Summary: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.

Top Publications

  1. Lai C, Hung J, Lin H, Yu A, Chen S, Tsai Y, et al. Immunomodulatory and adjuvant activities of a polysaccharide extract of Ganoderma lucidum in vivo and in vitro. Vaccine. 2010;28:4945-54 pubmed
  2. Lu Q, Jin Y, Zhang Q, Zhang Z, Heber D, Go V, et al. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth and induce actin polymerization in bladder cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Lett. 2004;216:9-20 pubmed
  3. Wang X, Xi R, Li Y, Wang D, Yao Y. The species identity of the widely cultivated Ganoderma, 'G. lucidum' (Ling-zhi), in China. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40857 pubmed publisher
    ..lucidum' (Ling-zhi) is considered conspecific with G. sichuanense. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided in addition to discussion of nomenclature implications. ..
  4. Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum in cancer research. Leuk Res. 2006;30:767-8 pubmed
  5. Chuang H, Wang I, Lin S, Chang Y. Transcriptome analysis of cadmium response in Ganoderma lucidum. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;293:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd response in Ganoderma species. ..
  6. Zhang Q, Andoh T, Konno M, Lee J, Hattori M, Kuraishi Y. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum on acute itch-associated responses in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:909-11 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that MEGL is effective against pruritus mediated by proteinases and 5-HT and that primary afferents expressing PAR(2) and 5-HT(2A) receptors are the sites of its action...
  7. Aydin S, Aytac E, Uzun H, Altug T, Mansur B, Saygili S, et al. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on obstructive jaundice-induced oxidative stress. Asian J Surg. 2010;33:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05). GL protected against DNA and liver tissue damage by reducing oxidative stress in obstructive jaundice. ..
  8. Sudheesh N, Ajith T, Ramnath V, Janardhanan K. Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. against the declined antioxidant status in the mitochondria of post-mitotic tissues of aged mice. Clin Nutr. 2010;29:406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..05) the levels of lipid peroxidation, AOPP and ROS. G. lucidum administration could improve the age-related decline of antioxidant status which was partly ascribed to free radical scavenging activity. ..
  9. Miyamoto I, Liu J, Shimizu K, Sato M, Kukita A, Kukita T, et al. Regulation of osteoclastogenesis by ganoderic acid DM isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;602:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This suppression leads to the inhibition of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) expression and reduces osteoclast fusion. ..

More Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tsai C, Yang F, Huang Z, Chen C, Yang Y, Hua K, et al. Oligosaccharide and peptidoglycan of Ganoderma lucidum activate the immune response in human mononuclear cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:2830-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This oligosaccharide isolated from G. lucidum polysaccharides with internal glucuronic acids/glucose repeat unit in a 3:1 ratio may be responsible for the active stimulation of NK and T cells. ..
  2. Joo S, Ryu I, Park J, Yoo Y, Lee D, Hwang K, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum, and its antioxidative properties. Mol Cells. 2008;25:112-8 pubmed
    ..GLlac1 was released from the cells when expressed in P. pastoris, and had high laccase activity. In addition, GLlac1 conferred antioxidative protection from protein degradation, and thus may be useful in bio-medical applications. ..
  3. Hung W, Wang S, Chen C, Yang W. Structure determination of beta-glucans from Ganoderma lucidum with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Molecules. 2008;13:1538-50 pubmed
    ..The G. lucidum glucan structure was determined and this method for linkage analysis of permethylated glucan has been proven feasible. ..
  4. Ding Y, Ou Yang X, Shang C, Ren A, Shi L, Li Y, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization, and differential expression of a farnesyl-diphosphate synthase gene from the basidiomycetous fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:1571-9 pubmed
    ..Functional complementation of GlFPS in an ERG20-disrupted yeast strain indicated that the cloned cDNA encoded a farnesyl-diphosphate synthase. ..
