monascus

Summary

Summary: A genus in the family Monascaceae, order EUROTIALES. One species, Monascus purpureus, has multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).

Top Publications

  1. Li Y, Zhang F, Wang Z, Hu Z. Identification and chemical profiling of monacolins in red yeast rice using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004;35:1101-12 pubmed
    b>Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice) was one of the food supplements that had the ability of lowering the blood-lipid levels, and monacolins have been proved to be main active constituents...
  2. Lee C, Hung H, Wang J, Pan T. Improving the ratio of monacolin K to citrinin production of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 under dioscorea medium through the mediation of pH value and ethanol addition. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6493-502 pubmed
    Using dioscorea root as substrate of Monascus species was found to stimulate monacolin K (cholesterol-lowering agent) formation in our previous study, but the mycotoxin-citrinin has never been studied...
  3. Lee C, Hung H, Wang J, Pan T. Red mold dioscorea has greater hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effect than traditional red mold rice and unfermented dioscorea in hamsters. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:7162-9 pubmed
    b>Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD) was proven to produce higher monacolin K levels than red mold rice (RMR) in our previous study...
  4. Wang T, Lin T. Monascus rice products. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2007;53:123-59 pubmed
    The fermentation products of Monascus, especially those produced by solid-state fermentation of rice, have been used as food and health remedies for over 1000 years in China...
  5. Pattanagul P, Pinthong R, Phianmongkhol A, Tharatha S. Mevinolin, citrinin and pigments of adlay angkak fermented by Monascus sp. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;126:20-3 pubmed publisher
    Adlay angkak a new developed product from an adlay substrate fermented by Monascus fungi can be used both as a natural coloring and a dietary supplement...
  6. Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Yasukawa K, Ukiya M, Kiyota A, Sakamoto N, et al. Azaphilones, furanoisophthalides, and amino acids from the extracts of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice) and their chemopreventive effects. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:562-5 pubmed
    ..B (8), and two amino acids, (+)-monascumic acid (9) and (-)-monascumic acid (10), isolated from the extracts of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-..
  7. Chuang C, Shi Y, You H, Lo Y, Pan T. Antidepressant effect of GABA-rich monascus-fermented product on forced swimming rat model. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:3027-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this research, we focus on the antidepressant effects of oral administration of GABA-rich Monascus-fermented product in depression animal model (forced swimming test, FST) by Sprague-Dawley rats, and try to find ..
  8. Wang J, Lee C, Pan T. Improvement of monacolin K, gamma-aminobutyric acid and citrinin production ratio as a function of environmental conditions of Monascus purpureus NTU 601. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;30:669-76 pubmed
    b>Monascus, a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus, is used as a natural dietary supplement...
  9. Wang C, Yang H, Chen M, Wang Y, Li F, Luo C, et al. Real-time quantitative analysis of the influence of blue light on citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1745-8 pubmed publisher
    When Monascus MX was grown under blue light instead of in the dark, citrinin production increased from 478 mg l(-1) to 698 mg l(-1)...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Su N, Lin Y, Lee M, Ho C. Ankaflavin from Monascus-fermented red rice exhibits selective cytotoxic effect and induces cell death on Hep G2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1949-54 pubmed
    b>Monascus-fermented red rice has traditionally been used as a natural food colorant or food preservative of meat and fish for centuries...
  2. Miyake T, Uchitomi K, Zhang M, Kono I, Nozaki N, Sammoto H, et al. Effects of the principal nutrients on lovastatin production by Monascus pilosus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:1154-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated how several carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium affect lovastatin production by Monascus pilosus. M. pilosus required a suitable concentration of organic nitrogen peptone for high lovastatin production...
  3. Kongruang S. Growth kinetics of biopigment production by Thai isolated Monascus purpureus in a stirred tank bioreactor. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;38:93-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus purpureus is a biopigment-producing fungi whose pigments can be used in many biotechnological and food industries...
  4. Shi Y, Pan T. Antioxidant and pancreas-protective effect of red mold fermented products on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:2519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that red mold fermented products not only regulate hyperglycemia but also provide prevention against the effects of STZ-induced pancreatic damage. ..
  5. Ho B, Pan T. The Monascus metabolite monacolin K reduces tumor progression and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8258-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus -fermented red mold rice extract (RMRE) offers valuable therapeutic benefits and has been extensively used for centuries in East Asia...
