onygenales

Summary

Summary: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA containing many medically important species. There are four families and mitosporic (anamorphic) forms are prominent.

Top Publications

  1. Gianni C, Caretta G, Romano C. Skin infection due to Geomyces pannorum var. pannorum. Mycoses. 2003;46:430-2 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a case of superficial infection of the skin due to this fungus in a healthy man. The patient was treated orally with terbinafine 250 mg daily and topic bifonazole with complete resolution in 2 months...
  2. Rice A, Currah R. Two new species of Pseudogymnoascus with Geomyces anamorphs and their phylogenetic relationship with Gymnostellatospora. Mycologia. 2006;98:307-18 pubmed
    ..Anamorphs assignable to the form genus Geomyces are allied with both genera. A key is provided to the four species and varieties of Pseudogymnoascus...
  3. Vilela R, Martins J, Pereira C, Melo N, Mendoza L. Molecular study of archival fungal strains isolated from cases of lacaziosis (Jorge Lobo's disease). Mycoses. 2007;50:470-4 pubmed
    ..525 was a typical P. brasiliensis isolate and the other studied strains were indeed contaminants. This study unequivocally indicates that the aetiological agent of lacaziosis is yet to be cultured...
  4. Herr R, Tarcha E, Taborda P, Taylor J, Ajello L, Mendoza L. Phylogenetic analysis of Lacazia loboi places this previously uncharacterized pathogen within the dimorphic Onygenales. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:309-14 pubmed
    ..brasiliensis and that both species belong with the other dimorphic fungal pathogens in the order Onygenales. The low nucleotide variation among three P...
  5. Koufopanou V, Burt A, Szaro T, Taylor J. Gene genealogies, cryptic species, and molecular evolution in the human pathogen Coccidioides immitis and relatives (Ascomycota, Onygenales). Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:1246-58 pubmed
    ..Two introns in the same gene fragment were considerably more divergent than exons and were unalignable between species complexes but had very low polymorphism within taxa...
  6. Aronstein K, Murray K, De Leon J, Qin X, Weinstock G. High mobility group (HMG-box) genes in the honeybee fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis. Mycologia. 2007;99:553-61 pubmed
    ..This new method allows for identification of a single mating type idiomorph and might become an essential tool for applied and basic research of chalkbrood disease in honeybees...
  7. Mendoza L, Belone A, Vilela R, Rehtanz M, Bossart G, Reif J, et al. Use of sera from humans and dolphins with lacaziosis and sera from experimentally infected mice for Western Blot analyses of Lacazia loboi antigens. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:164-7 pubmed
    ..loboi extracts. This study is the first to examine the humoral response to L. loboi antigens by using multiple host sera...
  8. Sharpton T, Stajich J, Rounsley S, Gardner M, Wortman J, Jordar V, et al. Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives. Genome Res. 2009;19:1722-31 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales, including C. immitis and C...
  9. Muszewska A, Taylor J, Szczesny P, Grynberg M. Independent subtilases expansions in fungi associated with animals. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:3395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..that gene family size changed independently in fungi, pathogenic to invertebrates (Hypocreales) and vertebrates (Onygenales)...

More Information

Publications69

  1. San Blas G, Prieto A, Bernabe M, Ahrazem O, Moreno B, Leal J. alpha-galf I -->6-alpha-mannopyranoside side chains in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cell wall are shared by members of the Onygenales, but not by galactomannans of other fungal genera. Med Mycol. 2005;43:153-9 pubmed
    ..brasiliensis within the Onygenales.
  2. Sacristán C, Réssio R, Castilho P, Fernandes N, Costa Silva S, Esperón F, et al. Lacaziosis-like disease in Tursiops truncatus from Brazil: a histopathological and immunohistochemical approach. Dis Aquat Organ. 2016;117:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..or lobomycosis-like disease (LLD) is a chronic skin condition caused by a non-cultivable yeast of the order Onygenales, which also includes Lacazia loboi, as well as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P...
  3. Whiston E, Taylor J. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;6:235-44 pubmed publisher
    The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp...
