 pubmed
    ..Chelators and chaperones are known, and evidence for intracellular metal trafficking is emerging. This recent progress in the molecular understanding of plant metal homeostasis and tolerance is reviewed...
  42. Loader J, Wilkins A, Flåøyen A, Ryste E, Hove K. Ovine metabolism of lithogenic sapogenins. Synthesis of [2,2,4,4-(2)h(4)]sarsasapogenone, [2,2,4,4-(2)h(4)]sarsasapogenin, and [2,2,4,4-(2)h(4)]episarsasapogenin and evaluation of deuterium retention in a sheep-dosing trial. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:2641-5 pubmed
    ..The recovery of the dosed mixture of genins 2b and 3b was calculated to be 85%. Considerable loss of deuterium and a lower recovery of genin material were observed when [2,2,4,4-(2)H(4)]sarsasapogenone (1b) was dosed. ..
  43. Riet Correa F, Barros S, Mendez M, Gevehr Fernandes C, Pereira Neto O, Soares M, et al. Axonal degeneration in sheep caused by the ingestion of Halimium brasiliense. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:478-86 pubmed
    ..A pigment identified as ceroid was also present in neurons, astrocytes, and macrophages. These lesions suggested a novel morphologic manifestation of a toxic axonopathy...
  44. Herbert R, Vilhar B, Evett C, Orchard C, Rogers H, Davies M, et al. Ethylene induces cell death at particular phases of the cell cycle in the tobacco TBY-2 cell line. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:1615-23 pubmed
  45. Lough T, Emerson S, Lucas W, Forster R. Trans-complementation of long-distance movement of White clover mosaic virus triple gene block (TGB) mutants: phloem-associated movement of TGBp1. Virology. 2001;288:18-28 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in the context of the recent finding that TGBp1 can mediate the suppression of signaling involved in systemic gene silencing. ..
  46. Zhang X, Schmitz W, Gelderblom H, Reichart P. Shammah-induced oral leukoplakia-like lesions. Oral Oncol. 2001;37:609-12 pubmed
    ..As such, Shammah-induced oral leukoplakia-like lesions may be considered precancerous. ..
  47. Alonso Amelot M, Avendano M. Human carcinogenesis and bracken fern: a review of the evidence. Curr Med Chem. 2002;9:675-86 pubmed
    ..Also, specific points where more research is needed are highlighted. ..
  48. Kotsias B. Scopolamine and the murder of King Hamlet. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:847-9 pubmed
  49. Schulz J, Hawkes E, Shaw C. Cycad toxins, Helicobacter pylori and parkinsonism: cholesterol glucosides as the common denomenator. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66:1222-6 pubmed
  50. Pontier D, Miao Z, Lam E. Trans-dominant suppression of plant TGA factors reveals their negative and positive roles in plant defense responses. Plant J. 2001;27:529-38 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TGA transcription factors serve both negative and positive regulatory roles in mediating plant defense responses. ..
  51. Schlein Y, Jacobson R, Müller G. Sand fly feeding on noxious plants: a potential method for the control of leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:300-3 pubmed
    ..glabra affords local protection against sand fly bites and decreases the risk of leishmaniasis. We suggest that this and other ornamental plants that are harmful to sand flies can be used as a tool for this purpose. ..
  52. Ibrahim S, Lillehaug J, Dolphine O, Johnson N, Warnakulasuriya K, Vasstrand E. Mutations of the cell cycle arrest gene p21WAF1, but not the metastasis-inducing gene S100A4, are frequent in oral squamous cell carcinomas from Sudanese toombak dippers and non-snuff-dippers from the Sudan, Scandinavia, USA and UK. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:1445-51 pubmed
  53. Wilson J, Shaw C. Commentary on: Return of the cycad hypothesis--does the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) of Guam have new implications for global health?. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2006;32:341-3 pubmed
  54. Tabata K, Oba K, Suzuki K, Esaka M. Generation and properties of ascorbic acid-deficient transgenic tobacco cells expressing antisense RNA for L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase. Plant J. 2001;27:139-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, we observed that decline in the AsA levels has an adverse effect on the division, growth and structure of a plant cell...
  55. Dunnigan D, Adelman R, Beyda D. A young child with altered mental status. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2002;41:43-5 pubmed
  56. Ribeiro de Assis J, Suffredini I, Moreno P, Young M, Varella A, Younes R, et al. Analysis of the toxic potential of Palicourea corymbifera (Müll. Arg.) Standl. in laboratory animals. Res Vet Sci. 2006;80:209-17 pubmed
    ..P. corymbifera was shown to be significantly toxic to laboratory animals and investigation of the possible toxic substance shall be done. ..
  57. Rooban T, Mishra G, Elizabeth J, Ranganathan K, Saraswathi T. Effect of habitual arecanut chewing on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH. Indian J Med Sci. 2006;60:95-105 pubmed
    ..For chewers with betel quid with tobacco, increase in duration was significantly associated with decrease in salivary pH. SFR and pH are altered in AN chewers, rendering the oral mucosa vulnerable to the toxic effects of AN. ..