  6. Wang J, Shieh M, Kuo S, Lee C, Pan T. Effect of red mold rice on antifatigue and exercise-related changes in lipid peroxidation in endurance exercise. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;70:247-53 pubmed
    ..Besides, the result suggested that the red mold rice supplementation may decrease the contribution of exercise-induced oxidative stress and improve the physiological condition of the rats. ..
  7. Jung H, Kim C, Kim K, Shin C. Color characteristics of monascus pigments derived by fermentation with various amino acids. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:1302-6 pubmed
    Various pigment colors were produced by Monascus fermentations with separate addition of 20 amino acids. The color characteristics and structures of the pigment derivatives were investigated...
  8. Lin C, Lin Y, Huang P, Tsai H, Chen Y. Inhibition of endothelial adhesion molecule expression by Monascus purpureus-fermented rice metabolites, monacolin K, ankaflavin, and monascin. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:1751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, containing naturally occurring statins and various pigments, has lipid-modulating, anti-..
  9. Daroit D, Simonetti A, Hertz P, Brandelli A. Purification and characterization of an extracellular beta-glucosidase from Monascus purpureus. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:933-41 pubmed
    An extracellular beta-glucosidase produced by Monascus purpureus NRRL1992 in submerged cultivation was purified by acetone precipitation, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, resulting in a purification factor of 92-..
  10. Jou P, Ho B, Hsu Y, Pan T. The effect of Monascus secondary polyketide metabolites, monascin and ankaflavin, on adipogenesis and lipolysis activity in 3T3-L1. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:12703-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of Monascus secondary metabolites, monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK), on cell proliferation, adipogenesis, lipolysis and heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in 3T3-L1 ..
  11. Gheith O, Sheashaa H, Abdelsalam M, Shoeir Z, Sobh M. Efficacy and safety of Monascus purpureus Went rice in children and young adults with secondary hyperlipidemia: a preliminary report. Eur J Intern Med. 2009;20:e57-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of Monascus purpureus Went rice vs. fluvastatin therapy in the management of nephrotic dyslipidemia.
  12. Yu K, Kim Y, Shin K, Kim J, Suh H. Macrophage-stimulating activity of exo-biopolymer from cultured rice bran with Monascus pilosus. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2005;126:35-48 pubmed
    ..Among the exo-biopolymers produced from the cultures, Monascus pilosus had the most potent macrophage stimulating activity in a liquid culture rather than in a solid culture...
  13. Jia X, Xu Z, Zhou L, Sung C. Elimination of the mycotoxin citrinin production in the industrial important strain Monascus purpureus SM001. Metab Eng. 2010;12:1-7 pubmed publisher
    The application of the high-producing pigments industrial strain Monascus purpureus SM001 has been greatly limited by the synchronous production of mycotoxin citrinin...
  14. Feng Y, Shao Y, Chen F. Monascus pigments. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;96:1421-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus pigments (MPs) as natural food colorants have been widely utilized in food industries in the world, especially in China and Japan...
  15. Lee C, Wen J, Hsu Y, Pan T. Monascus-fermented yellow pigments monascin and ankaflavin showed antiobesity effect via the suppression of differentiation and lipogenesis in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:1493-500 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus-fermented monascin and ankaflavin are found to strongly inhibit differentiation and lipogenesis and stimulate lipolysis effects in a 3T3-L1 preadipocyte model, but the in vivo regulation mechanism is unclear...
  16. Yang C, Mousa S. The effect of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) in dyslipidemia and other disorders. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20:466-74 pubmed publisher
    Red Yeast Rice (RYR) is a traditional Chinese food that is fermented and obtained after red yeast (Monascus purpureus) is grown on rice...
  17. Chiang S, Chang S, Pan T. Osteoprotective effect of Monascus-fermented dioscorea in ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:9150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that administration of monacolin K and phytoestrogen diosgenin could prevent bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency...
  18. Campoy S, Pérez F, Martin J, Gutierrez S, Liras P. Stable transformants of the azaphilone pigment-producing Monascus purpureus obtained by protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer. Curr Genet. 2003;43:447-52 pubmed
    The high-level pigment-producing Monascus strain IBCC1 was characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA as M. purpureus. This technique allowed us to distinguish between M. purpureus and M. ruber strains...
  19. Pyo Y, Seong K. Hypolipidemic effects of Monascus-fermented soybean extracts in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8617-22 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated whether Monascus-fermented soybean extracts (MFSE) enriched with bioactive mevinolins (natural statins) and aglycone isoflavones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistein) perform an additive hypolipidemic effect in hyperlipidemic ..