  5. Xu J, Zhao W, Xu Y, Zhong J. Isolation and analysis of differentially expressed genes during asexual sporulation in liquid static culture of Ganoderma lucidum by suppression subtractive hybridization. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:3603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study present the useful application of EST analysis on G. lucidum and provide preliminary indication of gene expression putatively involved in asexual sporulation process. ..
  6. Jiang J, Grieb B, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. Ganoderic acids suppress growth and invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by modulating AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21:577-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, hydroxylated triterpenes from G. lucidum could be promising natural agents for the therapy of invasive breast cancers. ..
  7. Fukuzawa M, Yamaguchi R, Hide I, Chen Z, Hirai Y, Sugimoto A, et al. Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1933-7 pubmed
    During our isolation of biologically active substances from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi, G...
  8. Muhammad Nasir Iqbal H, Asgher M. Decolorization applicability of sol-gel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from an indigenous white rot fungal strain Ganoderma lucidum. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:56 pubmed publisher
    ..7%. The sol- gel entrapped MnP seems to have prospective capabilities which can be useful for industrial purposes, especially for bioremediation of industrial effluents. ..
  9. Lin Y, Liang Y, Lee S, Chiang B. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:533-43 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that PS-G can effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature DC, suggesting that PS-G may possess a potential in regulating immune responses. ..
  10. Tang W, Liu J, Zhao W, Wei D, Zhong J. Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Life Sci. 2006;80:205-11 pubmed
    ..All our findings demonstrate that GA-T induced apoptosis of metastatic lung tumor cells through intrinsic pathway related to mitochondrial dysfunction and p53 expression, and it may be a potentially useful chemotherapeutic agent. ..
  11. Karwa A, Rai M. Naturally occurring medicinal mushroom-derived antimicrobials: a case-study using Lingzhi or Reishi Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14:481-90 pubmed
    Antibacterial activity of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, collected from Central India was evaluated against four bacterial pathogens...
  12. Chen S, Xu J, Liu C, Zhu Y, Nelson D, Zhou S, et al. Genome sequence of the model medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Nat Commun. 2012;3:913 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidation of the G. lucidum genome makes this organism a potential model system for the study of secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation in medicinal fungi. ..
  13. Murugesan K, Yang I, Kim Y, Jeon J, Chang Y. Enhanced transformation of malachite green by laccase of Ganoderma lucidum in the presence of natural phenolic compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study revealed that the natural phenolic compounds could alternatively be used as potential redox mediators for effective laccase-mediated decolorization of MG. ..
  14. Harhaji Trajkovic L, Mijatovic S, Maksimovic Ivanic D, Stojanović I, Momcilović M, Tufegdzić S, et al. Anticancer properties of Ganoderma lucidum methanol extracts in vitro and in vivo. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61:696-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results suggest that GLme might be a good candidate for treatment of diverse forms of cancers. ..
  15. Zhang W, Tang Y, Zhong J. Impact of oxygen level in gaseous phase on gene transcription and ganoderic acid biosynthesis in liquid static cultures of Ganoderma lucidum. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2010;33:683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The information obtained in this study provided an insight into the role of gaseous O(2) in the GA production and it will be helpful for further enhancing its productivity. ..
  16. You B, Lee H, Chung K, Lee M, Huang M, Tien N, et al. Enhanced production of ganoderic acids and cytotoxicity of Ganoderma lucidum using solid-medium culture. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:1529-34 pubmed
    ..This indicates that it may be possible to enhance the production of GAs by implementing mycelium culture on solid medium. ..
  17. Xu Y, Zhong J. Impacts of calcium signal transduction on the fermentation production of antitumor ganoderic acids by medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results obtained, a possible model on the effect of external calcium ion on the GAs biosynthesis via calcineurin signal transduction pathway was proposed. ..
  18. Yang M, Wang X, Guan S, Xia J, Sun J, Guo H, et al. Analysis of triterpenoids in ganoderma lucidum using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2007;18:927-39 pubmed
    ..2% acetic acid gradient. A total of 32 triterpenoids, including six new ones, were identified or tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of the HPLC peaks. ..
