blastomyces

Summary

Summary: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.

Top Publications

  1. Brandhorst T, Klein B. Cell wall biogenesis of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Evidence for a novel mechanism of cell surface localization of a virulence-associated adhesin via extracellular release and reassociation with cell wall chitin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7925-34 pubmed
    Pathogenic yeast of Blastomyces dermatitidis express a surface protein adhesin, WI-1. Due to the crucial role of WI-1 in adherence and disease pathogenesis, we investigated how the protein localizes to the surface of B. dermatitidis...
  2. Klein B, Hogan L, Jones J. Immunologic recognition of a 25-amino acid repeat arrayed in tandem on a major antigen of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:330-7 pubmed
    A 120-kD glycoprotein antigen abundantly expressed on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts is a target of cellular and humoral immune responses in human infection...
  3. Hogan L, Klein B. Transforming DNA integrates at multiple sites in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. Gene. 1997;186:219-26 pubmed
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis is a primary fungal pathogen of man and other mammals, but like many other human fungal pathogens, relatively little is known about the factors that account for its virulence and pathogenicity...
  4. Reed K, Meece J, Archer J, Peterson A. Ecologic niche modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2034 pubmed publisher
    Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment...
  5. Meece J, Anderson J, Gruszka S, Sloss B, Sullivan B, Reed K. Variation in clinical phenotype of human infection among genetic groups of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:814-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, has 2 genetic groups and shows varied clinical presentation, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination...
  6. Wuthrich M, Fisette P, Filutowicz H, Klein B. Differential requirements of T cell subsets for CD40 costimulation in immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Immunol. 2006;176:5538-47 pubmed
    ..We explored the role of CD40/CD40L interactions in vaccine immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis by immunizing CD40(-/-) and CD40L(-/-) mice and analyzing their resistance to reinfection in a ..
  7. Nosanchuk J, van Duin D, Mandal P, Aisen P, Legendre A, Casadevall A. Blastomyces dermatitidis produces melanin in vitro and during infection. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;239:187-93 pubmed
    ..This study investigates whether the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis produces melanin...
  8. Rooney P, Sullivan T, Klein B. Selective expression of the virulence factor BAD1 upon morphogenesis to the pathogenic yeast form of Blastomyces dermatitidis: evidence for transcriptional regulation by a conserved mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:875-89 pubmed
    ..We analysed BAD1 (formerly WI-1), a virulence factor in the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, for expression in yeast and mycelial morphotypes...
  9. Klein B, Chaturvedi S, Hogan L, Jones J, Newman S. Altered expression of surface protein WI-1 in genetically related strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis that differ in virulence regulates recognition of yeasts by human macrophages. Infect Immun. 1994;62:3536-42 pubmed
    The molecular basis for pathogenicity and virulence of the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis remains unknown. WI-1 is a major cell wall protein of B...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Hogan L, Klein B, Levitz S. Virulence factors of medically important fungi. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996;9:469-88 pubmed
    ..This growing body of knowledge about fungal pathogens and their virulence factors will significantly aid efforts to treat the serious diseases they cause. ..
  2. Gauthier G, Sullivan T, Gallardo S, Brandhorst T, Vanden Wymelenberg A, Cuomo C, et al. SREB, a GATA transcription factor that directs disparate fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis including morphogenesis and siderophore biosynthesis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000846 pubmed publisher
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of human pathogenic fungi that exhibit thermal dimorphism...
  3. Mongkolrattanothai K, Peev M, Wheat L, Marcinak J. Urine antigen detection of blastomycosis in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:1076-8 pubmed
    ..For the first time, we report the effect of therapy on Blastomyces antigen clearance. In our experience, the urine antigen detection for B...
  4. Wuthrich M, Filutowicz H, Warner T, Klein B. Requisite elements in vaccine immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis: plasticity uncovers vaccine potential in immune-deficient hosts. J Immunol. 2002;169:6969-76 pubmed
    ..Vaccination with a genetically engineered, live, attenuated strain of Blastomyces dermatitidis carrying a targeted deletion at the BAD1 locus confers sterilizing immunity against experimental ..
