claviceps

Summary

Summary: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.

Top Publications

  1. Schardl C, Young C, Hesse U, Amyotte S, Andreeva K, Calie P, et al. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003323 pubmed publisher
    ..We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and ..
  2. Lorenz N, Wilson E, Machado C, Schardl C, Tudzynski P. Comparison of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene clusters in Claviceps species indicates loss of late pathway steps in evolution of C. fusiformis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7185-91 pubmed
    The grass parasites Claviceps purpurea and Claviceps fusiformis produce ergot alkaloids (EA) in planta and in submerged culture. Whereas EA synthesis (EAS) in C...
  3. Uhlig S, Vikøren T, Ivanova L, Handeland K. Ergot alkaloids in Norwegian wild grasses: a mass spectrometric approach. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:1651-60 pubmed
    ..grass, the recently observed ergotism among Norwegian cervids is probably due to infection of wild grasses with Claviceps. Mass spectrometry is today the method of choice for the rapid qualitative and quantitative determination of ..
  4. Tudzynski P, Holter K, Correia T, Arntz C, Grammel N, Keller U. Evidence for an ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:133-41 pubmed
    ..that catalyzes the first specific step in the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, was cloned from a strain of Claviceps purpurea that produces alkaloids in axenic culture...
  5. Butler M, Alderman S, Hammond P, Berry R. Association of insects and ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in Kentucky bluegrass seed production fields. J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:1471-6 pubmed
    ..in Oregon, Idaho, and Washington were sampled just before harvest and their association with ergot conidia of Claviceps purpurea Fr. (Tul.) was evaluated during 1996-1998. A diversity of insects was observed at all three locations...
  6. Fleetwood D, Scott B, Lane G, Tanaka A, Johnson R. A complex ergovaline gene cluster in epichloe endophytes of grasses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:2571-9 pubmed
    ..a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus...
  7. Tudzynski P, Correia T, Keller U. Biotechnology and genetics of ergot alkaloids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;57:593-605 pubmed
    ..Naturally occurring alkaloids like the D-lysergic acid amides, produced by the "ergot fungus" Claviceps purpurea, have been used as medicinal agents for a long time...
  8. Lorenz N, Olsovska J, Sulc M, Tudzynski P. Alkaloid cluster gene ccsA of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea encodes chanoclavine I synthase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidoreductase mediating the transformation of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan to chanoclavine I. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1822-30 pubmed publisher
    Ergot alkaloids are indole-derived secondary metabolites synthesized by the phytopathogenic ascomycete Claviceps purpurea...
  9. Eadie M. Convulsive ergotism: epidemics of the serotonin syndrome?. Lancet Neurol. 2003;2:429-34 pubmed
    ..east of the Rhine in Europe due to consumption of grain contaminated with ergot, which is produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea. West of the Rhine, consumption of ergot-contaminated food caused epidemics of gangrenous ergotism...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Matuschek M, Wallwey C, Xie X, Li S. New insights into ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Claviceps purpurea: an agroclavine synthase EasG catalyses, via a non-enzymatic adduct with reduced glutathione, the conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to agroclavine. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:4328-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They are produced by a wide range of fungi with Claviceps purpurea as the most important producer for medical use...
  2. Wang J, Machado C, Panaccione D, Tsai H, Schardl C. The determinant step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis by an endophyte of perennial ryegrass. Fungal Genet Biol. 2004;41:189-98 pubmed
    ..In Claviceps species the first step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis is thought to be dimethylallyltryptophan (DMAT) synthase, ..
  3. Spatafora J, Sung G, Sung J, Hywel Jones N, White J. Phylogenetic evidence for an animal pathogen origin of ergot and the grass endophytes. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:1701-11 pubmed
    ..The best-characterized species include Claviceps purpurea (ergot of rye) and Neotyphodium coenophialum (endophyte of tall fescue)...
  4. Pazoutova S, Olsovska J, Linka M, Kolínská R, Flieger M. Chemoraces and habitat specialization of Claviceps purpurea populations. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:5419-25 pubmed
    We studied genetic variability of 100 isolates of Claviceps purpurea by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), an EcoRI restriction site polymorphism in the 5...
  5. Spiering M, Wilkinson H, Blankenship J, Schardl C. Expressed sequence tags and genes associated with loline alkaloid expression by the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium uncinatum. Fungal Genet Biol. 2002;36:242-54 pubmed
    ..These findings open up the possibility for detailed studies on genes and enzymes involved in LA production...