  4. Chandrakar S, Dias M, Shetty P, Tiewsoh J, Guarro J. Isolation and Characterization of an Unknown Chrysosporium sp. Producing Subcutaneous Mycosis in an Immunocompromised Patient. Mycopathologia. 2016;181:115-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8S-ITS2 rDNA revealed belonging to the order Onygenales and most closely related to Chrysosporium spp. isolated from a fowl...
  5. Hirooka Y, Tanney J, Nguyen H, Seifert K. Xerotolerant fungi in house dust: taxonomy of Spiromastix, Pseudospiromastix and Sigleria gen. nov. in Spiromastigaceae (Onygenales, Eurotiomycetes). Mycologia. 2016;108:135-56 pubmed publisher
    ..these fungi and two species preserved in culture collections represent undescribed species of Spiromastigaceae, Onygenales. Seven of the eight species lacked sexual states and only characters of asexual states and growth rates on ..
  6. Heng L, Ning J, Kong F. Facile synthesis of a comb-like mannohexaose: a trimer of the disaccharide repeating unit of the cell-wall mannans of Aphanoascus mephitatus and related species. Carbohydr Res. 2001;331:431-7 pubmed
  7. Köhler J, Hube B, Puccia R, Casadevall A, Perfect J. Fungi that Infect Humans. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp...
  8. Stchigel A, Sutton D, Cano Lira J, Wiederhold N, Guarro J. New Species Spiromastigoides albida from a Lung Biopsy. Mycopathologia. 2017;182:967-978 pubmed publisher
    The new species Spiromastigoides albida (Onygenales, Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota), from a lung biopsy in USA, is proposed and described based on morphological data and the analysis of rRNA, and fragments of actin and ß-tubulin gene ..
  9. Bermudez L, Van Bressem M, Reyes Jaimes O, Sayegh A, Paniz Mondolfi A. Lobomycosis in man and lobomycosis-like disease in bottlenose dolphin, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1301-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the marine environment is a likely habitat for L. loboi and a reservoir for infection...
  10. Flores J, Gutierrez I, Puerta F. Oxytetracycline as a predisposing condition for chalkbrood in honeybee. Vet Microbiol. 2004;103:195-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that oxytetracycline does not increase the risk of chalkbrood in susceptible worker brood in the short or mid-term...
  11. Mendoza L, Vilela R, Rosa P, Fernandes Belone A. Lacazia loboi and Rhinosporidium seeberi: a genomic perspective. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2005;22:213-6 pubmed
    ..In the following pages we discuss a genomic perspective for both pathogens and the benefit that such information could generate to understand more about these two uncultivated pathogens...
  12. Pereira M, Guimarães L, Furriel R, Polizeli M, Terenzi H, Jorge J. Biochemical properties of an extracellular trehalase from Malbranchea pulchella var. Sulfurea. J Microbiol. 2011;49:809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reported herein indicate that Malbranchea pulchella produces a trehalase with mixed biochemical properties, different from the conventional acid and neutral enzymes and also from trehalases from other thermophilic fungi...
  13. Al Daraji W. Cutaneous lobomycosis: a delayed diagnosis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30:575-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we report 2 unique and exceedingly rare cases of cutaneous lobomycosis...
  14. Vojvodic S, Jensen A, James R, Boomsma J, Eilenberg J. Temperature dependent virulence of obligate and facultative fungal pathogens of honeybee brood. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise interesting questions about honeybee defenses against obligate and facultative pathogens and about the extent to which stress factors in the host (dis)favor pathogens with lesser degrees of specialization...
  15. Salgado C, Tavares L, Plautz H, da Silva M, Yamano S, Da Costa P, et al. Enzymatic isolation of Lacazia loboi cells from skin lesions of lobomycosis. Med Mycol. 2009;47:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..loboi relationship with other members of the Onygenales. Use of dispase proved to be ideal for the isolation of L...
  16. Christen Zaech S, Patel S, Mancini A. Recurrent cutaneous Geomyces pannorum infection in three brothers with ichthyosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:S112-3 pubmed publisher
  17. Ding Y, Greshock T, Miller K, Sherman D, Williams R. Premalbrancheamide: synthesis, isotopic labeling, biosynthetic incorporation, and detection in cultures of Malbranchea aurantiaca. Org Lett. 2008;10:4863-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, premalbrancheamide has been detected as a natural metabolite in cultures of M. aurantiaca. The biosynthetic implications of these experiments are discussed...