  58. Andreola B, Piovan A, Da Dalt L, Filippini R, Cappelletti E. Unilateral mydriasis due to Angel's trumpet. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008;46:329-31 pubmed publisher
    ..An accurate and detailed history will avoid unnecessary and expensive diagnostic tests. It is important for parents and garden suppliers have information about the potential adverse effects after handling Angel's trumpet plants. ..
  59. Oliveira Filho E, Geraldino B, Coelho D, De Carvalho R, Paumgartten F. Comparative toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. Chemosphere. 2010;81:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The marked embryotoxicity of E. milii possibly contributes to its effectiveness as a molluscicide...
  60. Dawra R, Sharma O, Somvanshi R. A preliminary study on the carcinogenicity of the common fern Onychium contiguum. Vet Res Commun. 2001;25:413-20 pubmed
    ..Certain species of the genus Onychium are used in folk medicine. Long-term exposure of experimental animals to O. contiguum appeared to cause tumours of the ileum. urinary bladder and mammary glands. ..
  61. El Bahri L, Makhlouf M. Thapsia garganica L: a poisonous plant of North Africa. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001;43:216-8 pubmed
    ..Poisoning of livestock by ingestion of Thapsia garganica L, common plant in many countries of North Africa, is described. ..
  62. Xing F, Gou J, Wei C. [Judging method of individual age and age structure of Stellera chamaejasme population in degraded steppe]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004;15:2104-8 pubmed
    ..83%, 2.84% and 14.02%, respectively. The age structure of the population tended to aging with the increase of grazing intensity. ..
  63. Bartarya R, Srivastava A, Tonk S, Bhatnagar V, Srivastava S, Kumari K. Larvicidal activity of Artemisia annua L. callus culture against Anopheles stephensi larvae. J Environ Biol. 2009;30:395-8 pubmed
    ..Larvicidal activity, in terms of lethal concentration (LC50) of the callus extract in chloroform was calculated to be 18.45 +/- 0.75 ppm after72 hr against third instar larvae of A. stephensi. ..
  64. Zhou X, Xie Y, Zhang Z. Molecular characterization of a distinct begomovirus infecting tobacco in Yunnan, China. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1599-606 pubmed
    ..The molecular data show that the Yunnan isolate of Tobacco leaf curl virus is a distinct Begomovirus species, for which the name Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TLCYnV) is proposed. ..
  65. Smith P, Aldridge B, Kittleson M. Oleander toxicosis in a donkey. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:111-4 pubmed
  66. Santos H, Costa S, Pessoa O, Moraes M, Pessoa C, Fortier S, et al. Cytotoxic naphthoquinones from roots of Lippia microphylla. Z Naturforsch C. 2003;58:517-20 pubmed
    ..Unpublished 13C NMR data of 2a and 2b are reported. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against five types of tumor cells. ..
  67. Bogan R, Zimmermann T, Zilker T, Eyer F, Thiermann H. Plasma level of atropine after accidental ingestion of Atropa belladonna. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:602-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of berries ingested is often unclear and in the case of Atropa belladonna may affect clinical outcome. Plasma levels of atropine may thus be useful in confirming the cause of intoxication...
  68. Hajdukiewicz P, Gilbertson L, Staub J. Multiple pathways for Cre/lox-mediated recombination in plastids. Plant J. 2001;27:161-70 pubmed
    ..Both recombination pathways result in plastid genome deletions. However, the resultant plastid mutations are silent, and their study provides the first insights into tRNA accumulation and trans-splicing events in higher plant plastids. ..
  69. Werner T, Motyka V, Strnad M, Schmülling T. Regulation of plant growth by cytokinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10487-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cytokinins are an important regulatory factor of plant meristem activity and morphogenesis, with opposing roles in shoots and roots. ..
  70. Wu K, Malik K, Tian L, Hu M, Martin T, Foster E, et al. Enhancers and core promoter elements are essential for the activity of a cryptic gene activation sequence from tobacco, tCUP. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:763-70 pubmed
    ..This data provides direct evidence that the expression pattern of plant genes can be influenced by cryptic gene regulatory elements when they are brought into juxtaposition with genes through DNA rearrangements. ..
  71. Donbak L, Celik M, Demirhan I, Nagas S. Genotoxic damage in Maras powder consumers from Kahramanmaras province of Turkey. Genetika. 2007;43:633-8 pubmed
    ..Our finding of a significant elevation of CA and MN frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes from smokeless tobacco consumers demonstrated a potential cytogenetic hazard associated with Maras powder exposure. ..
  72. Beguiristain T, Grandbastien M, Puigdomenech P, Casacuberta J. Three Tnt1 subfamilies show different stress-associated patterns of expression in tobacco. Consequences for retrotransposon control and evolution in plants. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:212-21 pubmed
  73. Fuentes A, Ramos P, Ayra C, Rodriguez M, Ramirez N, Pujol M. Development of a highly efficient system for assessing recombinant gene expression in plant cell suspensions via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2004;39:355-61 pubmed
    ..A monoclonal antibody against anti-(hepatitis B virus surface antigen) was produced in such quantities as to allow testing of biological activity and preliminary characterization. ..