  6. Tsai H, Wang H, Gebler J, Poulter C, Schardl C. The Claviceps purpurea gene encoding dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, the committed step for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;216:119-25 pubmed
    The first pathway-specific step of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in the fungus, Claviceps purpurea, is catalyzed by the prenyltransferase, 4-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)tryptophan synthase...
  7. Haarmann T, Rolke Y, Giesbert S, Tudzynski P. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology. Mol Plant Pathol. 2009;10:563-77 pubmed publisher
    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics...
  8. Meesapyodsuk D, Reed D, Covello P, Qiu X. Primary structure, regioselectivity, and evolution of the membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases of Claviceps purpurea. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20191-9 pubmed
    Two cDNAs with sequence similarity to fatty acid desaturase genes were isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus, Claviceps purpurea...
  9. Coyle C, Cheng J, O Connor S, Panaccione D. An old yellow enzyme gene controls the branch point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea ergot alkaloid pathways. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:3898-903 pubmed publisher
    Ergot fungi in the genus Claviceps and several related fungal groups in the family Clavicipitaceae produce toxic ergot alkaloids. These fungi produce a variety of ergot alkaloids, including clavines as well as lysergic acid derivatives...
  10. Hulvová H, Galuszka P, Frébortová J, Frebort I. Parasitic fungus Claviceps as a source for biotechnological production of ergot alkaloids. Biotechnol Adv. 2013;31:79-89 pubmed publisher
    Ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus Claviceps parasitizing on cereals, include three major groups: clavine alkaloids, d-lysergic acid and its derivatives and ergopeptines...
  11. Volpi C, Raiola A, Janni M, Gordon A, O Sullivan D, Favaron F, et al. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;73:294-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C...
  12. Giesbert S, Schürg T, Scheele S, Tudzynski P. The NADPH oxidase Cpnox1 is required for full pathogenicity of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. Mol Plant Pathol. 2008;9:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in the biotrophic plant pathogen Claviceps purpurea deletion of the cpnox1 gene, probably encoding an NADPH oxidase, has impact on germination of conidia ..
  13. Ortel I, Keller U. Combinatorial assembly of simple and complex D-lysergic acid alkaloid peptide classes in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6650-60 pubmed publisher
    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces both ergopeptines and simple d-lysergic acid alkylamides...
  14. Bormann J, Tudzynski P. Deletion of Mid1, a putative stretch-activated calcium channel in Claviceps purpurea, affects vegetative growth, cell wall synthesis and virulence. Microbiology. 2009;155:3922-33 pubmed publisher
    The putative Claviceps purpurea homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae stretch-activated calcium ion channel Mid1 was investigated for its role in vegetative growth, differentiation and pathogenicity on rye (Secale cereale)...
  15. Haarmann T, Ortel I, Tudzynski P, Keller U. Identification of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that bridges the clavine and ergoline alkaloid pathways. Chembiochem. 2006;7:645-52 pubmed
    ..of the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene cluster from the D-lysergic acid peptide (ergopeptines)-producing Claviceps purpurea, has shown that it most probably contains all genes necessary for D-lysergic acid synthesis as well as ..
  16. Lorenz N, Haarmann T, Pazoutova S, Jung M, Tudzynski P. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster: functional analyses and evolutionary aspects. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Ergot alkaloids are produced mainly by members of the genus Claviceps, with Claviceps purpurea as best investigated species concerning the biochemistry of ergot alkaloid synthesis (..
  17. Nathues E, Joshi S, Tenberge K, von den Driesch M, Oeser B, Baumer N, et al. CPTF1, a CREB-like transcription factor, is involved in the oxidative stress response in the phytopathogen Claviceps purpurea and modulates ROS level in its host Secale cereale. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:383-93 pubmed
    ..was identified during an expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of in planta-expressed genes of the phytopathogen Claviceps purpurea. Using a gene-replacement approach, deletion mutants of cptf1 were created...
  18. Scheffer J, Ziv C, Yarden O, Tudzynski P. The COT1 homologue CPCOT1 regulates polar growth and branching and is essential for pathogenicity in Claviceps purpurea. Fungal Genet Biol. 2005;42:107-18 pubmed
    b>Claviceps purpurea, the ergot fungus, is a common grass pathogen attacking exclusively young ovaries...