  19. Weng C, Chau C, Yen G, Liao J, Chen D, Chen K. Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the lucidenic acid-rich GLE could serve as a chemopreventive agent for the tumorigenesis and metastasis of highly invasive hepatoma cells. ..
  20. Ren A, Qin L, Shi L, Dong X, Mu D, Li Y, et al. Methyl jasmonate induces ganoderic acid biosynthesis in the basidiomycetous fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:6785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantification of transcription levels determined that MeJA significantly induced expression of these genes. ..
  21. Chen N, Zhong J. p53 is important for the anti-invasion of ganoderic acid T in human carcinoma cells. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:719-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that p53 played an important role in anti-invasion of GA-T in human carcinoma cells. p53 may be an important target for GA-T inhibiting human carcinoma cells anti-invasion. ..
  22. Xu J, Zhao W, Zhong J. Biotechnological production and application of ganoderic acids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The biosynthetic pathway of GAs is also outlined. ..
  23. Xu J, Xu Y, Zhong J. Enhancement of ganoderic acid accumulation by overexpression of an N-terminally truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene in the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:7968-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that transgenic basidiomycete G. lucidum is a promising system to achieve metabolic engineering of the ganoderic acid pathway. ..
  24. Stanley G, Harvey K, Slivova V, Jiang J, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:46-52 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis by modulating MAPK and Akt signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  25. Gao Y, Gao H, Chan E, Tang W, Xu A, Yang H, et al. Antitumor activity and underlying mechanisms of ganopoly, the refined polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in mice. Immunol Invest. 2005;34:171-98 pubmed
    ..The overall findings indicated that Ganopoly had antitumor activity with a broad spectrum of immuno-modulating activities and may represent a novel promising immunotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment. ..
  26. Boh B, Berovic M, Zhang J, Zhi Bin L. Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceutically active compounds. Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2007;13:265-301 pubmed
    ..In addition, polysaccharides have a protective effect against free radicals and reduce cell damage caused by mutagens. ..
  27. Shang C, Zhu F, Li N, Ou Yang X, Shi L, Zhao M, et al. Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding HMG-CoA reductase from Ganoderma lucidum and its functional identification in yeast. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:1333-9 pubmed
    ..A reductase (HMGR) was isolated from a triterpene-producing fungus, Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lingzhi)...
  28. You B, Lee M, Tien N, Lee M, Hsieh H, Tseng L, et al. A novel approach to enhancing ganoderic acid production by Ganoderma lucidum using apoptosis induction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53616 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that GA biosynthesis is linked to fungal apoptosis and provides a new approach to enhancing secondary metabolite production in fungi. ..
  29. Nonaka Y, Shibata H, Nakai M, Kurihara H, Ishibashi H, Kiso Y, et al. Anti-tumor activities of the antlered form of Ganoderma lucidum in allogeneic and syngeneic tumor-bearing mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2028-34 pubmed
    ..lucidum AF, rokkaku-reishi in Japanese), a variant type of G...
  30. Chui C, Wong R, Cheng G, Lau F, Kok S, Cheng C, et al. Antiproliferative ability of a combination regimen of crocodile egg extract, wild radix ginseng and natural Ganoderma lucidum on acute myelogenous leukemia. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1313-6 pubmed
    ..An in vivo toxicity test revealed that no acute toxicity was observed after feeding the rats a high dosage of the CGG extract. Further animal model tests are necessary to investigate the possible chronic toxicity of the CGG extract. ..
  31. Dudhgaonkar S, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of GLT on macrophages are mediated through the inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signaling pathways. ..
  32. Jedinak A, Thyagarajan Sahu A, Jiang J, Sliva D. Ganodermanontriol, a lanostanoid triterpene from Ganoderma lucidum, suppresses growth of colon cancer cells through ß-catenin signaling. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that ganodermanontriol might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. ..