  20. Huang C, Hu H, Tsai Y, Chang W. In vitro effects of Monascus purpureus on antioxidation activity during fermentation of Kinmen sorghum liquor waste. J Biosci Bioeng. 2013;115:418-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus purpureus CWT715 is a strain of red yeast rice that can scavenge free radicals when fermented with residual sorghum from Kinmen sorghum liquor waste (KSL)...
  21. Lin Y, Wang T, Lee M, Su N. Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in the Monascus-fermented rice: a review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;77:965-73 pubmed
    b>Monascus-fermented rice has traditionally been used as a natural food colorant and food preservative of meat and fish for centuries...
  22. Wu C, Kuo Y, Lee C, Hsu Y, Pan T. Synchronous high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry for the determination of citrinin, monascin, ankaflavin, and the lactone and acid forms of monacolin K in red mold rice. J AOAC Int. 2011;94:179-90 pubmed
    The Monascus fermentation product red mold rice (RMR) has been found to contain the cholesterol-lowering agent monacolin K (MK) in both its lactone (MKL) and acid (MKA) forms and the mycotoxin citrinin (CT)...
  23. Hu Z, Zhang X, Wu Z, Qi H, Wang Z. Export of intracellular Monascus pigments by two-stage microbial fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution. J Biotechnol. 2012;162:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Perstractive fermentation of intracellular Monascus pigments in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 aqueous solution was studied in the present work, in which the ..
  24. Hsu W, Lee B, Pan T. Red mold dioscorea-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human oral cancer cells. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:2709-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus-fermented products are among the most commonly used traditional food supplements. Dioscorea is known to exhibit anticancer properties...
  25. Akihisa T, Mafune S, Ukiya M, Kimura Y, Yasukawa K, Suzuki T, et al. (+)- and (-)-syn-2-isobutyl-4-methylazetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acids from the extract of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice). J Nat Prod. 2004;67:479-80 pubmed
    ..acids isolated from the n-butanol-soluble fraction of the 70% ethanol extract of red-mold rice fermented with Monascus pilosus were established to be (+)- [1; (+)-monascumic acid] and (-)-syn-2-isobutyl-4-methylazetidine-2,4-..
  26. Kim J, Choi Y, Chang Y, Kim S. Genetic transformation of Monascus purpureus DSM1379. Biotechnol Lett. 2003;25:1509-14 pubmed
    b>Monascus purpureus was transformed into hygromycin B resistance with hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) fused to Aspergillus nidulans trpC or a putative Monascus purpureus gpd1 promoter by electroporation. Among five strains, only M...
  27. Ho B, Wu Y, Hsu Y, Hsu L, Kuo Y, Chang K, et al. Effects of Monascus-fermented rice extract on malignant cell-associated neovascularization and intravasation determined using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to improving metabolic syndrome, extracts from Monascus-fermented rice inhibit the proliferation of various cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
  28. Lee C, Wang J, Pan T. Red mold rice extract represses amyloid beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity via potent synergism of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;79:829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Red mold rice (RMR) fermented by Monascus species is regarded as cholesterol-lowering functional food in virtue of the metabolite monacolin K identified as ..
  29. Quezada M, Carballeira J, Sinisterra J. Monascus kaoliang CBS 302.78 immobilized in polyurethane foam using iso-propanol as co-substrate: Optimized immobilization conditions of a fungus as biocatalyst for the reduction of ketones. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:2018-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus kaoliang was selected after a microbial screening as a highly active and selective whole cell catalyst for the reduction of ketones...
  30. Cheng C, Pan T. Protective effect of Monascus-fermented red mold rice against alcoholic liver disease by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:9950-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermented rice is reported to exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antitumor, antihypertriglyceridemia, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities...
  31. Hu Z, Zhang X, Wu Z, Qi H, Wang Z. Perstraction of intracellular pigments by submerged cultivation of Monascus in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, submerged cultivation of Monascus in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution for pigment production is exploited, in which ..
  32. Babitha S, Soccol C, Pandey A. Effect of stress on growth, pigment production and morphology of Monascus sp. in solid cultures. J Basic Microbiol. 2007;47:118-26 pubmed
    The aim of the current work was to study the influence of stress on pigment production in Monascus purpureus under solid-state fermentation. Thermal stress was induced by incubating the culture at various high temperatures...
  33. Lee C, Pan T. Development of Monascus fermentation technology for high hypolipidemic effect. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:1449-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus species has been used as the traditional food fungus in Eastern Asia for several centuries...