  19. Haarmann T, Machado C, Lübbe Y, Correia T, Schardl C, Panaccione D, et al. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea: extension of the cluster sequence and intra species evolution. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:1312-20 pubmed
    The genomic region of Claviceps purpurea strain P1 containing the ergot alkaloid gene cluster [Tudzynski, P., Hölter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N., Keller, U., 1999...
  20. Markert A, Steffan N, Ploss K, Hellwig S, Steiner U, Drewke C, et al. Biosynthesis and accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in a mutualistic association between Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and a clavicipitalean fungus. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the fungus and the plant very likely is a symbiotum in which ergoline alkaloids play an essential role...
  21. Mey G, Held K, Scheffer J, Tenberge K, Tudzynski P. CPMK2, an SLT2-homologous mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, is essential for pathogenesis of Claviceps purpurea on rye: evidence for a second conserved pathogenesis-related MAP kinase cascade in phytopathogenic fungi. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:305-18 pubmed
    Cpmk2, encoding a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase from the ascomycete Claviceps purpurea, is an orthologue of SLT2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first isolated from a biotrophic, non-appressorium-forming pathogen...
  22. Riederer B, Han M, Keller U. D-Lysergyl peptide synthetase from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27524-30 pubmed
    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces the medically important ergopeptines, which consist of a cyclol-structured tripeptide and D-lysergic acid linked by an amide bond...
  23. Walzel B, Riederer B, Keller U. Mechanism of alkaloid cyclopeptide synthesis in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. Chem Biol. 1997;4:223-30 pubmed
    Previous analyses of the biosynthesis of the alkaloid cyclopeptides from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea were hampered by a lack of suitable systems for study in vitro, and this led to conflicting results concerning the mechanism of ..
  24. Oeser B, Heidrich P, Müller U, Tudzynski P, Tenberge K. Polygalacturonase is a pathogenicity factor in the Claviceps purpurea/rye interaction. Fungal Genet Biol. 2002;36:176-86 pubmed
    b>Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic, organ-specific pathogen of grasses and cereals, attacking exclusively young ovaries...
  25. Mavraganis I, Meesapyodsuk D, Vrinten P, Smith M, Qiu X. Type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Claviceps purpurea with ricinoleic acid, a hydroxyl fatty acid of industrial importance, as preferred substrate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1135-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Claviceps purpurea, the fungal pathogen that causes the cereal disease ergot, produces glycerides that contain high levels of ricinoleic acid [(R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid] in its sclerotia...
  26. Douhan G, Smith M, Huyrn K, Westbrook A, Beerli P, Fisher A. Multigene analysis suggests ecological speciation in the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:2276-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Claviceps purpurea is an important pathogen of grasses and source of novel chemical compounds...
  27. Li S, Unsöld I. Post-genome research on the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids. Planta Med. 2006;72:1117-20 pubmed
    ..Seven of them are orthologous to genes from the biosynthetic gene cluster of ergot alkaloids in CLAVICEPS PURPUREA...
  28. Oeser B, Beaussart F, Haarmann T, Lorenz N, Nathues E, Rolke Y, et al. Expressed sequence tags from the flower pathogen Claviceps purpurea. Mol Plant Pathol. 2009;10:665-84 pubmed publisher
    SUMMARY The ascomycete Claviceps purpurea (ergot) is a biotrophic flower pathogen of rye and other grasses. The deleterious toxic effects of infected rye seeds on humans and grazing animals have been known since the Middle Ages...
  29. Gebler J, Poulter C. Purification and characterization of dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase from Claviceps purpurea. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;296:308-13 pubmed
    ..The enzyme from mycelia of Claviceps purpurea was purified approximately 125-fold to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on n-butyl Sepharose, Q ..
  30. Correia T, Grammel N, Ortel I, Keller U, Tudzynski P. Molecular cloning and analysis of the ergopeptine assembly system in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. Chem Biol. 2003;10:1281-92 pubmed
    b>Claviceps purpurea produces the pharmacological important ergopeptines, a class of cyclol-structured alkaloid peptides containing D-lysergic acid...
  31. Mey G, Oeser B, Lebrun M, Tudzynski P. The biotrophic, non-appressorium-forming grass pathogen Claviceps purpurea needs a Fus3/Pmk1 homologous mitogen-activated protein kinase for colonization of rye ovarian tissue. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2002;15:303-12 pubmed
    b>Claviceps purpurea is a common pathogen of a wide range of grasses and cereals that is able to establish a stable, balanced interaction with its host plant and is considered a biotroph...