  18. Vilani Moreno F, Belone A, Soares C, Opromolla D. Immunohistochemical characterization of the cellular infiltrate in Jorge Lobo's disease. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2005;22:44-9 pubmed
  19. Tong X, Busk P, Lange L. Characterization of a new sn-1,3-regioselective triacylglycerol lipase from Malbranchea cinnamomea. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2016;63:471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties suggest that rMclipA has potential application in, for example, selective hydrolysis of oil, modification of triacylglycerol, and production of biodiesel. ..
  20. Invernizzi C, Rivas F, Bettucci L. Resistance to Chalkbrood disease in Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with different hygienic behaviour. Neotrop Entomol. 2011;40:28-34 pubmed
  21. de Hoog G, Bowman B, Graser Y, Haase G, El Fari M, Gerrits Van Den Ende A, et al. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of medically important fungi. Med Mycol. 1998;36 Suppl 1:52-6 pubmed
    Some recent advances in study of molecular evolution and taxonomy of human pathogens are discussed. In systemic Onygenales as well as in Chaetothyriales, pathogenic species are phylogenetically intermingled with non-pathogenic taxa...
  22. Vollekova A, Lisalova M. [Onychocola canadensis: first isolates from onychomycoses in Slovakia]. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 2009;58:19-24 pubmed
    ..It is the first report of this species in the Slovak Republic. The experience gained with the identification of this uncommon, slow-growing arthroconidial fungus is presented...
  23. Rosa P, Belone A, Lauris J, Soares C. Fine-needle aspiration may replace skin biopsy for the collection of material for experimental infection of mice with Mycobacterium leprae and Lacazia loboi. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14 Suppl 3:e49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and skin biopsy methods for obtaining bacilli and fungal cells to experimentally infect animals...
  24. Dukik K, Muñoz J, Jiang Y, Feng P, Sigler L, Stielow J, et al. Novel taxa of thermally dimorphic systemic pathogens in the Ajellomycetaceae (Onygenales). Mycoses. 2017;60:296-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Another novel dimorphic pathogen, producing broad-based budding cells at 37°C and occurring outside North America, proved to belong to the genus Blastomyces, and is described as Blastomyces percursus...
  25. Hubka V, Dobiasova S, Lyskova P, Mallatova N, Chlebkova J, Skorepová M, et al. Auxarthron ostraviense sp. nov., and A. umbrinum associated with non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Med Mycol. 2013;51:614-24 pubmed publisher
    Auxarthron is a genus within the Onygenales encompassing keratinophilic species with typical ascomata (gymnothecia) consisting of anastomosing network of thick-walled hyphae and small globose or oblate ascospores...
  26. Erne J, Walker M, Strik N, Alleman A. Systemic infection with Geomyces organisms in a dog with lytic bone lesions. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230:537-40 pubmed
    ..A 5-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated by a veterinarian because of a 4-week history of progressive lethargy and poor appetite; the dog was then examined at a referral hospital...
  27. Desjardins C, Champion M, Holder J, Muszewska A, Goldberg J, Bailão A, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002345 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like ..
  28. Jensen A, Welker D, Kryger P, James R. Polymorphic DNA sequences of the fungal honey bee pathogen Ascosphaera apis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;330:17-22 pubmed publisher
  29. Klinger E, James R, Youssef N, Welker D. A multi-gene phylogeny provides additional insight into the relationships between several Ascosphaera species. J Invertebr Pathol. 2013;112:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, based on this new phylogeny, we now suggest that the Apis mellifera (honey bee) pathogens arose within a group of saprophytes, and the Megachile (leafcutting bees) pathogens arose separately...
  30. Vilani Moreno F, Belone A, Lara V, Venturini J, Lauris J, Soares C. Detection of cytokines and nitric oxide synthase in skin lesions of Jorge Lobo's disease patients. Med Mycol. 2011;49:643-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Aronstein K, Murray K, Saldivar E. Transcriptional responses in honey bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:391 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis...
  32. Jensen A, James R, Eilenberg J. Long-term storage of Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera apis, pathogens of the leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera). J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;101:157-60 pubmed publisher
    ..apis hyphae survived well using cryopreservation. Spores produced from cryopreserved A. apis hyphae were infective. Long-term storage of these two important fungal bee diseases is thus possible...
