lichens

Summary

Summary: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.

Top Publications

  1. Szczepaniak K, Biziuk M. Aspects of the biomonitoring studies using mosses and lichens as indicators of metal pollution. Environ Res. 2003;93:221-30 pubmed
    It has been shown that mosses and lichens, in spite of all disadvantages, are good tools for air pollution monitoring, but best results could be achieved while using both of them together, because of differences in their metal uptake and ..
  2. Pérez Ortega S, Fernández Mendoza F, Raggio J, Vivas M, Ascaso C, Sancho L, et al. Extreme phenotypic variation in Cetraria aculeata (lichenized Ascomycota): adaptation or incidental modification?. Ann Bot. 2012;109:1133-48 pubmed publisher
    Phenotypic variability is a successful strategy in lichens for colonizing different habitats. Vagrancy has been reported as a specific adaptation for lichens living in steppe habitats around the world...
  3. Molnar K, Farkas E. Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review. Z Naturforsch C. 2010;65:157-73 pubmed
    b>Lichens are symbiotic organisms of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. Lichen-forming fungi synthesize a great variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are unique...
  4. Ranković B, Kosanić M, Stanojkovic T. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:97 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis.
  5. Leavitt S, Esslinger T, Divakar P, Lumbsch H. Miocene and Pliocene dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and Pleistocene population expansions. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:176 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand the temporal placement and sequence of diversification events in lichens, we estimated divergence times in a common lichen-forming fungal genus, Melanohalea, in the Northern Hemisphere...
  6. Marini L, Nascimbene J, Nimis P. Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont-dependent response to climate and forest structure. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:4381-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner...
  7. Fernández Mendoza F, Domaschke S, Garcia M, Jordan P, Martin M, Printzen C. Population structure of mycobionts and photobionts of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:1208-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are symbioses between fungi (mycobionts) and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Many lichens occupy large distributional ranges covering several climatic zones...
  8. Heber U, Soni V, Strasser R. Photoprotection of reaction centers: thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy vs charge separation in lichens. Physiol Plant. 2011;142:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..charge separation in the reaction centers (RCs) of photosystem II (PSII) declined strongly in three different lichens: in Parmelia sulcata with an alga as the photobiont, in Peltigera neckeri with a cyanobacterium and in the ..
  9. Peksa O, Skaloud P. Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae). Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3936-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Singh S, Sharma J, Gawas Sakhalkar P, Upadhyay A, Naik S, Pedneker S, et al. Atmospheric deposition studies of heavy metals in Arctic by comparative analysis of lichens and cryoconite. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens and cryoconite (rounded or granular, brownish-black debris occurring in holes on the glacier surface) from Ny-Ålesund were used for understanding the elemental deposition pattern in the area...
  2. Gjerde I, Blom H, Lindblom L, Saetersdal M, Schei F. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization. Ecology. 2012;93:749-59 pubmed
    ..We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway...
  3. Onofri S, de la Torre R, de Vera J, Ott S, Zucconi L, Selbmann L, et al. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space. Astrobiology. 2012;12:508-16 pubmed publisher
    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have ..
  4. de Vera J, Möhlmann D, Butina F, Lorek A, Wernecke R, Ott S. Survival potential and photosynthetic activity of lichens under Mars-like conditions: a laboratory study. Astrobiology. 2010;10:215-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described...
  5. Caruso A, Rudolphi J, Rydin H. Positive edge effects on forest-interior cryptogams in clear-cuts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27936 pubmed publisher
    ..We surveyed epixylic (dead wood inhabiting) forest-interior cryptogams (lichens, bryophytes, and fungi) associated with mature old-growth forests in 30 young managed Swedish boreal forest ..
  6. Hodkinson B, Gottel N, Schadt C, Lutzoni F. Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse bacterial communities in the lichen microbiome. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:147-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the most abundant and taxonomically diverse order in lichen microbiomes; however, overall bacterial diversity in lichens is shown to be much higher than previously reported...