  5. Wuthrich M, Lebert V, Galles K, Hu Li J, Ben Sasson S, Paul W, et al. Interleukin 1 enhances vaccine-induced antifungal T-helper 17 cells and resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis infection. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that interleukin 1 (IL-1) enhances the capacity of weak vaccines to induce protection against lethal Blastomyces dermatitidis infection in mice and is far more effective than lipopolysaccharide...
  6. Watts B, Argekar P, Saint S, Kauffman C. Clinical problem-solving. Building a diagnosis from the ground up--a 49-year-old man came to the clinic with a 1-week history of suprapubic pain and fever. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1456-62 pubmed
  7. Saccente M, Woods G. Clinical and laboratory update on blastomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:367-81 pubmed publisher
    ..and children because men are more likely to participate in activities that put them at risk for exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis...
  8. Bialek R, Gonzalez G, Begerow D, Zelck U. Coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis: advances in molecular diagnosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;45:355-60 pubmed
    Clinical isolates of Coccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis can be identified by chemiluminescent DNA probes and PCR assays targeting multicopy genes...
  9. Hogan L, Josvai S, Klein B. Genomic cloning, characterization, and functional analysis of the major surface adhesin WI-1 on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30725-32 pubmed
    WI-1 is a 120-kDa surface protein adhesin on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts that binds CD18 and CD14 receptors on human macrophages...
  10. Burgess J, Schwan W, Volk T. PCR-based detection of DNA from the human pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis from natural soil samples. Med Mycol. 2006;44:741-8 pubmed
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis is the dimorphic fungal agent of blastomycosis, a disease that primarily affects humans and dogs...
  11. Brandhorst T, Wuthrich M, Finkel Jimenez B, Klein B. A C-terminal EGF-like domain governs BAD1 localization to the yeast surface and fungal adherence to phagocytes, but is dispensable in immune modulation and pathogenicity of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:53-65 pubmed
    BAD1, an adhesin and immune modulator of Blastomyces dermatitidis, is an essential virulence factor that is released extracellularly before association with the yeast surface...
  12. Baumgardner D, Steber D, Glazier R, Paretsky D, Egan G, Baumgardner A, et al. Geographic information system analysis of blastomycosis in northern Wisconsin, USA: waterways and soil. Med Mycol. 2005;43:117-25 pubmed
    ..6 m maximum depth (more lake mixing) (P <0.05, humans and dogs) but mean depth, type and size of lakes did not differ from controls. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of these associations...
  13. Catherinot E, Rivaud E, Epardeau B, Cahen P, Condette Auliac S, Couderc L. A holiday in Canada. Lancet. 2002;360:1564 pubmed
  14. Proctor M, Klein B, Jones J, Davis J. Cluster of pulmonary blastomycosis in a rural community: evidence for multiple high-risk environmental foci following a sustained period of diminished precipitation. Mycopathologia. 2002;153:113-20 pubmed
    Much of our understanding of the epidemiologic features of infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis has come from cluster and outbreak investigations which have established the association of human disease with recreational pursuits and ..
  15. Audet R, Brandhorst T, Klein B. Purification in quantity of the secreted form of WI-1: a major adhesin on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts. Protein Expr Purif. 1997;11:219-26 pubmed
    WI-1, a 120-kDa adhesin on Blastomyces dermatitidis, binds the yeast to macrophages and is a major target antigen of immune recognition in acquired resistance to the fungus...
  16. Brandhorst T, Gauthier G, Stein R, Klein B. Calcium binding by the essential virulence factor BAD-1 of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42156-63 pubmed
    BAD-1 (Blastomyces adhesin 1), a 120-kDa protein of Blastomyces dermatitidis, functions as an adhesin, immune modulator, and essential virulence factor...