  32. Haarmann T, Lorenz N, Tudzynski P. Use of a nonhomologous end joining deficient strain (Deltaku70) of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea for identification of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene involved in ergotamine biosynthesis. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:35-44 pubmed
    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea uses mainly the nonhomologous-end-joining (NHEJ) system for integration of exogenous DNA, leading to a low frequency of homologous integration (1-2%)...
  33. Rolke Y, Tudzynski P. The small GTPase Rac and the p21-activated kinase Cla4 in Claviceps purpurea: interaction and impact on polarity, development and pathogenicity. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:405-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Claviceps purpurea, the ergot fungus, is a highly specialized pathogen of grasses; its colonization of host ovarian tissue requires an extended period of strictly polarized, oriented growth towards the vascular tissue...
  34. Gordon A, Basler R, Bansept Basler P, Fanstone V, Harinarayan L, Grant P, et al. The identification of QTL controlling ergot sclerotia size in hexaploid wheat implicates a role for the Rht dwarfing alleles. Theor Appl Genet. 2015;128:2447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..alleles at the Rht loci Rht - 1B and Rht - 1D implicating a role of these DELLA proteins in infection success of Claviceps purpurea...
  35. Schwarzenbach G, Ward P. Phenoloxidase activity and pathogen resistance in yellow dung flies Scathophaga stercoraria. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:2192-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that even if elevated immune levels increase an individual's ability to combat pathogens, the benefits may not outweigh the costs of increased investment in immunity. ..
  36. Vepritskaia I, Boĭchenko L, Arinbasarov M, Zelenkova N, Bobkova N. [Selection of ergot alkaloid producers by induced mutagenesis]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002;38:35-9 pubmed
    Using the induced mutagenesis technique, A series of genetically modified Claviceps sp. VKM F-2609 strains that display high levels of agroclavine and elymoclavine synthesis were selected by induced mutagenesis...
  37. Franzmann C, Wächter J, Dittmer N, Humpf H. Ricinoleic acid as a marker for ergot impurities in rye and rye products. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:4223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This method allows the determination of ergot impurities as low as 0.01% (w/w). Furthermore, 29 rye products (flours, bread mix, bread) were investigated for their ricinoleic acid and ergot alkaloid contents. ..
  38. Perez L, Gundel P, Marrero H, Arzac A, Omacini M. Symbiosis with systemic fungal endophytes promotes host escape from vector-borne disease. Oecologia. 2017;184:237-245 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the endophyte impact on plant disease caused by the biotrophic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, under field conditions through (1) changes in the survival of the pathogen´s resistance structure (..
  39. Holic R, Yazawa H, Kumagai H, Uemura H. Engineered high content of ricinoleic acid in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..acid: C18:1-OH) as a petrochemical replacement in a variety of industrial processes, we introduced Claviceps purpurea oleate ?12-hydroxylase gene (CpFAH12) to Schizosaccharomyces pombe, putting it under the control of ..
  40. Mirdita V, Dhillon B, Geiger H, Miedaner T. Genetic variation for resistance to ergot (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) among full-sib families of five populations of winter rye (Secale cereale L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2008;118:85-90 pubmed publisher
    Ergot (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) is a serious disease of rye (Secale cereale L.) and it adversely affects the quality of grain...
  41. Lucejko J, La Nasa J, Porta F, Vanzetti A, Tanda G, Mangiaracina C, et al. Long-lasting ergot lipids as new biomarkers for assessing the presence of cereals and cereal products in archaeological vessels. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3935 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel biomarker approach entailing the detection of secondary lipid metabolites produced by ergot fungi (genus Claviceps), which are common cereal pests...
  42. Flieger M, Kantorová M, Benada O, Kofronova O, Sobotka M, Cvak J, et al. Preparation of nanoparticles by electrocoagulation from soluble exopolysaccharide produced by Claviceps viridis. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;85:234-6 pubmed
    ..This method was applied for the preparation of nanoparticles from soluble exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Claviceps viridis in a submerged batch culture...
  43. Okide G, Ajali U. Better biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids. Boll Chim Farm. 2003;142:187-90 pubmed
    ..The culture media were inoculated with equal mycelia of Claviceps purpurea and some were incubated for 22 days and some incubated for 45 days...
