Summary: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.

Top Publications

  1. Tereshina V, Memorskaia A, Feofilova E. [Zygote formation in Blakeslea trispora: morphological peculiarities and relationship with carotenoid synthesis]. Mikrobiologiia. 2003;72:503-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, we established a manifest dependence of zygote formation on beta-carotene synthesis. ..
  2. Voigt K, Wöstemeyer J. Phylogeny and origin of 82 zygomycetes from all 54 genera of the Mucorales and Mortierellales based on combined analysis of actin and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha genes. Gene. 2001;270:113-20 pubmed
    ..actin (act) from 82 zygomycetes representing all 54 currently recognized genera from the two zygomycetous orders Mucorales and Mortierellales...
  3. De Carolis E, Posteraro B, Lass Florl C, Vella A, Florio A, Torelli R, et al. Species identification of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucorales with direct surface analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..By use of culture collection strains representing 55 species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucorales, a reference database was established for MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification according to the ..
  4. Corti G, Mondanelli N, Losco M, Bartolini L, Fontanelli A, Paradisi F. Post-traumatic infection of the lower limb caused by rare Enterobacteriaceae and Mucorales in a young healthy male. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:e57-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Prompt diagnosis and management are mandatory in order to minimize morbidity and even mortality, and reduce the social and economic cost. ..
  5. Kuzina V, Ramírez Medina H, Visser H, van Ooyen A, Cerdá Olmedo E, Van den Berg J. Genes involved in carotene synthesis and mating in Blakeslea trispora. Curr Genet. 2008;54:143-52 pubmed publisher
    Mating of Blakeslea trispora and other molds of the order Mucorales requires the interaction of mycelia of opposite sex, (+) and (-), leading to the development of specialized structures and to an enhanced accumulation of beta-carotene...
  6. Ben Ami R, Lewis R, Tarrand J, Leventakos K, Kontoyiannis D. Antifungal activity of colistin against mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection...
  7. Antachopoulos C, Meletiadis J, Roilides E, Sein T, Walsh T. Rapid susceptibility testing of medically important zygomycetes by XTT assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:553-60 pubmed
    ..These results support the use of the XTT method for rapid MIC determination for Zygomycetes. ..
  8. Schmidt A, Heinekamp T, Matuschek M, Liebmann B, Bollschweiler C, Brakhage A. Analysis of mating-dependent transcription of Blakeslea trispora carotenoid biosynthesis genes carB and carRA by quantitative real-time PCR. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;67:549-55 pubmed
    ..Transcription levels of both carB and carRA were strongly induced only under mating conditions. These data suggest that beta-carotene production in B. trispora is due to increased transcription of the biosynthesis genes carB and carRA. ..
  9. Liang K, Tleyjeh I, Wilson W, Roberts G, Temesgen Z. Rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:892-8 pubmed
    ..Most such infections occurred in immunocompetent patients, often after facial trauma. Survival in ROCM caused by A. elegans is favorable in reported cases, with prompt surgical debridement and antifungal therapy. ..

More Information


  1. Schwarz P, Bretagne S, Gantier J, Garcia Hermoso D, Lortholary O, Dromer F, et al. Molecular identification of zygomycetes from culture and experimentally infected tissues. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:340-9 pubmed
  2. Liu M, Spellberg B, Phan Q, Fu Y, Fu Y, Lee A, et al. The endothelial cell receptor GRP78 is required for mucormycosis pathogenesis in diabetic mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1914-24 pubmed publisher
    ..hallmark of mucormycosis infections, we sought to define the endothelial cell receptor(s) for fungi of the order Mucorales (the fungi that cause mucormycosis)...
  3. Chakrabarti A, Shivaprakash M, Curfs Breuker I, Baghela A, Klaassen C, Meis J. Apophysomyces elegans: epidemiology, amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, and in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Posaconazole is the most active drug against the isolates, followed by itraconazole. The MICs of amphotericin B against A. elegans were higher than those of the other drugs...
  4. Chakrabarti A, Ghosh A, Prasad G, David J, Gupta S, Das A, et al. Apophysomyces elegans: an emerging zygomycete in India. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:783-8 pubmed
    ..The study highlights the epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and diagnosis of emerging A. elegans infections. ..