  33. Chan W, Lam D, Law H, Wong W, Koo M, Lau A, et al. Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:1047-57 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidences that GL-M has immunomodulating effects on human immune cells and therefore can be used as a natural adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy with DCs. ..
  34. Jiang J, Slivova V, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:695-703 pubmed
    ..lucidum as a suitable herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of breast cancer. ..
  35. Zhao S, Ye G, Fu G, Cheng J, Yang B, Peng C. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:1319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin. ..
  36. Smina T, Mathew J, Janardhanan K, Devasagayam T. Antioxidant activity and toxicity profile of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;32:438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that Ganoderma triterpenes did not possess significant toxicity. The findings thus reveal the possible therapeutic use of Ganoderma triterpenes. ..
  37. Kashimoto N, Hayama M, Kamiya K, Watanabe H. Inhibitory effect of a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia on the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma induced by N-nitrosobis (2-hydroxypropyl) amine in Wistar rats. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1181-7 pubmed
    ..The present results thus indicate that dietary supplementation with MAK inhibits the development of lung tumors, suggesting that MAK may be a potent chemopreventive agent against lung carcinogenesis. ..
  38. Liu W, Wang H, Pang X, Yao W, Gao X. Characterization and antioxidant activity of two low-molecular-weight polysaccharides purified from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;46:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-molecular-weight polysaccharide seems to play an important role in the exploration of natural antioxidants in food industry and pharmaceuticals...
  39. Martínez Montemayor M, Acevedo R, Otero Franqui E, Cubano L, Dharmawardhane S. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:1085-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy...
  40. Zhang C, Yang S, Yue J. Sterols and triterpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:1137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic method. ..
  41. Shi L, Ren A, Mu D, Zhao M. Current progress in the study on biosynthesis and regulation of ganoderic acids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;88:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this review focuses on suggesting new directions for studying GAs and attempts to gain some insights for better understanding of the biosynthesis and regulation of GAs. ..
  42. Cheng K, Huang H, Chen J, Hsu J, Cheng H, Ou C, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in human monocytic leukemia cells: from gene expression to network construction. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:411 pubmed
    ..Our results showed that F3 may induce death receptor ligands to initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recruitment of specialized adaptor proteins and activation of caspase cascades. ..
  43. Lin Z. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005;99:144-53 pubmed
    Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. (Lingzhi or Reishi) has been used for a long time in China to prevent and treat various human diseases. G. lucidum polysaccharides extracted from G...
  44. Zhong J, Xiao J. Secondary metabolites from higher fungi: discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2009;113:79-150 pubmed publisher
    ..lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin...
  45. Lu Q, Sartippour M, Brooks M, Zhang Q, Hardy M, Go V, et al. Ganoderma lucidum spore extract inhibits endothelial and breast cancer cells in vitro. Oncol Rep. 2004;12:659-62 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the alcohol extract from the spore of Ganoderma lucidum may possess potential anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities...
  46. Hsu H, Hua K, Wu W, Hsu J, Weng S, Lin T, et al. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent...
  47. Sanodiya B, Thakur G, Baghel R, Prasad G, Bisen P. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009;10:717-42 pubmed
    ..Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications...
  48. Zhang W, Zhong J. Effect of oxygen concentration in gas phase on sporulation and individual ganoderic acids accumulation in liquid static culture of Ganoderma lucidum. J Biosci Bioeng. 2010;109:37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..A higher oxygen concentration increased individual GAs production, and more spores and higher total GA content were obtained at an oxygen level of 80%...
  49. Shang C, Shi L, Ren A, Qin L, Zhao M. Molecular cloning, characterization, and differential expression of a lanosterol synthase gene from Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:974-8 pubmed
    ..lucidum during development. Up-regulation of expression of the Gl-LS gene by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in the mycelia was also demonstrated by real-time RT-PCR. Up-regulation of the Gl-LS promoter activity by MeJA was also investigated...