  7. Leavitt S, Johnson L, Goward T, St Clair L. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult lichen-forming fungi: an example from morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in North America. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;60:317-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results call for a major taxonomic revision of Xanthoparmelia species in western North America...
  8. Johansson V, Ranius T, Snäll T. Epiphyte metapopulation dynamics are explained by species traits, connectivity, and patch dynamics. Ecology. 2012;93:235-41 pubmed
    ..we fitted a Bayesian incidence function model extended for dynamic landscapes to snapshot data on five epiphytic lichens among 2083 mapped oaks (dynamic patches)...
  9. Paudel B, Datta Bhattarai H, Prasad Pandey D, Seoun Hur J, Gyu Hong S, Kim I, et al. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity test of some mountainous lichens from Nepal. Biol Res. 2012;45:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed data after comparison with previously published reports indicated that the high altitude lichens contain stronger antioxidant and antibacterial constituents. Similarly, the methanol extracts of Heterodermia sp...
  10. Manojlovic N, Vasiljevic P, Gritsanapan W, Supabphol R, Manojlovic I. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand. Biol Res. 2010;43:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity...
  11. Horstkotte T, Moen J, Lämås T, Helle T. The legacy of logging--estimating arboreal lichen occurrence in a boreal multiple-use landscape on a two century scale. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28779 pubmed publisher
    In northern Sweden, the availability of arboreal lichens (Bryoria fuscescens, Alectoria sarmentosa) as winter grazing resources is an important element in reindeer husbandry...
  12. Amo De Paz G, Cubas P, Divakar P, Lumbsch H, Crespo A. Origin and diversification of major clades in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28161 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages...
  13. Kosanić M, Manojlović N, Jankovic S, Stanojkovic T, Ranković B. Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae lichens and their major metabolites as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;53:112-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and some ..
  14. Tregidgo D, West S, Ashmore M. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution. Environ Pollut. 2013;182:448-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase...
  15. Johnson C, Bennett J, Biro S, Duque Velasquez J, Rodriguez C, Bessen R, et al. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19836 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the ..
  16. Leavitt S, Johnson L, St Clair L. Species delimitation and evolution in morphologically and chemically diverse communities of the lichen-forming genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in western North America. Am J Bot. 2011;98:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The foliose lichen genus Xanthoparmelia includes over 800 species displaying a complex array of morphological and secondary metabolite diversity...
  17. Brandão L, Alcantara G, Matos M, Bogo D, Freitas D, Oyama N, et al. Cytotoxic evaluation of phenolic compounds from lichens against melanoma cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2013;61:176-83 pubmed
    ..usnic, diffractaic, divaricatic, perlatolic, psoromic, protocetraric, and norstictic acids isolated from the lichens Parmotrema dilatatum (VAIN.) HALE, Usnea subcavata MOTYKA, Usnea sp., Ramalina sp., Cladina confusa (SANT.) FOLMM...
  18. Dal Grande F, Widmer I, Wagner H, Scheidegger C. Vertical and horizontal photobiont transmission within populations of a lichen symbiosis. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:3159-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are widespread symbioses and play important roles in many terrestrial ecosystems. The genetic structure of lichens is the result of the association between fungal and algal populations constituting the lichen thallus...
  19. Einarsdóttir E, Groeneweg J, Björnsdóttir G, Harethardottir G, Omarsdottir S, Ingólfsdóttir K, et al. Cellular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of the lichen compound usnic acid. Planta Med. 2010;76:969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell survival was little affected; late necrosis was seen in one of the cell lines. No difference was noted between the two enantiomers...
  20. Larsson P, Solhaug K, Gauslaa Y. Seasonal partitioning of growth into biomass and area expansion in a cephalolichen and a cyanolichen of the old forest genus Lobaria. New Phytol. 2012;194:991-1000 pubmed publisher
    Growth in two old forest lichens was studied to evaluate how temporal (seasonal) and spatial (aspect-wise) partitioning of biomass and area growth respond to seasonal changes in light and climate...