  5. Alastruey Izquierdo A, Hoffmann K, de Hoog G, Rodriguez Tudela J, Voigt K, Bibashi E, et al. Species recognition and clinical relevance of the zygomycetous genus Lichtheimia (syn. Absidia pro parte, Mycocladus). J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2154-70 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. and a key for the identification of all accepted species identified in the present study on the basis of their morphological traits and growth at different temperatures. ..
  6. Schachtschabel D, David A, Menzel K, Schimek C, Wöstemeyer J, Boland W. Cooperative biosynthesis of Trisporoids by the (+) and (-) mating types of the zygomycete Blakeslea trispora. Chembiochem. 2008;9:3004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The ester accumulated in the culture broth of the (+) strain and was only hydrolyzed by mycelia of the (-) strain; this corresponds to a synchronization of the biosynthetic activities of both mating types. ..
  7. Mantzouridou F, Naziri E, Tsimidou M. Industrial glycerol as a supplementary carbon source in the production of beta-carotene by Blakeslea trispora. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:2668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The maximum beta-carotene contents were 10 and 8 mg/g of dry biomass, respectively, and its relative content in the carotenoid fraction was 86-88%. ..
  8. Schimek C, Kleppe K, Saleem A, Voigt K, Burmester A, Wöstemeyer J. Sexual reactions in Mortierellales are mediated by the trisporic acid system. Mycol Res. 2003;107:736-47 pubmed
    ..similar to those of trisporoids, a group of compounds involved in sexual regulation in Mucorales. A compound with a 4-dihydromethyltrisporate-like absorbance spectrum was detected...
  9. Shirazi F, Kontoyiannis D. The calcineurin pathway inhibitor tacrolimus enhances the in vitro activity of azoles against Mucorales via apoptosis. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:1225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..antifungal drug resistance and the virulence of several major human-pathogenic fungi, including the recalcitrant Mucorales. We hypothesized that the fungistatic triazoles posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) become fungicidal in ..
  10. Baradkar V, Mathur M, Taklikar S, Rathi M, Kumar S. Fatal rhino-orbito-cerebral infection caused by Saksenaea vasiformis in an immunocompetent individual: first case report from India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:385-7 pubmed
    ..We believe this case to be the first case of rhino-orbito-cerebral infection due to Saksenaea vasiformis and that of second case in an immunocompetent patient in the world...
  11. Alvarez E, Stchigel A, Cano J, Sutton D, Fothergill A, Chander J, et al. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of the emerging mucoralean fungus Apophysomyces: proposal of three new species. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2010;27:80-9 pubmed publisher
    Apophysomyces is a monotypic genus belonging to the order Mucorales. The species Apophysomyces elegans has been reported to cause severe infections in immunocompromised and immunocompetent people. In a previous study of Alvarez et al...
  12. Suryanarayan Rao S, Panda N, Pragache G, Chakrabarti A, Saravanan K. Sinoorbital mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces elegans in immunocompetent individuals--an increasing trend. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006;27:366-9 pubmed
    ..Apophysomyces elegans is an unusual pathogen causing mucormycosis. It is unusual to affect the healthy individuals. We report 5 such cases of infection caused by A elegans in immunocompetent individuals...
  13. Vega W, Orellana M, Zaror L, Gene J, Guarro J. Saksenaea vasiformis infections: case report and literature review. Mycopathologia. 2006;162:289-94 pubmed
    ..This is the second report of this infection from South America and the third involving a burn patient. The previously reported 27 cases are reviewed...
  14. Kindo A, Shams N, Kumar K, Kannan S, Vidya S, Kumar A, et al. Fatal cellulitis caused by Apophysomyces elegans. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25:285-7 pubmed
    ..Patient developed angioinvasion, severe cellulitis and finally succumbed to the infection three weeks after admission. ..
  15. Zhao Z, Li L, Wan Z, Chen W, Liu H, Li R. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1501-7 pubmed publisher
    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different...
  16. Alexander B, Schell W, Siston A, Rao C, Bower W, Balajee S, et al. Fatal Apophysomyces elegans infection transmitted by deceased donor renal allografts. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:2161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention to aseptic technique during organ recovery and processing is re-emphasized. ..