  50. Shi L, Qin L, Xu Y, Ren A, Fang X, Mu D, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization, and function analysis of a mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene from Ganoderma lucidum. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..lucidum. Additionally, this study provides an approach for improving triterpene content through the overexpression of a key gene...
  51. Zapata P, Rojas D, Atehortua L. Production of biomass, polysaccharides, and ganoderic acid using non-conventional carbon sources under submerged culture of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14:197-203 pubmed
    The effect of different non-conventional carbon sources was studied in the submerged culture of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, for simultaneous production of mycelial biomass, bioactive ganoderic acid, and ..
  52. Kohguchi M, Kunikata T, Watanabe H, Kudo N, Shibuya T, Ishihara T, et al. Immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:881-7 pubmed
    The immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi, RR), which has been used as a traditional supplement for human health, were investigated in mice...
  53. Chen H, Tsai Y, Lin S, Lin C, Khoo K, Lin C, et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:5595-601 pubmed
    We describe here the isolation of Reishi polysaccharides for the study of their effect on cytokine expression in mouse splenocytes...
  54. Hong K, Dunn D, Shen C, Pence B. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on apoptotic and anti-inflammatory function in HT-29 human colonic carcinoma cells. Phytother Res. 2004;18:768-70 pubmed
  55. Zhang W, Tang Y. A novel three-stage light irradiation strategy in the submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum for the efficient production of ganoderic acid and Ganoderma polysaccharides. Biotechnol Prog. 2008;24:1249-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report investigating the significance of light irradiation on the medicinal mushroom submerged fermentation. Such work is very helpful to other mushroom fermentations for useful metabolite production...
  56. Lin Y, Liang Y, Tseng Y, Huang H, Chou S, Hseu R, et al. An immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our experiments demonstrated that rLZ-8 can effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature DCs, preferring a Th1 response, suggesting that rLZ-8 may possess a potential effect in regulating immune responses...
  57. Liang C, Li Y, Xu J, Wang J, Miao X, Tang Y, et al. Enhanced biosynthetic gene expressions and production of ganoderic acids in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum under phenobarbital induction. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrated a useful strategy for the enhanced production of ganoderic acids by G. lucidum...
  58. Liu D, Gong J, Dai W, Kang X, Huang Z, Zhang H, et al. The genome of Ganoderma lucidum provides insights into triterpenes biosynthesis and wood degradation [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36146 pubmed publisher
    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi) is one of the most famous Traditional Chinese Medicines and has been widely used in the treatment of various human diseases in Asia countries...
  59. Ren A, Ouyang X, Shi L, Jiang A, Mu D, Li M, et al. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of GlHMGS, a gene encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase from Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-zhi) in ganoderic acid biosynthesis pathway. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;29:523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of GlHMGS enhanced GA content in G. lucidum. This study provides useful information for further studying this gene and on its function in the ganoderic acid biosynthetic pathway in G. lucidum...
  60. Hajjaj H, Mace C, Roberts M, Niederberger P, Fay L. Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3653-8 pubmed
    Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family which has long been known in Japan as Reishi and has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine...
  61. Muller C, Kumagai T, O Kelly J, Seeram N, Heber D, Koeffler H. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Leuk Res. 2006;30:841-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that G. lucidum extract has a profound activity against leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells and may be a novel adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies...
  62. Wang H, Ng T. A laccase from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:508-13 pubmed
    ..The enzyme required a pH of 3-5 and a temperature of 70 degrees C to exhibit maximal activity. Minimal activity was detected at pH 6 and 7. Activity was undetectable at pH 8 and 9 and after exposure to 100 degrees C for 10 min...
  63. Ko H, Hung C, Wang J, Lin C. Antiinflammatory triterpenoids and steroids from Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:234-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, compound 9 was also able to protect human keratinocytes against damage induced by ultraviolet B (UV B) light, which indicated 9 could protect keratinocytes from photodamage...