  33. Flores J, Gutierrez I, Espejo R. The role of pollen in chalkbrood disease in Apis mellifera: transmission and predisposing conditions. Mycologia. 2005;97:1171-6 pubmed
    ..The results of both treatments confirmed that pollen is an element that should be taken into account when controlling this honeybee disease...
  34. Clark B, Lacey E, Gill J, Capon R. The effect of halide salts on the production of Gymnoascus reessii polyenylpyrroles. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:665-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the chloro substituent is a critical element in the pharmacophore for this rare class of natural product...
  35. Rotstein D, Burdett L, McLellan W, Schwacke L, Rowles T, Terio K, et al. Lobomycosis in offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), North Carolina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:588-90 pubmed publisher
  36. Durden W, St Leger J, Stolen M, Mazza T, Londono C. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:849-56 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the disease occurs throughout the lagoon. Enhanced monitoring of the prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins throughout the IRL is needed to assess changes in population health...
  37. Cornman R, Bennett A, Murray K, Evans J, Elsik C, Aronstein K. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:285 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture...
  38. Singh C. Exocellular proteases of Malbranchea gypsea and their role in keratin deterioration. Mycopathologia. 1998;143:147-50 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of such materials can be a cause of pollution and can provide a breeding spot for various types of pathogens...
  39. Ding Y, Williams R, Sherman D. Molecular analysis of a 4-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase from Malbranchea aurantiaca. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16068-76 pubmed publisher
  40. Wynns A, Jensen A, Eilenberg J, James R. Ascosphaera subglobosa, a new spore cyst fungus from North America associated with the solitary bee Megachile rotundata. Mycologia. 2012;104:108-14 pubmed publisher
    Ascosphaera subglobosa (Eurotiomycetes: Onygenales) is newly described from the pollen provisions and nesting material of the solitary leaf-cutting bee Megachile rotundata in Canada and the western United States...
  41. Pang K, Chiang M, Vrijmoed L. Remispora spitsbergenensis sp. nov., a marine lignicolous ascomycete from Svalbard, Norway. Mycologia. 2009;101:531-4 pubmed
    ..Also ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis are ribbon-like, compared with the obclavate, curved and attenuate appendages in R. quadriremis and R. stellata. A key for the identification of the eight Remispora species is provided...
  42. Vilani Moreno F, Belone A, Rosa P, Madeira S, Opromolla D. Evaluation of the vital staining method for Lacazia loboi through the experimental inoculation of BALB/c mice. Med Mycol. 2003;41:211-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the FD-EB vital staining is a sensitive and specific method that can reliably be used for viability determination in L. loboi...
  43. Huang Y, Busk P, Herbst F, Lange L. Genome and secretome analyses provide insights into keratin decomposition by novel proteases from the non-pathogenic fungus Onygena corvina. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;99:9635-49 pubmed publisher
    ..A blend of novel proteases, such as those we discovered, could possibly find a use for degrading keratinaceous wastes and provide proteins, peptides, and amino acids as valuable ingredients for animal feed. ..
  44. Ergin C, Kaleli I, Cevik E, Ovet H. [Investigation of keratinophilic fungi in Laodicea's recreation workshop]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:463-7 pubmed
  45. Vilela R, Rosa P, Belone A, Taylor J, Diório S, Mendoza L. Molecular phylogeny of animal pathogen Lacazia loboi inferred from rDNA and DNA coding sequences. Mycol Res. 2009;113:851-7 pubmed publisher
    ..brasiliensis strains that represented the known variation in this species, and outgroup taxa in the Onygenales (Ajellomyces and Coccidioides species)...
  46. Niu S, Si L, Liu D, Zhou A, Zhang Z, Shao Z, et al. Spiromastilactones: A new class of influenza virus inhibitors from deep-sea fungus. Eur J Med Chem. 2016;108:229-244 pubmed publisher
    ..The synergistic effects of 4 on both viral entry and replication assumed it to be a promising lead for the development of a new influenza inhibitor. ..
  47. Bradsher R, Chapman S, Pappas P. Blastomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003;17:21-40, vii pubmed
    ..Itraconazole has been shown to be the drug of choice for both infections, except in cases of life-threatening infection when amphotericin B should be used...