  21. Backor M, Peksa O, Skaloud P, Backorová M. Photobiont diversity in lichens from metal-rich substrata based on ITS rDNA sequences. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:603-12 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason the presence of a metal tolerant photobiont in lichens may be a key factor of ecological success of lichens growing on metal polluted substrata...
  22. Leavitt S, Fankhauser J, Leavitt D, Porter L, Johnson L, St Clair L. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;59:587-602 pubmed publisher
  23. Arnold A, Miadlikowska J, Higgins K, Sarvate S, Gugger P, Way A, et al. A phylogenetic estimation of trophic transition networks for ascomycetous fungi: are lichens cradles of symbiotrophic fungal diversification?. Syst Biol. 2009;58:283-97 pubmed publisher
    ..g., saprotrophs), symptoms (e.g., pathogens), or emergent properties as symbionts (e.g., lichens), the majority of fungal diversity is thought to occur among species that rarely manifest their presence with ..
  24. Leavitt S, Esslinger T, Lumbsch H. Neogene-dominated diversification in neotropical montane lichens: dating divergence events in the lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon (Parmeliaceae). Am J Bot. 2012;99:1764-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we address the timing of diversification in the neotropical lichenized fungal genus Oropogon (Ascomycota) and assess traditional species boundaries...
  25. Johansson O, Olofsson J, Giesler R, Palmqvist K. Lichen responses to nitrogen and phosphorus additions can be explained by the different symbiont responses. New Phytol. 2011;191:795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..glauca. • Our findings showed that P availability was an important factor when studying effects of N deposition, as P supply can both mitigate and intensify the negative effects of N on epiphytic lichens.
  26. Mushegian A, Peterson C, Baker C, Pringle A. Bacterial diversity across individual lichens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4249-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We surveyed the spatial diversity of bacterial communities across multiple individuals of closely related lichens using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and pyrosequencing...
  27. Rudolphi J, Gustafsson L. Forests regenerating after clear-cutting function as habitat for bryophyte and lichen species of conservation concern. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18639 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30-70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed ..
  28. Hilmo O, Lundemo S, Holien H, Stengrundet K, Stenøien H. Genetic structure in a fragmented Northern Hemisphere rainforest: large effective sizes and high connectivity among populations of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:3250-65 pubmed publisher
    An extraordinary diversity of epiphytic lichens is found in the boreal rainforest of central Norway, the highest-latitude rainforest in the world...
  29. Widmer I, Dal Grande F, Cornejo C, Scheidegger C. Highly variable microsatellite markers for the fungal and algal symbionts of the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria and challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungal associations. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In a broader sense, our work evaluates and discusses the challenges in developing biont-specific molecular markers for fungi forming close associations with other organisms...
  30. Kelly L, Hollingsworth P, Coppins B, Ellis C, Harrold P, Tosh J, et al. DNA barcoding of lichenized fungi demonstrates high identification success in a floristic context. New Phytol. 2011;191:288-300 pubmed publisher
  31. Beckett R, Zavarzina A, Liers C. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover. Fungal Biol. 2013;117:431-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium...
  32. Schneider T, Schmid E, de Castro J, Cardinale M, Eberl L, Grube M, et al. Structure and function of the symbiosis partners of the lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm.) analyzed by metaproteomics. Proteomics. 2011;11:2752-6 pubmed publisher
    ..While the latter proteins were found to be mainly associated with energy and carbohydrate metabolism, a major proportion of fungal and bacterial proteins appeared to be involved in PTMs and protein turnover and other diverse functions...
  33. Rivas Plata E, Lumbsch H. Parallel evolution and phenotypic divergence in lichenized fungi: a case study in the lichen-forming fungal family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;61:45-63 pubmed publisher
    ..lat., with pore-like ascomata, and non-amyloid ascospores with lens-shaped lumina...
  34. Meeßen J, Sanchez F, Brandt A, Balzer E, de la Torre R, Sancho L, et al. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2013;43:283-303 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont...