  17. Brandhorst T, Wuthrich M, Warner T, Klein B. Targeted gene disruption reveals an adhesin indispensable for pathogenicity of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1207-16 pubmed
    ..In Blastomyces dermatitidis, the agent of blastomycosis, a respiratory and disseminated mycosis of people and animals ..
  18. Brandhorst T, Wuthrich M, Finkel Jimenez B, Warner T, Klein B. Exploiting type 3 complement receptor for TNF-alpha suppression, immune evasion, and progressive pulmonary fungal infection. J Immunol. 2004;173:7444-53 pubmed
    ..BAD1, a virulence factor of Blastomyces dermatitidis, is displayed on yeast and released during infection...
  19. Bialek R, Ibricevic A, Fothergill A, Begerow D. Small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence shows Paracoccidioides brasiliensis closely related to Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3190-3 pubmed
    ..brasiliensis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Emmonsia parva are more closely related than Histoplasma capsulatum and B...
  20. Chapman S, Bradsher R, Campbell G, Pappas P, Kauffman C. Practice guidelines for the management of patients with blastomycosis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:679-83 pubmed
    ..Although there are no comparative trials, itraconazole appears more efficacious than either ketoconazole or fluconazole. Thus, itraconazole is the initial treatment of choice for nonlife-threatening non-CNS blastomycosis...
  21. Gilor C, Graves T, Barger A, O Dell Anderson K. Clinical aspects of natural infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis in cats: 8 cases (1991-2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;229:96-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome in cats with blastomycosis...
  22. Baumgardner D, Knavel E, Steber D, Swain G. Geographic distribution of human blastomycosis cases in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA: association with urban watersheds. Mycopathologia. 2006;161:275-82 pubmed
    ..In this urban area of Wisconsin, relatively low incidence rates may be explained, in part, by lower density of inland waterways and lack of sand soils, however, blastomycosis cases appear to be associated with open watersheds...
  23. Bialek R, Cirera A, Herrmann T, Aepinus C, Shearn Bochsler V, Legendre A. Nested PCR assays for detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis DNA in paraffin-embedded canine tissue. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:205-8 pubmed
    A Blastomyces dermatitidis nested PCR assay targeting the gene encoding the Wisconsin 1 (WI-1) adhesin was developed and compared with a nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) of members of the family ONYGENACEAE: We examined 73 ..
  24. Brown E, McTaggart L, Zhang S, Low D, Stevens D, Richardson S. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59237 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis.
  25. Rocco N, Carmen J, Klein B. Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells inhibit nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2385-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis can infect immunocompetent patients, producing a primary pulmonary infection that can later ..
  26. Tsigrelis C, Baddour L. Skeletal muscle abscess caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Am J Med Sci. 2009;337:293-4 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, report a case of a large gluteal muscle abscess caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis in a young, immunocompetent male...
  27. Wuthrich M, Filutowicz H, Allen H, Deepe G, Klein B. V beta1+ J beta1.1+/V alpha2+ J alpha49+ CD4+ T cells mediate resistance against infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Infect Immun. 2007;75:193-200 pubmed
    Immunization with a cell wall/membrane (CW/M) and yeast cytosol extract (YCE) crude antigen from Blastomyces dermatitidis confers T-cell-mediated resistance against lethal experimental infection in mice...
  28. Lekkala M, LeVine A, Linke M, Crouch E, Linders B, Brummer E, et al. Effect of lung surfactant collectins on bronchoalveolar macrophage interaction with Blastomyces dermatitidis: inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha production by surfactant protein D. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4549-56 pubmed
    ..effect of surfactant-associated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the interaction of BAM and Blastomyces dermatitidis. We investigated BALF enhancement or inhibition of TNF-alpha production by BAM stimulated by B...
  29. Baumgardner D, Paretsky D, Baeseman Z, Schreiber A. Effects of season and weather on blastomycosis in dogs: Northern Wisconsin, USA. Med Mycol. 2011;49:49-55 pubmed publisher
    Dogs and humans acquire Blastomyces dermatitidis infections from the same incompletely defined habitat. Studies of blastomycosis cases have not consistently demonstrated seasonality or significant antecedent climate effects...