  17. Kasapoglu F, Coskun H, Ozmen O, Akalin H, Ener B. Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis: evaluation of 26 patients treated with endonasal or open surgical procedures. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our purpose was to present the diagnostic and therapeutic management and outcome of these patients...
  18. Jain D, Kumar Y, Vasishta R, Rajesh L, Pattari S, Chakrabarti A. Zygomycotic necrotizing fasciitis in immunocompetent patients: a series of 18 cases. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1221-6 pubmed
    ..Zygomycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis not only in immunocompromised patients but also in the absence of any underlying disorders. ..
  19. Roukas T. The role of oxidative stress on carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in submerged fermentation. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2016;36:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to further reduce the cost of carotene production, new biotechnological methods with higher productivity still need to be explored. ..
  20. Toumi A, Larbi Ammari F, Loussaief C, Hadhri R, Ben Brahim H, Harrathi K, et al. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis: five cases. Med Mal Infect. 2012;42:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The histologic sections revealed the presence of non-septate hyphae of the order Mucorales. The five patients, three men and two women, between 27 and 61 years of age, were all diabetic...
  21. Böhme K, Richter C, Pätz R. New insights into mechanisms of growth and beta-carotene production in Blakeslea trispora. Biotechnol J. 2006;1:1080-4 pubmed
    Blakeslea trispora (Mucorales) has economic importance because of its ability to produce large amounts of beta-carotene...
  22. Nielsen C, Sutton D, Matise I, Kirchhof N, Libal M. Isolation of Cokeromyces recurvatus, initially misidentified as Coccidioides immitis, from peritoneal fluid in a cat with jejunal perforation. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:372-8 pubmed
  23. Bialek R, Zelck U. [PCR-based diagnosis of mucormycosis in tissue samples]. Pathologe. 2013;34:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR assays targeting fungal ribosomal genes to identify Mucorales at least at genus level increase sensitivity, allow a rapid identification as well as detection of double mold ..
  24. Halawa A, Yacoub G, Al Hassan M, Byrd R, Roy T. Dacryocystitis: an unusual form of Mucorales infection. J Ky Med Assoc. 2008;106:520-4 pubmed
    ..Our patient is unique in that she had no evidence of concurrent sinus involvement. Surgical debridement and antifungal therapy were combined to ensure a successful outcome. ..
  25. Shi Y, Xin X, Yuan Q. Improved lycopene production by Blakeslea trispora with isopentenyl compounds and metabolic precursors. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:849-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The control gave 317 mg/l. Adding isopentenyl alcohol at 40 mg/l, mevalonic acid at 17.5 mg/l or dimethyl allyl alcohol at 150 mg, each after 36 h growth, gave lycopene yields 62, 45 and 47%, respectively, higher than the control. ..
  26. Kwaśna H, Ward E, Bateman G. Phylogenetic relationships among Zygomycetes from soil based on ITS1/2 rDNA sequences. Mycol Res. 2006;110:501-10 pubmed
    ..The use of several restriction enzymes allowed discrimination between genera and species of Mortierellales and Mucorales. ITS1/2 sequence analysis clearly indicated a deep, ancient and distinct dichotomy of Mortierellales and ..
  27. Kousar N, Charya M. Decolourisation of textile and dye amended soils by fungi. Indian J Environ Health. 2002;44:65-70 pubmed
    ..C. lunata and F. oxysporum though occurred abundantly were not so successful in the process of colour removal or in enzyme secretions. ..
  28. Quiles Rosillo M, Ruiz Vázquez R, Torres Martinez S, Garre V. Cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of the Blakeslea trispora gene encoding orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;222:229-36 pubmed
    ..This functional complementation demonstrates that heterologous expression in M. circinelloides might be used to investigate the function of genes of B. trispora. ..
  29. Kamisaka Y, Mishra S, Nakahara T. Purification and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from the lipid body fraction of an oleaginous fungus. J Biochem. 1997;121:1107-14 pubmed
    ..These results provide a basis for further studies on the molecular mechanism of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and lipid body formation, in which DGAT plays an important role. ..