  44. van der Linde E, Pešicová K, Pazoutova S, Stodulkova E, Flieger M, Kolařík M. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa. Fungal Biol. 2016;120:917-930 pubmed publisher
    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci...
  45. Kopinski J, Blaney B, Downing J, McVeigh J, Murray S. Feeding sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana) to sows before farrowing inhibits milk production. Aust Vet J. 2007;85:169-76 pubmed
    ..Sorghum ergot should not exceed 0.3% (1 mg alkaloid/kg) in diets of multiparous sows fed before farrowing, and should be limited to 0.1% for primiparous sows, or avoided completely. ..
  46. Dänicke S. Ergot Alkaloids in Fattening Chickens (Broilers): Toxic Effects and Carry over Depending on Dietary Fat Proportion and Supplementation with Non-Starch-Polysaccharide (NSP) Hydrolyzing Enzymes. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins produced by Claviceps purpurea. EA-toxicity is poorly characterized for fattening chickens...
  47. Vogt Engeland I, Andresen O, Ropstad E, Kindahl H, Waldeland H, Daskin A, et al. Effect of fungal alkaloids on the development of pregnancy and endocrine foetal-placental function in the goat. Anim Reprod Sci. 1998;52:289-302 pubmed
    The response to Claviceps purpurea sclerotia administration in pregnant goats was examined in terms of changes in the levels of plasma hormones, the development of pregnancy and kid production...
  48. Beau Salinas F, Jonville Bera A, Cissoko H, Bensouda Grimaldi L, Autret Leca E. Drug dependence associated with triptans and ergot derivatives: a case/non-case study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:413-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9] for ergotamine to 20.6 [8-53] for dihydroergotamine. These findings confirm the hypothesis that triptans and ergot derivatives are associated with an increased risk of drug dependence. ..
  49. Damrongkool P, Sedlock A, Young C, Johnson R, Goetz K, Scott B, et al. Structural analysis of a peptide synthetase gene required for ergopeptine production in the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium lolii. DNA Seq. 2005;16:379-85 pubmed
    ..in the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium lolii was analyzed and compared to a homologous gene from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea...
  50. Eadie M. Ergot of rye-the first specific for migraine. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:4-7 pubmed
    ..In 1918, Stoll had isolated it from the various alkaloids present in extracts of the sclerotia of the fungus Claviceps purpurea (ergot), which grow on rye and, to a lesser extent, on other grasses...
  51. Lopez T, Campero C, Chayer R, de Hoyos M. Ergotism and photosensitization in swine produced by the combined ingestion of Claviceps purpurea sclerotia and Ammi majus seeds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1997;9:68-71 pubmed
    ..One herd of pigs suffered simultaneous intoxications by ergot alkaloids from Claviceps purpurea sclerotia and furocoumarins from Ammi majus seeds...
  52. Kantorová M, Kolínská R, Pazoutova S, Honzatko A, Havlicek V, Flieger M. Ergot alkaloids produced by submerged cultures of Claviceps zizaniae. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:1039-40 pubmed
    ..alpha-ergocryptinine, have been isolated from the mycelium and fermentation broth of submerged cultures of Claviceps zizaniae CCM 8240. The structure of 1 was determined by HPLC/positive ion APCI MS and NMR analysis...
  53. Molloy J, Moore C, Bruyeres A, Murray S, Blaney B. Determination of dihydroergosine in sorghum ergot using an immunoassay. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3916-9 pubmed
    Dihydroergosine (DHES) is the principal toxic alkaloid produced by sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana). It has recently been shown that DHES levels as low as 1 mg/kg in animal feed can cause significant production losses...
  54. Menge M, Mukherjee J, Scheper T. Application of oxygen vectors to Claviceps purpurea cultivation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;55:411-6 pubmed
    The application of a two-phase fermentation system for the production of ergot peptide alkaloids by Claviceps purpurea is described. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are used as oxygen vectors in Claviceps fermentation for the first time...
  55. Prom L, Lopez J. Viability of Claviceps africana spores ingested by adult corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Econ Entomol. 2004;97:764-7 pubmed
    A study was conducted in College Station, TX, to determine the viability of Claviceps africana spores in the digestive tract of adult corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)...
  56. Rylko V, Linhartová R, Sajdl P, Rehácek Z. Formation of conidia in a saprophytic strain Claviceps paspali producing simple lysergic acid derivatives. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1988;33:425-9 pubmed
    ..Conidiation proceeded in parallel with culture growth and production of alkaloids. The effect of composition of culture media on the intensity of conidiation is described. ..