  30. Sigler L. Ajellomyces crescens sp. nov., taxonomy of Emmonsia spp., and relatedness with Blastomyces dermatitidis (teleomorph Ajellomyces dermatitidis). J Med Vet Mycol. 1996;34:303-14 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic similarities between Emmonsia spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis and chance observation of Ajellomyces-type ascomatal hyphae led to the hypothesis that the ..
  31. Klein B, Aizenstein B, Hogan L. African strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis that do not express surface adhesin WI-1. Infect Immun. 1997;65:1505-9 pubmed
    African strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis differ from North American strains in their growth, morphology, and clinical disease phenotype. In addition, two serotypes, designated 1 and 2, have been described...
  32. Zhang M, Brandhorst T, Kozel T, Klein B. Role of glucan and surface protein BAD1 in complement activation by Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7559-64 pubmed
    Our previous studies showed that Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast activates the human complement system, leading to deposition of opsonic complement fragments onto the yeast surface...
  33. Gauthier G, Safdar N, Klein B, Andes D. Blastomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2007;9:310-7 pubmed
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, causes severe disease and substantial mortality in those immunocompromised by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or malignancy...
  34. Krajaejun T, Gauthier G, Rappleye C, Sullivan T, Klein B. Development and application of a green fluorescent protein sentinel system for identification of RNA interference in Blastomyces dermatitidis illuminates the role of septin in morphogenesis and sporulation. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1299-309 pubmed
    ..gene function would accelerate progress in our understanding of disease pathogenesis for the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, whose genome is being completed...
  35. Newman S, Chaturvedi S, Klein B. The WI-1 antigen of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts mediates binding to human macrophage CD11b/CD18 (CR3) and CD14. J Immunol. 1995;154:753-61 pubmed
    Three genetically related strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis (Bd) yeasts that differ in their expression of WI-1, an immunodominant cell wall Ag, were tested for their capacity to bind to human macrophages (M phi) in the absence of ..
  36. Klein B, Newman S. Role of cell-surface molecules of Blastomyces dermatitidis in host-pathogen interactions. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:246-51 pubmed
    The fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis produces an adhesin (WI-1) in yeast stages, which contains repetitive regions that bind host-cell receptors...
  37. Baumgardner D, Paretsky D. The in vitro isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from a woodpile in north central Wisconsin, USA. Med Mycol. 1999;37:163-8 pubmed
    Environmental isolations of the dimorphic fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, the aetiologic agent of blastomycosis are rare, and have usually involved animal inoculation techniques. We report the in vitro isolation of B...
  38. Steenbergen J, Nosanchuk J, Malliaris S, Casadevall A. Interaction of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Histoplasma capsulatum with Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3478-88 pubmed
    ..Yeast forms of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Histoplasma capsulatum were each ingested by amoebae and macrophages, ..
  39. Wuthrich M, Filutowicz H, Klein B. Mutation of the WI-1 gene yields an attenuated blastomyces dermatitidis strain that induces host resistance. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1381-9 pubmed
    ..Pulmonary infection with the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis often progresses and requires treatment to prevent fatality...
  40. Finkel Jimenez B, Wuthrich M, Brandhorst T, Klein B. The WI-1 adhesin blocks phagocyte TNF-alpha production, imparting pathogenicity on Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Immunol. 2001;166:2665-73 pubmed
    The WI-1 adhesin is indispensable for pathogenicity of Blastomyces dermatitidis and is thought to promote pulmonary infection by fixing yeast to lung tissue and cells...
  41. Zhanel G, Karlowsky J, Harding G, Balko T, Zelenitsky S, Friesen M, et al. In vitro activity of a new semisynthetic echinocandin, LY-303366, against systemic isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Aspergillus species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:863-5 pubmed
    ..fluconazole, and ketoconazole against 205 systemic isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Aspergillus species were determined. LY-303366 had MICs of < or = 0...