  30. Alvarado Lezama J, Espinosa González O, García Cano E, Sánchez Córdova G. [Emphysematous gastritis secondary to gastric mucormycosis]. Cir Cir. 2015;83:56-60 pubmed publisher
    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the mucorales order, which affects mostly immunocompromised patients. The association with emphysematous gastritis is rare and often fatal produced by gas -forming bacteria...
  31. Allizond V, Tullio V, Cuffini A, Roana J, Scalas D, Marra E, et al. Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health: Fungal Occurrence in the Hair and Skin of Symptomatic Pets in Turin, Italy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;897:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the other fungi, for all examined pets, dematiaceous fungi were the most isolated, followed by Mucorales, penicilli, yeasts and yeast-like fungi, and aspergilli...
  32. Pongas G, Lewis R, Samonis G, Kontoyiannis D. Voriconazole-associated zygomycosis: a significant consequence of evolving antifungal prophylaxis and immunosuppression practices?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 5:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is not known if this association reflects a true epidemiological link or represents a marker of changing immunosuppression occurring in parallel with the evolution of transplant practices and immunosuppression strategies. ..
  33. el Awamry Z, el Rahmany T. Partial purification and properties of Cunninghamella elegans L-alanine dehydrogenase. Zentralbl Mikrobiol. 1989;144:231-40 pubmed
    ..The 2 fractions were activated with Co2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions, while Zn2+ inhibited both fractions. Stability of the enzyme under different conditions was investigated. ..
  34. Winkelmann G. A search for glomuferrin: a potential siderophore of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the genus Glomus. Biometals. 2017;30:559-564 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the isolated siderophore (glomuferrin) is a member of the rhizoferrin family previously isolated from fungi of the Mucorales (Zygomycetes).
  35. Konova I, Galanina L, Kochkina G, Pan kina O. [Fatty acids in the species of several zygomycete taxa]. Mikrobiologiia. 2002;71:639-47 pubmed
    ..which was earlier singled out into the order Kickxellales [12], was shown to differ from zygomycetes of the order Mucorales in having a high content of cis-9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic) acid, reaching 37.0% of the fatty acid total.
  36. Nagy G, Szebenyi C, Csernetics A, Vaz A, Tóth E, Vagvolgyi C, et al. Development of a plasmid free CRISPR-Cas9 system for the genetic modification of Mucor circinelloides. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16800 pubmed publisher
    Mucor circinelloides and other members of Mucorales are filamentous fungi, widely used as model organisms in basic and applied studies...
  37. Arndt S, Aschendorff A, Echternach M, Daemmrich T, Maier W. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and aspergillosis: differential diagnosis and treatment. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Radical procedures like orbital exenteration must be considered in all cases. The current state of diagnostics, therapy and prognosis is discussed based on these case reports and the recent literature. ..
  38. de Souza J, Pires Zottarelli C, Dos Santos J, Costa J, Harakava R. Isomucor (Mucoromycotina): a new genus from a Cerrado reserve in state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mycologia. 2012;104:232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To our surprise this fungus possesses two EF-1? genes 1.4 and 1.5 kb long. Evidence from the analyzed datasets supports the delimitation of a new genus and the inclusion of Mucor fuscus based on 28S and ITS rDNA data. ..
  39. Azar M, Assi R, Patel N, Malinis M. Fungal Mycotic Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery Associated with Sphenoid Sinusitis in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Mycopathologia. 2016;181:425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..patient who developed an ICA mycotic aneurysm, associated with a proven invasive fungal infection (presumptively Mucorales) of the sphenoid sinuses, as defined by EORTC/MSG criteria, and who survived after undergoing coil embolization ..
  40. Chakrabarti A, Chatterjee S, Das A, Panda N, Shivaprakash M, Kaur A, et al. Invasive zygomycosis in India: experience in a tertiary care hospital. Postgrad Med J. 2009;85:573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A elegans is an emerging agent in India. The need for surgical debridement in addition to medical treatment is emphasised. GCS is an independent marker of prognosis in cases of invasive zygomycosis. ..