  74. Feng S, Plunkett S, Lam K, Kapur S, Muhammad R, Jin Y, et al. A new method for estimating the retention of selected smoke constituents in the respiratory tract of smokers during cigarette smoking. Inhal Toxicol. 2007;19:169-79 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the method described is suitable for studying the retention of selected mainstream smoke constituents in the respiratory tract of smokers. ..
  75. Nobre V, Dantas A, Riet Correa F, Barbosa Filho J, Tabosa I, Vasconcelos J. Acute intoxication by Crotalaria retusa in sheep. Toxicon. 2005;45:347-52 pubmed
    ..4% of monocrotaline. It is concluded that hungry sheep can be affected spontaneously by acute monocrotaline intoxication when they ingest large amounts of C. retusa seeds in a short period of time...
  76. Jaramillo Juárez F, Rodríguez Vázquez M, Muñoz Martínez J, Quezada Tristán T, Posadas del rio F, Llamas Viramontes J, et al. The ATP levels in kidneys and blood are mainly decreased by acute ingestion of tullidora (Karwinskia humboldtiana). Toxicon. 2005;46:99-103 pubmed
    ..05). In contrast, Na+-K+-ATPase activity in tullidora-treated animals was not different from control rats. These findings might partially explain the acute effects and mortality observed in the Kh treated rats...
  77. Haupt H. [Poisonous and less poisonous plants. 63. Barberry (Berberidaceae) (Berberis vulgaris)]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2003;22:538-9 pubmed
  78. Krenová M, Pelclova D, Navratil T. Survey of Amanita phalloides poisoning: clinical findings and follow-up evaluation. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:955-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery was favorable in all subjects who survived the acute phase of poisoning, except in one patient with a solitary kidney. ..
  79. Ohta M, Matsui K, Hiratsu K, Shinshi H, Ohme Takagi M. Repression domains of class II ERF transcriptional repressors share an essential motif for active repression. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1959-68 pubmed
    ..These zinc finger proteins functioned as repressors, and their repression domains were identified as regions that contained an EAR motif. ..
  80. Hämmig R. [Psychotropic mushrooms and plants]. Ther Umsch. 2003;60:317-21 pubmed
    ..Normally psychotropic mushrooms and plants play no role in medical practice. However, the use of datura by youths can lead to emergency situations, so this problem will be dealt in more details. ..
  81. Watson J, Jones R, Siston A, Diaz P, Gerber S, Crowe J, et al. Outbreak of food-borne illness associated with plant material containing raphides. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43:17-21 pubmed
    ..This outbreak was associated with consumption of raphides resembling those from common botanicals. Clinicians and public health practitioners should be aware of raphide-containing plants as a potential cause of food-borne illness. ..
  82. Woods L, George L, Anderson M, Woods D, Filigenzi M, Puschner B. Evaluation of the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis in calves. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:581-5 pubmed
    ..Based on the results of this study, cattle do not appear to be as susceptible to toxicosis from A. aestivalis as other species, such as horses and pigs...
  83. Schep L, Slaughter R, Beasley D. Nicotinic plant poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:771-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described...
  84. Efroymson D, Ahmed S, Townsend J, Alam S, Dey A, Saha R, et al. Hungry for tobacco: an analysis of the economic impact of tobacco consumption on the poor in Bangladesh. Tob Control. 2001;10:212-7 pubmed
    ..Addressing the issue of tobacco and poverty together could make tobacco control a higher priority for poor countries. ..
  85. Talaty N, Takats Z, Cooks R. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization. Analyst. 2005;130:1624-33 pubmed
    ..maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively...
  86. Valfre F. The control of risk in animal husbandry primary production. Vet Res Commun. 2008;32 Suppl 1:S3-9 pubmed publisher
  87. Luciano P, Bertea C, Temporale G, Maffei M. DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2007;1:262-6 pubmed publisher
  88. Swiatek M, Kuras R, Sokolenko A, Higgs D, Olive J, Cinque G, et al. The chloroplast gene ycf9 encodes a photosystem II (PSII) core subunit, PsbZ, that participates in PSII supramolecular architecture. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1347-67 pubmed
    ..The role of PsbZ in excitation energy dissipation within PSII is discussed in light of its proximity to CP43, in agreement with the most recent structural data on PSII. ..
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    ..Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time. ..
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    ..and Centaurea ornata Willd. are locally marketed herbal remedies, even though in Spain it is forbidden to sell toxic plants like Atractylis gummifera...
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    ..The toxic principles contained by the toxic plants are believed to be several sesquiterpene lactones, such as geigerin, vermeeric acid and vermeerin, which cause ..
  92. Koyama T, Kitajima S, Sato F. Expression of PR-5d and ERF genes in cultured tobacco cells and their NaCl stress-response. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:1270-3 pubmed
    ..The effect of post-transcriptional regulation of ERF activity, especially ERF3, on the expression of basic PR genes including PR-5d is discussed...