  35. Otálora M, Aragón G, Molina M, Martinez I, Lutzoni F. Disentangling the Collema-Leptogium complex through a molecular phylogenetic study of the Collemataceae (Peltigerales, lichen-forming Ascomycota). Mycologia. 2010;102:279-90 pubmed
    ..str. These independent gains of a thallus cortex seems to be associated with a transition from colonizing bare rocks and soils in semi-arid and exposed habitats to epiphytism in shady humid forests...
  36. Hauck M. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:1127-33 pubmed publisher
    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants...
  37. Otálora M, Martinez I, O Brien H, Molina M, Aragón G, Lutzoni F. Multiple origins of high reciprocal symbiotic specificity at an intercontinental spatial scale among gelatinous lichens (Collemataceae, Lecanoromycetes). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;56:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the number of fungal species (mycobionts) exceeds the number of algae and cyanobacteria (photobionts) found in lichens by more than two orders of magnitude, reciprocal one-to-one specificity between one fungal species and one ..
  38. Bates S, Cropsey G, Caporaso J, Knight R, Fierer N. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1309-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities...
  39. Zambare V, Christopher L. Biopharmaceutical potential of lichens. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:778-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the phytobiont), usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium...
  40. Aslan A, Agar G, Alpsoy L, Kotan E, Ceker S. Protective role of methanol extracts of two lichens on oxidative and genotoxic damage caused by AFB1 in human lymphocytes in vitro. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012;28:505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Also the present results indicate that strong antioxidative and the antigenotoxicity mechanisms of UME and XME are associated with its antioxidant nature...
  41. Grube M, Spribille T. Exploring symbiont management in lichens. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:3098-9 pubmed
    b>Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures...
  42. Manojlović N, Ranković B, Kosanić M, Vasiljević P, Stanojkovic T. Chemical composition of three Parmelia lichens and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some their major metabolites. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:1166-72 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia caperata, P. saxatilis and P. sulcata and antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of some their major metabolites...
  43. Divakar P, Del Prado R, Lumbsch H, Wedin M, Esslinger T, Leavitt S, et al. Diversification of the newly recognized lichen-forming fungal lineage Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and its relation to key geological and climatic events. Am J Bot. 2012;99:2014-26 pubmed publisher
    ..diversity in lichen-forming fungi, the timing of speciation and the factors that promote diversification in lichens remain largely unexplored...
  44. Paltto H, Thomasson I, Nordén B. Multispecies and multiscale conservation planning: setting quantitative targets for red-listed lichens on ancient oaks. Conserv Biol. 2010;24:758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We used regression analyses to compare species richness and occurrence of five red-listed lichens on 50 ancient oaks (Quercus robur; 120-140 cm in diameter) with the density of ancient oaks in circles of varying ..
  45. Solhaug K, Larsson P, Gauslaa Y. Light screening in lichen cortices can be quantified by chlorophyll fluorescence techniques for both reflecting and absorbing pigments. Planta. 2010;231:1003-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Lichens, representing mutualistic symbioses between photobionts and mycobionts, often accumulate high concentrations of secondary compounds synthesized by the fungal partner...
  46. Kosanić M, Ranković B. Lichens as possible sources of antioxidants. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011;24:165-70 pubmed
    ..Tested lichen species were found to possess effective antioxidant activities and can be used as good natural sources of antioxidants...
  47. Svensson M, Dahlberg A, Ranius T, Thor G. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62825 pubmed publisher
    ..The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of ..
  48. Blanco O, Crespo A, Divakar P, Esslinger T, Hawksworth D, Lumbsch H. Melanelixia and Melanohalea, two new genera segregated from Melanelia (Parmeliaceae) based on molecular and morphological data. Mycol Res. 2004;108:873-84 pubmed
    This paper continues a revision of generic concepts in the parmelioid lichens using molecular data in order to reach a consensus among lichenologists over which segregates proposed over the last two decades should be accepted...