  41. Shumilov E, Bacher U, Perske C, Mohr A, Eiffert H, Hasenkamp J, et al. In-situ validation of the endothelial cell receptor GRP78 in a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis -Letter to the Editor- (New-Data Letter). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    Mucormycosis is probably the most devastating and hard to diagnose invasive mold infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales.….
  42. Enoch D, Aliyu S, Sule O, Lewis S, Karas J. Posaconazole for the treatment of mucormycosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..PCZ) is an orally administered, extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent with activity against the Mucorales. This article describes the clinical and laboratory data supporting its use against this rare group of pathogens...
  43. Kubota N, Miyazawa K, Shoji N, Sumi M, Nakajima A, Kimura Y, et al. A massive intraventricular thrombosis by disseminated mucormycosis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome during deferoxamine therapy. Haematologica. 2003;88:EIM11 pubmed
  44. Hashiguchi K, Niki Y, Miyashita N, Kuroki M, Nakajima M, Kawane H, et al. [A case of pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Cunninghamella bertholletiae]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1997;71:264-8 pubmed
    ..Postmortem examination showed Cunninghamella infection in the cavity of the lung and massive pulmonary fibrosis. There was no fungal invasion outside the cavity. This is the third report of Cunninghamella human infection in Japan. ..
  45. Liu X, Liu R, Li H, Tang Y. Lycopene production from synthetic medium by Blakeslea trispora NRRL 2895 (+) and 2896 (-) in a stirred-tank fermenter. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2012;35:739-49 pubmed publisher
    ..5 g/L leucine and 0.1 g/L penicillin on day 4, the highest lycopene production of 270.3 mg/L was achieved in the mated fermentation of B. trispora in stirred-tank fermenter. ..
  46. Khan Z, Ahmad S, Mokaddas E, Chandy R, Cano J, Guarro J. Actinomucor elegans var. kuwaitiensis isolated from the wound of a diabetic patient. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2008;94:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, A. elegans var. kuwaitiensis was pathogenic to white mice causing 100% mortality within 5 days. ..
  47. Holland H, Carey M, Kumaresan S. Fungal biotransformation of organophosphines. Xenobiotica. 1993;23:519-24 pubmed
    ..4. Incubation of ethylmethylphenyl phosphine with M. isabellina gave the corresponding S(-) phosphine oxide in a 92% yield with an enantiomeric purity of 13%. ..
  48. Lin S, Lu P, Tsai K, Lin C, Lin W, Chen T, et al. A mucormycosis case in a cirrhotic patient successfully treated with posaconazole and review of published literature. Mycopathologia. 2012;174:499-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the safe and effective use of posaconazole for the treatment of mucormycosis in a cirrhotic patient. ..
  49. Symeonidis A. The role of iron and iron chelators in zygomycosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 5:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..There are few case reports in which the newer iron chelators have been used as antifungals, and their possible benefit must be verified in a prospective randomized trial. ..
  50. Nanou K, Roukas T. Oxidative stress response and morphological changes of Blakeslea trispora induced by butylated hydroxytoluene during carotene production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:2415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The oxidative stress in B. trispora resulted in a fivefold increase of carotene production. The highest concentration of carotenes (125.0 mg/g dry biomass) was obtained in culture grown in medium supplemented with 20 mM of BHT. ..
  51. Tang Q, Li Y, Yuan Q. Effects of an ergosterol synthesis inhibitor on gene transcription of terpenoid biosynthesis in Blakeslea trispora. Curr Microbiol. 2008;57:527-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, KCZ could be used as a new agent to improve not only beta-carotene but also ubiquinone production, whose regulatory mechanisms controlling terpenoid biosynthesis differ from the agents reported previously. ..
  52. Tyll T, Lyskova P, Hubka V, Muller M, Zelenka L, Curdova M, et al. Early Diagnosis of Cutaneous Mucormycosis Due to Lichtheimia corymbifera After a Traffic Accident. Mycopathologia. 2016;181:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolate was identified by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region gene (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA) as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Liposomal amphotericin B and surgery were successful in management of the disease. ..
  53. Blanchet D, Dannaoui E, Fior A, Huber F, Couppie P, Salhab N, et al. Saksenaea vasiformis infection, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:342-4 pubmed publisher