  64. Liu J, Shiono J, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Ganoderic acids from Ganoderma lucidum: inhibitory activity of osteoclastic differentiation and structural criteria. Planta Med. 2010;76:137-9 pubmed publisher
    ..lucidum on osteoclastic differentiation using RAW264 cells in vitro. A carbonyl in C7 is essential to elicit the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation...
  65. Huang S, Li J, Wang Z, Pan H, Chen J, Ning Z. Optimization of alkaline extraction of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum and their effect on immune function in mice. Molecules. 2010;15:3694-708 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they could restore delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrofluorobenzene (DFNB), hemolysis antibody levels at the three doses applied, and improve the natural killer cell activity at the high-dose and medium dose...
  66. Xu Z, Chen X, Zhong Z, Chen L, Wang Y. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:15-27 pubmed
    ..However, many questions still need to be answered before both G. lucidum and GLPS can be widely accepted and used as anti-tumor agents...
  67. Lin Z, Zhang H. Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its possible mechanisms. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:1387-95 pubmed
    ..Preliminary study indicated that antiangiogenic effect may be involved antitumor activity of G lucidum...
  68. Yuen J, Gohel M. Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53:11-7 pubmed
    ..Lingzhi or its products can be classified as an anticancer agent when current and more direct scientific evidence becomes available...
  69. Yue G, Fung K, Tse G, Leung P, Lau C. Comparative studies of various ganoderma species and their different parts with regard to their antitumor and immunomodulating activities in vitro. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12:777-89 pubmed
    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) has been commonly suggested in East Asia as a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of different diseases, including cancer...
  70. Zhao M, Liang W, Zhang D, Wang N, Wang C, Pan Y. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase (SQS) gene from Ganoderma lucidum. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;17:1106-12 pubmed
    ..Functional complementation of Gl-SQS in a SQS-deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the cloned cDNA encoded a squalene synthase...
  71. Chuang M, Chiou S, Huang C, Yang W, Wong C. The lifespan-promoting effect of acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:7831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the substances tested, acetic acid and Reishi polysaccharide fraction 3 (RF3) were shown to increase the expression of the lifespan and longevity-related ..
  72. Chen N, Liu J, Zhong J. Ganoderic acid T inhibits tumor invasion in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of MMP expression. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:150-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA-T effectively inhibits cancer cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and thus it may act as a potential drug for treating cancer. ..
  73. Teng B, Wang C, Yang H, Wu J, Zhang D, Zheng M, et al. A protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity inhibitor from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst and its hypoglycemic potency on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:6492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxicity of FYGL is very low. The results indicate that FYGL may serve as a drug candidate or a health-care food for diabetic therapy or protection...
  74. Zhao W, Xu J, Zhong J. Enhanced production of ganoderic acids in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:8185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated a useful strategy for enhancing GAs production and provided useful information for further investigation on its biosynthesis regulation...
  75. Kim S, Song J, Choi H. Genetic transformation and mutant isolation in Ganoderma lucidum by restriction enzyme-mediated integration. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:201-4 pubmed
    ..The plasmid was integrated stably into the recipient chromosome, which was confirmed by PCR with the plasmid-specific primers...
  76. Hsu H, Hua K, Lin C, Lin C, Hsu J, Wong C. Extract of Reishi polysaccharides induces cytokine expression via TLR4-modulated protein kinase signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2004;173:5989-99 pubmed
    We have demonstrated that an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling-Zhi) polysaccharides (EORP) exerts immunomodulating activities by stimulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines from mouse spleen cells...
  77. Kubo N, Myojin Y, Shimamoto F, Kashimoto N, Kyo E, Kamiya K, et al. Protective effects of a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia and Agaricus blazei murill against X-irradiation in B6C3F1 mice: Increased small intestinal crypt survival and prolongation of average time to a. Int J Mol Med. 2005;15:401-6 pubmed
    ..At doses of 8, 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min(-1) MAK (5% group) significantly increased crypt survival as compared to other groups. These results suggest that MAK can act as a radioprotective agent...