  49. Paulsrud P, Lindblad P. Fasciclin domain proteins are present in nostoc symbionts of lichens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:2036-9 pubmed
    ..Similar fasciclin motif-containing genes have previously been shown to be symbiotically induced in other symbiotic systems. ..
  50. DePriest P. Early molecular investigations of lichen-forming symbionts: 1986-2001*. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2004;58:273-301 pubmed
    ..Significant genetic variation often was associated with mobile elements, group I and spliceosomal introns. This review examines the influence of molecular investigation on lichenology during this first 15 years. ..
  51. Buschbom J, Mueller G. Testing "species pair" hypotheses: evolutionary processes in the lichen-forming species complex Porpidia flavocoerulescens and Porpidia melinodes. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:574-86 pubmed
    ..These interacting constraints produce recurring selective sweeps within predominantly vegetatively reproducing lineages and are the main forces that shape the evolution within the investigated species pair. ..
  52. Liba C, Ferrara F, Manfio G, Fantinatti Garboggini F, Albuquerque R, Pavan C, et al. Nitrogen-fixing chemo-organotrophic bacteria isolated from cyanobacteria-deprived lichens and their ability to solubilize phosphate and to release amino acids and phytohormones. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;101:1076-86 pubmed
    Cyanobacteria-deprived lichens of the species Canoparmelia caroliniana, Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Canoparmelia texana, Parmotrema sancti-angeli and Parmotrema tinctorum were screened for the presence of chemo-organotrophic nitrogen-..
  53. Kranner I, Cram W, Zorn M, Wornik S, Yoshimura I, Stabentheiner E, et al. Antioxidants and photoprotection in a lichen as compared with its isolated symbiotic partners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3141-6 pubmed
    Extreme desiccation and irradiation increase the formation of reactive oxygen species in organisms. Lichens are highly resistant to potential damage, but it is not known whether biochemical interaction between their fungal and algal ..
  54. Miao V, Coëffet LeGal M, Brown D, Sinnemann S, Donaldson G, Davies J. Genetic approaches to harvesting lichen products. Trends Biotechnol. 2001;19:349-55 pubmed
    b>Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi, green algae and/or cyanobacteria...
  55. Hartard B, Cuntz M, Máguas C, Lakatos M. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens. Planta. 2009;231:179-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes...
  56. Zoller S, Lutzoni F. Slow algae, fast fungi: exceptionally high nucleotide substitution rate differences between lichenized fungi Omphalina and their symbiotic green algae Coccomyxa. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003;29:629-40 pubmed
  57. Bergamaschi L, Rizzio E, Giaveri G, Profumo A, Loppi S, Gallorini M. Determination of baseline element composition of lichens using samples from high elevations. Chemosphere. 2004;55:933-9 pubmed
    The results of a survey aimed at providing baseline element composition of lichens from unpolluted or very low polluted areas are reported. Lichen samples collected at high elevation areas in Himalayas (Nepal), Mt...
  58. McEvoy M, Gauslaa Y, Solhaug K. Changes in pools of depsidones and melanins, and their function, during growth and acclimation under contrasting natural light in the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. New Phytol. 2007;175:271-82 pubmed
  59. Lumbsch H, Hipp A, Divakar P, Blanco O, Crespo A. Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota). BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:257 pubmed publisher
    ..Within parmelioid lichens, the largest group of macrolichens, large discrepancies in branch lengths between clades were found in previous ..
  60. Ekman S, Andersen H, Wedin M. The limitations of ancestral state reconstruction and the evolution of the ascus in the Lecanorales (lichenized Ascomycota). Syst Biol. 2008;57:141-56 pubmed publisher
  61. Aubert S, Juge C, Boisson A, Gout E, Bligny R. Metabolic processes sustaining the reviviscence of lichen Xanthoria elegans (Link) in high mountain environments. Planta. 2007;226:1287-97 pubmed
    To survive in high mountain environments lichens must adapt themselves to alternating periods of desiccation and hydration...