  57. Tenberge K, Stellamanns P, Plenz G, Robenek H. Nonradioactive in situ hybridization for detection of hydrophobin mRNA in the phytopathogenic fungus Claviceps purpurea during infection of rye. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:265-72 pubmed
    ..In the pathogenic ascomycete Claviceps purpurea, causing ergot disease in grasses and cereals and ergotism in livestock, a gene encoding an ..
  58. Tillequin F. [Trehala, a meeting point between zoology, botany, chemistry, and biochemistry]. Rev Hist Pharm (Paris). 2009;57:163-72 pubmed
    ..In 1876, Müntz established that trehalose was identical with mycose isolated from Claviceps purpurea by Mitscherlich.
  59. Merkel S, Köppen R, Koch M, Emmerling F, Nehls I. Lumi-ergometrine--structural identification and occurrence in sclerotia. Mycotoxin Res. 2012;28:59-66 pubmed publisher
    The fungus Claviceps purpurea grows on grasses and cereal grains and produces six predominant ergot alkaloids. These toxic substances undergo different transformation reactions during storage and cereal processing...
  60. Lee M. The history of ergot of rye (Claviceps purpurea) III: 1940-80. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2010;40:77-80 pubmed
    ..It is widely used for the suppression of lactation, the treatment of prolactinomas and the management of Parkinson's disease. ..
  61. Ekesi S, Maniania N, Lux S. Effect of soil temperature and moisture on survival and infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae to four tephritid fruit fly puparia. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;83:157-67 pubmed
    ..This study is indicative of the potential of using isolate ICIPE 20 for soil inoculation against pupariating third-instar larva of fruit flies, thus providing a novel alternative to chemical soil application. ..
  62. Ku J, Jeong B, Jew S, Park H. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-cis-clavicipitic acid. J Org Chem. 2007;72:8115-8 pubmed
  63. Unsöld I, Li S. Reverse prenyltransferase in the biosynthesis of fumigaclavine C in Aspergillus fumigatus: gene expression, purification, and characterization of fumigaclavine C synthase FGAPT1. Chembiochem. 2006;7:158-64 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, it shows very low sequence similarity to the recently identified prenyltransferase LtxC from cyanobacteria, which also catalyzes the reverse prenylation of an indole nucleus. ..
  64. Blankenship J, Spiering M, Wilkinson H, Fannin F, Bush L, Schardl C. Production of loline alkaloids by the grass endophyte, Neotyphodium uncinatum, in defined media. Phytochemistry. 2001;58:395-401 pubmed
    ..7 mM sucrose and 30 mM ornithine. The alkaloid production rate peaked after the onset of stationary phase, as is common for secondary metabolism in other microbes. ..
  65. Vorisek J, Kalachova L. Secretion of acid phosphatase in Claviceps purpurea--an ultracytochemical study. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2003;48:767-70 pubmed
    ..reflects the presence of the enzyme glycoprotein) in peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles in the ascomycetous fungus Claviceps purpurea...
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    The D-lysergic acid activating enzyme from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea was purified to near homogeneity. It has a native Mr of about 245,000 and in its denatured form is a single polypeptide chain of Mr 62,000...
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    b>Claviceps purpurea infects the seed heads of cereal grains and grasses and produces ergopeptine alkaloids that cause hyperthermia and agalactia in cattle during periods of heat stress...
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    The aromatic prenyltransferase dimethylallyltryptophan synthase in Claviceps purpurea catalyzes the normal prenylation of tryptophan at C4 of the indole nucleus in the first committed step of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis...
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    ..Such modifications have been informed by comparative genomic approaches, which have provided information on the gene clusters associated with ergot alkaloid biosynthesis...
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    ..Ergot contamination of diets is caused by grain infection with Claviceps purpurea and sometimes by infection of grass and weed (in grain)...
  71. Zhang Z, Du X, Chai R, Wang J, Qiu H, Mao X, et al. [Cloning of a homologous gene of Magnaporthe grisea PMK1 type MAPK from Ustilaginoidea virens and functional identification by complement in Magnaporthe grisea corresponding mutant]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2008;48:1473-8 pubmed
    ..Cloning of a Homologous Gene of PMK1 Type Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) from the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens...