  42. Carlos W, Rose A, Wheat L, Norris S, Sarosi G, Knox K, et al. Blastomycosis in indiana: digging up more cases. Chest. 2010;138:1377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Antifungal therapy was highly effective. This urban outbreak of blastomycosis in Indianapolis should prompt clinicians to consider blastomycosis in this highly endemic area of histoplasmosis. ..
  43. Jahangir A, Heck R. Blastomycosis: Case report of an isolated lesion in the distal fibula. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2010;39:E22-4 pubmed
    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis) is a fungal infection that occurs primarily in the lungs, but 15% to 60% of patients with systemic blastomycosis have skeletal involvement...
  44. Rooney P, Klein B. Sequence elements necessary for transcriptional activation of BAD1 in the yeast phase of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:785-94 pubmed
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that converts from mycelia or conidia to a host-adapted yeast morphotype upon infection. Conversion to the yeast form is accompanied by the production of the virulence factor BAD1...
  45. Krajaejun T, Wuthrich M, Gauthier G, Warner T, Sullivan T, Klein B. Discordant influence of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast-phase-specific gene BYS1 on morphogenesis and virulence. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2522-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally induced dimorphic fungus capable of causing lung and systemic infections in immunocompetent animal hosts. With the publication of genomic sequences from three different strains of B...
  46. Bruce Light R, Kralt D, Embil J, Trepman E, Wiebe L, Limerick B, et al. Seasonal variations in the clinical presentation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary blastomycosis. Med Mycol. 2008;46:835-41 pubmed publisher
    Blastomycosis is a granulomatous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, for which seasonal variation has been proposed...
  47. Nemecek J, Wuthrich M, Klein B. Global control of dimorphism and virulence in fungi. Science. 2006;312:583-8 pubmed
    ..This global regulator shapes how dimorphic fungal pathogens adapt to the mammalian host, which has broad implications for treating and preventing systemic fungal disease...
  48. Li W, Sullivan T, Walton E, Averette A, Sakthikumar S, Cuomo C, et al. Identification of the mating-type (MAT) locus that controls sexual reproduction of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:109-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen that primarily causes blastomycosis in the midwestern and northern United States and Canada...
  49. Finkel Jimenez B, Wuthrich M, Klein B. BAD1, an essential virulence factor of Blastomyces dermatitidis, suppresses host TNF-alpha production through TGF-beta-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Immunol. 2002;168:5746-55 pubmed
    We investigated how BAD1, an adhesin and virulence factor of Blastomyces dermatitidis, suppresses phagocyte proinflammatory responses...
  50. Brandhorst T, Rooney P, Sullivan T, Klein B. Molecular genetic analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis reveals new insights about pathogenic mechanisms. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;292:363-71 pubmed
    ..Advances in the molecular tools for genetic manipulation of Blastomyces dermatitidis have enhanced our ability to study this poorly understood dimorphic fungal pathogen...
  51. Bradsher R, Chapman S, Pappas P. Blastomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003;17:21-40, vii pubmed
    Blastomycosis is an endemic mycoses in the central United States caused by a dimorphic fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, that exists in nature in mycelial phase and converts to yeast phase at body temperature...
  52. Durkin M, Witt J, Lemonte A, Wheat B, Connolly P. Antigen assay with the potential to aid in diagnosis of blastomycosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4873-5 pubmed
    We report results of an immunoassay for Blastomyces dermatitidis antigenuria. Sensitivity was 92.9%, and specificity was 79.3%. Cross-reactions occurred in 96...
  53. Gray N, Baddour L. Cutaneous inoculation blastomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:E44-9 pubmed
    ..We also review cases of cutaneous inoculation blastomycosis described elsewhere, to improve characterization of the syndrome...