  34. Lee C, Wang J, Pan T. Synchronous analysis method for detection of citrinin and the lactone and acid forms of monacolin K in red mold rice. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:669-77 pubmed
    The Monascus product known as red mold rice (RMR) has been found to contain the cholesterol-lowering agent monacolin K (MK), including the lactone form (MKL) and the acid form (MKA) and mycotoxin citrinin (CT)...
  35. Jung H, Kim C, Shin C. Enhanced photostability of monascus pigments derived with various amino acids via fermentation. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:7108-14 pubmed
    The photostability of 18 amino acid derivatives from monascus pigment was tested under various physical and chemical conditions. Under sunlight, the half-life of derivatives was increased to 1.45-5...
  36. Cicero A, Brancaleoni M, Laghi L, Donati F, Mino M. Antihyperlipidaemic effect of a Monascus purpureus brand dietary supplement on a large sample of subjects at low risk for cardiovascular disease: a pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2005;13:273-8 pubmed
    ..to evaluate the efficacy and safety as an antihypercholesterolemic agent of a brand dietary supplement made of Monascus purpureus titrated extract, octacosanols and niacin on 111 Caucasian patients with low cardiovascular disease ..
  37. Lee C, Kung Y, Wang J, Lung T, Pan T. Enhanced hypolipidemic effect and safety of red mold dioscorea cultured in deep ocean water. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:8199-207 pubmed publisher
    Red mold dioscorea (RMD) produced by Monascus sp. was proven to be a hypolipidemic functional food...
  38. Higashikawa F, Noda M, Awaya T, Ushijima M, Sugiyama M. Reduction of serum lipids by the intake of the extract of garlic fermented with Monascus pilosus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2012;31:261-6 pubmed publisher
    A dietary supplement containing garlic fermented with Monascus pilosus (MGFE) may be useful to decrease the lipid concentrations in serum without serious adverse effects...
  39. Shi Y, Yu C, Liao V, Pan T. Monascus-fermented dioscorea enhances oxidative stress resistance via DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39515 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus-fermented products are mentioned in an ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia of medicinal food and herbs. Monascus-fermented products offer valuable therapeutic benefits and have been extensively used in East Asia for several centuries...
  40. Balakrishnan B, Karki S, Chiu S, Kim H, Suh J, Nam B, et al. Genetic localization and in vivo characterization of a Monascus azaphilone pigment biosynthetic gene cluster. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:6337-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus spp. produce several well-known polyketides such as monacolin K, citrinin, and azaphilone pigments...
  41. Shi Y, Pan T. Anti-diabetic effects of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermented products on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we examine the effect of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermented products on fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in ..
  42. Liu B, Wu T, Su M, Chung C, Yu F. Evaluation of citrinin occurrence and cytotoxicity in Monascus fermentation products. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:170-5 pubmed
    b>Monascus purpureus and its fermentation products have been used in food coloring and meat preservation in Asia for centuries and have also been recently used as dietary supplements because of their cholesterol-lowering ability...
  43. Lee C, Kuo T, Wu C, Wang J, Pan T. Red mold rice promotes neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion instead of Alzheimer's risk factors and amyloid beta expression in hyperlipidemic Abeta40-infused rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Monascus-fermented red mold rice (RMR) including multiple cholesterol-lowering agents, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory ..
  44. Wu C, Lee C, Pan T. Red mold dioscorea has a greater antihypertensive effect than traditional red mold rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, RMD also exhibited higher angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity than RMR. These results suggest that RMD has greater antihypertensive bioavailability...
  45. Mapari S, Hansen M, Meyer A, Thrane U. Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:9981-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus pigments have been used as natural food colorants in Asia for centuries. They are not authorized for use in the European Union and the United States mainly due to the risk of coproduction of the mycotoxin citrinin by Monascus spp...
  46. Gheith O, Sheashaa H, Abdelsalam M, Shoeir Z, Sobh M. Efficacy and safety of Monascus purpureus Went rice in subjects with secondary hyperlipidemia. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2008;12:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of Monascus purpureus Went rice versus fluvastatin therapy in the management of nephrotic dyslipidemia.
  47. Lin C, Li T, Lai M. Efficacy and safety of Monascus purpureus Went rice in subjects with hyperlipidemia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:679-86 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to assess the lipid-lowering effect of Monascus purpureus Went rice on serum lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia, and to assess its safety by reporting adverse events and clinical laboratory measurements.