  62. Makkonen S, Hurri R, Hyvärinen M. Differential responses of lichen symbionts to enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus availability: an experiment with Cladina stellaris. Ann Bot. 2007;99:877-84 pubmed
    b>Lichens can be both nitrogen- (N) and phosphorous- (P) limited and thus may be susceptible to nutrient enrichment...
  63. Odabasoglu F, Aslan A, Cakir A, Suleyman H, Karagoz Y, Halici M, et al. Comparison of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of three lichen species. Phytother Res. 2004;18:938-41 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, there was a strong correlation between the reducing powers and the total phenolic contents of the extracts. The highest reducing power was determined for the methanol extract of L. pulmonaria. ..
  64. Gauslaa Y. Lichen palatability depends on investments in herbivore defence. Oecologia. 2005;143:94-105 pubmed
    b>Lichens are well-suited organisms for experimental herbivory studies because their secondary compounds, assumed to deter grazing, can be non-destructively extracted...
  65. Yuan X, Xiao S, Taylor T. Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science. 2005;308:1017-20 pubmed
    The fossil record of fungi and lichens is scarce...
  66. Brunauer G, Hager A, Grube M, Türk R, Stocker Wörgötter E. Alterations in secondary metabolism of aposymbiotically grown mycobionts of Xanthoria elegans and cultured resynthesis stages. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:146-51 pubmed
    ..By contrast, supplementation of ribitol had negligible effects, if any, on polyketide quantities although it is the main carbon source for the mycobiont in free-living lichens with Trebouxia photobiont.
  67. Shahi S, Patra M, Dikshit A, Upreti D. Parmelia cirrhatum: a potential source of broad spectrum natural antifungal. Phytother Res. 2003;17:399-400 pubmed
    ..The extract did not showed any irritation on mammalian skin up to 10% concentration. Thus, the water extract of Parmelia cirrhatum can be used a potential source of natural antifungal against fungal infections...
  68. Myllys L, Stenroos S, Thell A, Kuusinen M. High cyanobiont selectivity of epiphytic lichens in old growth boreal forest of Finland. New Phytol. 2007;173:621-9 pubmed
    ..A same Nostoc strain was found to form associations with taxonomically unrelated lichens indicating that the cyanobiont-mycobiont associations as a whole were not highly specific in the examined species.
  69. Werth S, Wagner H, Gugerli F, Holderegger R, Csencsics D, Kalwij J, et al. Quantifying dispersal and establishment limitation in a population of an epiphytic lichen. Ecology. 2006;87:2037-46 pubmed
    ..Our study exemplifies that care has to be taken to adequately separate the effects of dispersal limitation from a limitation of establishment...
  70. Ranković B, Misic M, Sukdolak S. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the lichens Lasallia pustulata, Parmelia sulcata, Umbilicaria crustulosa, and Umbilicaria cylindrica. Mikrobiologiia. 2007;76:817-21 pubmed
    The antimicrobial properties of acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Lasallia pustulata, Parmelia sulcata, Umbilicaria crustulosa, and Umbilicaria cylindrica were studied comparatively in vitro...
  71. Migaszewski Z, Gałuszka A, Pasławski P. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and trace metals in selected soil profiles and plant bioindicators in the Holy Cross Mountains, south-central Poland. Environ Int. 2002;28:303-13 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that the content of PAHs, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, S and Zn in the soils and plant bioindicators examined has not changed considerably since 1998...
  72. Muir P, Rambo T, Kimmerer R, Keon D. Influence of overstory removal on growth of epiphytic mosses and lichens in western Oregon. Ecol Appl. 2006;16:1207-21 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that logging with green-tree retention and other silvicultural practices that preserve trees or shrubs hosting the species studied here are likely to encourage these species' development in managed forests...
  73. Lange O, Green T, Heber U. Hydration-dependent photosynthetic production of lichens: what do laboratory studies tell us about field performance?. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:2033-42 pubmed
    ..lichen contains more water than necessary to saturate photosynthesis), and, second, the ability of green algal lichens to regain photosynthetic activity by uptake of water from humid air...