  54. Meece J, Anderson J, Klein B, Sullivan T, Foley S, Baumgardner D, et al. Genetic diversity in Blastomyces dermatitidis: implications for PCR detection in clinical and environmental samples. Med Mycol. 2010;48:285-90 pubmed publisher
    Blastomycosis is a serious and potentially fatal infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis...
  55. Wuthrich M, Filutowicz H, Warner T, Deepe G, Klein B. Vaccine immunity to pathogenic fungi overcomes the requirement for CD4 help in exogenous antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells: implications for vaccine development in immune-deficient hosts. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1405-16 pubmed
    ..dispensable for vaccine-induced resistance against experimental fungal pulmonary infections with two agents, Blastomyces dermatitidis an extracellular pathogen, and Histoplasma capsulatum a facultative intracellular pathogen...
  56. Wuthrich M, Warner T, Klein B. CD28 is required for optimal induction, but not maintenance, of vaccine-induced immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7436-41 pubmed
    ..the generation and maintenance of T-cell-mediated, type 1 cytokine-dependent mechanisms of vaccine immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis infection...
  57. Wuthrich M, Finkel Jimenez B, Brandhorst T, Filutowicz H, Warner T, Klein B. Analysis of non-adhesive pathogenic mechanisms of BAD1 on Blastomyces dermatitidis. Med Mycol. 2006;44:41-9 pubmed
    The adhesin BAD1 is required for virulence of Blastomyces dermatitidis in a pulmonary model of infection. Herein, we explored mechanisms by which BAD1 enhances pathogenicity of the fungus...
  58. Pfister J, Archer J, Hersil S, Boers T, Reed K, Meece J, et al. Non-rural point source blastomycosis outbreak near a yard waste collection site. Clin Med Res. 2011;9:57-65 pubmed publisher
    Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal infection caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis...
  59. Rappleye C, Goldman W. Defining virulence genes in the dimorphic fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2006;60:281-303 pubmed
    ..Thus, the stage is set and the tools are in place for the next phase of medical mycology research: defining the virulence-associated factors underlying the success of dimorphic fungal pathogens...
  60. Meece J, Anderson J, Fisher M, Henk D, Sloss B, Reed K. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, based on 27 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5123-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis...
  61. Klein B, Jones J. Purification and characterization of the major antigen WI-1 from Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts and immunological comparison with A antigen. Infect Immun. 1994;62:3890-900 pubmed
    The lack of well-defined antigens from Blastomyces dermatitidis has hampered the ability to reliably diagnose human infection and study the immunobiology of blastomycosis. We recently discovered a novel surface protein on B...
  62. Morris S, Brophy J, Richardson S, Summerbell R, Parkin P, Jamieson F, et al. Blastomycosis in Ontario, 1994-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:274-9 pubmed
    We describe a case of blastomycosis in an 8-year-old boy with Blastomyces-associated osteomyelitis and possible pulmonary involvement...
  63. Wuthrich M, Chang W, Klein B. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the WI-1 adhesin of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5443-9 pubmed
    People infected with Blastomyces dermatitidis develop strong immunity to the yeast surface adhesin WI-1, including antibody responses to the adhesive domain, a 25-amino-acid repeat, and cellular responses to the N terminus...
  64. Sestero C, Scalarone G. Detection of IgG and IgM in sera from canines with blastomycosis using eight blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens. Mycopathologia. 2006;162:33-7 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of eight Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens (T-58: dog, Tennessee; T-27: polar bear, Tennessee; ERC-2: dog, Wisconsin; B5894: human, Minnesota; SOIL: soil, Canada; ..
  65. McCullough M, DiSalvo A, Clemons K, Park P, Stevens D. Molecular epidemiology of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:328-35 pubmed
    The inhalation of conidia of Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus found in soil, causes disease in humans and animals...
  66. Baumgardner D, Laundre B. Studies on the molecular ecology of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Mycopathologia. 2001;152:51-8 pubmed
    The microecology of Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dimorphic etiologic agent of the potentially fatal systemic fungal infection, blastomycosis, is not well defined...