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    ..acid with great values as a petrochemical replacement, in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by introducing Claviceps purpurea oleate ?12-hydroxylase gene (CpFAH12). Although the production was toxic to S...
  73. Yue Q, Wang C, Gianfagna T, Meyer W. Volatile compounds of endophyte-free and infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Phytochemistry. 2001;58:935-41 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the production of a unique spectrum of volatiles after JA treatment may represent a significant plant-based defense response in tall fescue that is independent of endophyte...
  74. Komarova E, Shain S, Sheichenko V. [Isolation of the ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., strain VKM-F-366D), producing the lactamic alkaloid ergocornam]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002;38:658-63 pubmed
    ..The structure of these alkaloids was determined by 1H and 13C NMR...
  75. Ilha M, Loretti A, Barros C. Hyperthermic syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of ergots of Claviceps purpurea in southern Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003;45:140-5 pubmed
    A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil...
  76. Boĭchenko L, Zelenkova N, Arinbasarov M, Reshetilova T. [Optimization of conditions for storage and cultivation of the fungus Claviceps sp.--a producer of the ergot alkaloid agroclavine]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2003;39:335-40 pubmed
    Conditions of agroclavine biosynthesis by the mutant Claviceps sp. strain s 106 were studied. The content of agroclavine was maximum (1...
  77. Pazoutova S, Bogo A. Rediscovery of Claviceps sorghi (Ascomycotina: Clavicipitaceae) in India. Mycopathologia. 2002;153:99-101 pubmed
    During last twenty years, endemic Claviceps sorghi was largely replaced in India by an introduced species Claviceps africana. Recently, C. sorghi was found and isolated from Sorghum bicolor (Gulbarga, Karnataka)...
  78. Mainka S, Dänicke S, Böhme H, Wolff J, Matthes S, Flachowsky G. Comparative studies on the effect of ergot contaminated feed on performance and health of piglets and chickens. Arch Anim Nutr. 2005;59:81-98 pubmed
    ..response trials were conducted with piglets and chickens to study the effects of increasing amounts of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) with a defined alkaloid content and pattern on performance, biochemical serum characteristics and ..
  79. Kraus Zatecky A. [The shadow sides of the bio-boom. Where do fungi overall leave their poison behind]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2004;146:12 pubmed
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    ..reaction for the detection of ergot alkaloid producers among microscopic fungi of the genera Penicillium and Claviceps was evaluated...
  81. Blaney B, McKenzie R, Walters J, Taylor L, Bewg W, Ryley M, et al. Sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana) associated with agalactia and feed refusal in pigs and dairy cattle. Aust Vet J. 2000;78:102-7 pubmed
    ..To establish the aetiology and define the main clinical features of a syndrome characterised by severe feed refusal, death of piglets and reduced milk production in pigs and dairy cattle...
  82. Coppock R, Mostrom M, Simon J, McKenna D, Jacobsen B, Szlachta H. Cutaneous ergotism in a herd of dairy calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989;194:549-51 pubmed
    Weather conditions in northern Illinois favored infection of pasture grasses with Claviceps purpurea...
  83. Oeser B, Kind S, Schurack S, Schmutzer T, Tudzynski P, Hinsch J. Cross-talk of the biotrophic pathogen Claviceps purpurea and its host Secale cereale. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:273 pubmed publisher
    The economically important Ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea is an interesting biotrophic model system because of its strict organ specificity (grass ovaries) and the lack of any detectable plant defense reactions...
  84. Stahl M, Jakob A, von Brocke A, Nicholson G, Bayer E. Comparison of different setups for one- and two-dimensional capillary high-performance liquid chromatography and pressurized capillary electrochromatography coupled on-line with mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:2949-62 pubmed
    ..In addition, an improved method for column packing is presented...
  85. Pazoutova S, Olsovska J, Sulc M, Chudícková M, Flieger M. Claviceps nigricans and Claviceps grohii: their alkaloids and phylogenetic placement. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1085-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Claviceps purpurea, C. grohii, C. zizaniae, C. cyperi, and C. nigricans are closely related ergot fungi and form a monophyletic clade inside the genus Claviceps. Analysis of alkaloid content in C...
  86. Meesapyodsuk D, Qiu X. An oleate hydroxylase from the fungus Claviceps purpurea: cloning, functional analysis, and expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1325-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Claviceps purpurea, a fungal pathogen responsible for ergot diseases in many agriculturally important cereal crops, produces high levels of ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) in its sclerotia...