  78. Xie J, Wang C, Wicks S, Yin J, Kong J, Li J, et al. Ganoderma lucidum extract inhibits proliferation of SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells. Exp Oncol. 2006;28:25-9 pubmed
    ..The effects of this medicinal mushroom on human colorectal cancer cells have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ganoderma lucidum extract using SW 480 human colorectal cancer cell line...
  79. Lin K, Kao Y, Kuo H, Yang W, Chou A, Lin H, et al. Reishi polysaccharides induce immunoglobulin production through the TLR4/TLR2-mediated induction of transcription factor Blimp-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:24111-23 pubmed
    The polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) possess immunomodulation activities; however, their mode of molecular action in regulating each cellular subset in the immune system is still not clear...
  80. Yuen J, Gohel M, Au D. Telomerase-associated apoptotic events by mushroom ganoderma lucidum on premalignant human urothelial cells. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This study strongly suggests that G. lucidum is a potential source of chemopreventive agents for bladder cancer based on its effectiveness in controlling the premalignant urothelial cell growth and carcinogen-induced transformation...
  81. Guo L, Xie J, Ruan Y, Zhou L, Zhu H, Yun X, et al. Characterization and immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these results suggest that GSG is an effective immunomodulator and may be a promising adjuvant remedy for anti-tumor therapies...
  82. Yeh C, Chen H, Yang J, Chuang W, Sheu F. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrated that LZ-8 could activate murine macrophages and T lymphocytes but PS-G was merely the activator for macrophages, suggesting their diverse roles in activating the innate and adaptive immunity...
  83. Ji Z, Tang Q, Zhang J, Yang Y, Liu Y, Pan Y. Immunomodulation of bone marrow macrophages by GLIS, a proteoglycan fraction from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2011;13:441-8 pubmed
    The immunomodulatory effect of GLIS (Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum immunomodulating substance) on macrophages has been investigated as part of ongoing research into the anticancer properties of this mushroom...
  84. Yu G, Wang M, Huang J, Yin Y, Chen Y, Jiang S, et al. Deep insight into the Ganoderma lucidum by comprehensive analysis of its transcriptome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44031 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to gain a molecular understanding of this fungus, we utilized Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence and analyze the transcriptome of Ganoderma lucidum...
  85. Jiang J, Slivova V, Valachovicova T, Harvey K, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells PC-3. Int J Oncol. 2004;24:1093-9 pubmed
    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), an oriental medical mushroom, has been widely used in Asian countries for centuries to prevent or treat different diseases, including cancer...
  86. Shao B, Dai H, Xu W, Lin Z, Gao X. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:133-41 pubmed
    ..Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine...
  87. Chan W, Cheung C, Law H, Lau Y, Chan G. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function. J Hematol Oncol. 2008;1:9 pubmed publisher
    ..The question of how leukemic cells especially in monocytic lineage respond to GL-PS stimuli remains unclear...
  88. Xu J, Xu Y, Zhong J. Production of individual ganoderic acids and expression of biosynthetic genes in liquid static and shaking cultures of Ganoderma lucidum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The work is helpful to the production of individual GAs and provided an insight into why the liquid static culture was superior to the shaking culture in view of biosynthetic gene expression...
  89. Cheng C, Yue Q, Wu Z, Song X, Tao S, Wu X, et al. Cytotoxic triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activities against human HeLa cervical cancer cell lines. Some compounds exhibit significant cytotoxicity, and their structure-activity relationships are discussed...
  90. Jiang J, Sliva D. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:1529-36 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer...
  91. Chen W, Yang W, Wong C, Shih D. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:8583-91 pubmed publisher
  92. Shi L, Fang X, Li M, Mu D, Ren A, Tan Q, et al. Development of a simple and efficient transformation system for the basidiomycetous medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a new transgenic approach that will facilitate Ganoderma lucidum research...