  48. Quaresma J, Unger D, Pagliari C, Sotto M, Duarte M, de Brito A. Immunohistochemical study of Langerhans cells in cutaneous lesions of the Jorge Lobo's disease. Acta Trop. 2010;114:59-62 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In Jorge Lobo's disease, this cell population probably presents some escape mechanism of the local immune system to evade the antigen presentation by those cells...
  49. Scott J, Untereiner W. Determination of keratin degradation by fungi using keratin azure. Med Mycol. 2004;42:239-46 pubmed
    ..Fifty-eight fungal taxa, including 49 members of the Arthrodermataceae, Gymnoascaceae and Onygenaceae (Order Onygenales), were assessed for keratin degradation using this method...
  50. Guthrie A, Knowles S, Ballmann A, Lorch J. Detection of Snake Fungal Disease Due to Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Virginia, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2016;52:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ophiodiicola. Seven snakes had histologic features consistent with SFD and eight were positive for O. ophiodiicola by PCR or fungal culture. ..
  51. Sutton D, Marin Y, Thompson E, Wickes B, Fu J, Garcia D, et al. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, from carapace keratitis of a Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra microphyes). Med Mycol. 2013;51:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and the characteristic reticulate ascospores with an equatorial rim separates it from other genera within the Onygenales. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the analysis of D1/D2 sequences demonstrates that this fungus represents a ..
  52. Torres Sangiao E, Durán Valle M, Velasco Fernández D, Villanueva González R. [Distal and lateral subungueal onychomycosis in a 71-year-old woman]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2006;24:527-8 pubmed
  53. Skinner S, Tsuneda A, Currah R. Morphology and development of the reticuloperidial ascomata of Auxarthron conjugatum. Mycologia. 2006;98:447-54 pubmed
    ..These findings underscore the benefit of using DNA-based phylogenies in concert with cytological and ultrastructural observations for exploring selective pressures behind homoplasious characters and revealing novel structural features...
  54. Klinger E, Vojvodic S, Degrandi Hoffman G, Welker D, James R. Mixed infections reveal virulence differences between host-specific bee pathogens. J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;129:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the competitive outcomes of mixed infections were host-specific, indicating strong host specificity among these fungal bee pathogens. ..
  55. Hosoe T, Iizuka T, Komai S, Wakana D, Itabashi T, Nozawa K, et al. 4-benzyl-3-phenyl-5H-furan-2-one, a vasodilator isolated from Malbranchea filamentosa IFM 41300. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:2776-9 pubmed
    ..Compound 1 inhibited Ca2+-induced vasocintraction in aortic rings pretreated with high K+ (60mM) or norepinephrine. Finally, compound 1 did not exhibit activity against human pathogenic microorganisms...
  56. Kiehn T. Pythium insidiosum reidentified as Gymnascella hyalinospora. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1350-1 pubmed
  57. Watts K, Loveridge S, Tenney K, Media J, Valeriote F, Crews P. Utilizing DART mass spectrometry to pinpoint halogenated metabolites from a marine invertebrate-derived fungus. J Org Chem. 2011;76:6201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, two new brominated analogues, (+)-malbrancheamide C and (+)-isomalbrancheamide C, were produced by enriching the growth medium with bromine salts...
  58. Hubalek Z, Nesvadbova J, Halouzka J. Emmonsiosis of rodents in an agroecosystem. Med Mycol. 1998;36:387-90 pubmed
    ..4% vs. 18.5%, respectively). The difference in the infection rate between the two habitats of the agroecosystem could be caused or affected by land use and farming technology...
  59. Gibas C, Sigler L, Summerbell R, Hofstader S, Gupta A. Arachnomyces kanei (anamorph Onychocola kanei) sp. nov., from human nails. Med Mycol. 2002;40:573-80 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of ITS 2 region sequences support the conspecificity of the isolates and their placement within the genus. A. kanei sp. nov. (anamorph O. kanei sp. nov.) is described...
  60. Liang Q, Chen D, Wang J. [Effects of temperature, relative humidity and pH on germination of chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis spore]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2000;11:869-72 pubmed
    ..8 did not affect the spore germination significantly, but pH < 5 reduced the enlargement and germ-tube production drastically. The results indicated that A. apis is a highly specialized pathogen for the life in honeybee larvae...