  48. Li P, Tsai W, Chien C. Dietary Monascus adlay supplements facilitate suppression of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, apoptosis and emphysema-related PLGF in the rat. Food Chem. 2013;136:765-74 pubmed publisher
    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may cause oxidative stress in the lung, leading to cell death and long-term injury. Monascus adlay (MA) with antioxidant components produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var...
  49. Fu G, Xu Y, Li Y, Tan W. Construction of a replacement vector to disrupt pksCT gene for the mycotoxin citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus aurantiacus and maintain food red pigment production. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:137-42 pubmed
    More and more people pay attention to citrinin produced by Monascus, which has nephrotoxic activity in mammals. It was reported that pksCT gene is responsible for citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus...
  50. Hsu Y, Hsu L, Liang Y, Kuo Y, Pan T. Monaphilones A-C, three new antiproliferative azaphilone derivatives from Monascus purpureus NTU 568. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8211-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus purpureus NTU 568 was a mutant strain from M. purpureus HM105. The methanol extract of red mold rice fermented by this strain exhibited four major yellow pigment signals on HPLC profile...
  51. Lin W, Chang J, Hish C, Pan T. Profiling the Monascus pilosus proteome during nitrogen limitation. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:433-41 pubmed
    b>Monascus species have the unique ability to economically produce many secondary metabolites. However, the influence of nitrogen limitation on Monascus secondary metabolite production and metabolic performance remains unclear...
  52. Kuo C, Chyau C, Wang T, Li C, Hu T. Enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Monascus pilosus fermented products by addition of turmeric to the medium. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:11397-405 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus sp. fermented products are known for their antihypercholesterolemic effects; however, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are different from those of many plant-derived foods...
  53. Chen W, Ho B, Lee C, Lee C, Pan T. Red mold rice prevents the development of obesity, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia induced by high-fat diet. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1694-704 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the influences of red mold rice (RMR) on obesity and related metabolic abnormalities...
  54. Shi Y, Pan T. Beneficial effects of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented products: a review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:1207-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus-fermented products have been used in food, medicine, and industry dating back over a thousand years in Asian countries...
  55. Hsu L, Hsu Y, Liang Y, Lin Z, Kuo Y, Pan T. Protective effect of deferricoprogen isolated from Monascus purpureus NTU 568 on citrinin-induced apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:7880-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus species have traditionally been used in Asian food, with rice as their fermentation substrate. Red mold rice (RMR) contains citrinin, a nephrotoxic agent capable of exerting oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis...
  56. Yasuda M, Tachibana S, Kuba Miyara M. Biochemical aspects of red koji and tofuyo prepared using Monascus fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;96:49-60 pubmed publisher
    Red koji or red mold rice is prepared by growing a genus Monascus on steamed rice. For centuries, it has been used in Asia for the production of fermented foods including red rice wine and fermented tofu...
  57. Lee C, Wang J, Kuo S, Pan T. Monascus fermentation of dioscorea for increasing the production of cholesterol-lowering agent--monacolin K and antiinflammation agent--monascin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:1254-62 pubmed
    Monacolin K, an inhibitor for cholesterol synthesis, is the secondary metabolite of Monascus species. The formation of the secondary metabolites of the Monascus species is affected by cultivation environment and method...
  58. Lee C, Tsai T, Wang J, Pan T. In vivo hypolipidemic effects and safety of low dosage Monascus powder in a hamster model of hyperlipidemia. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;70:533-40 pubmed
    b>Monascus or more commonly known as red mold rice is fermented rice on which Monascus purpureus has been grown. It has been a traditional Chinese food additive for thousands of years in China...
  59. Kumari H, Naidu K, Vishwanatha S, Narasimhamurthy K, Vijayalakshmi G. Safety evaluation of Monascus purpureus red mould rice in albino rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1739-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Monascus purpureus MTCC 410-fermented rice (red mould rice) is one of the food supplements to lower blood-lipid levels and monacolins have been proven to be the main active constituents in red mould rice (RMR)...
  60. Patáková P. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;40:169-81 pubmed publisher
    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M...
  61. Kuo C, Jao Y, Yang P. Downregulation of hepatic lipoprotein assembly in rats by fermented products of Monascus pilosus. Nutrition. 2008;24:477-83 pubmed publisher
    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. The fermented products of Monascus sp...
  62. Lee B, Hsu W, Liao T, Pan T. The Monascus metabolite monascin against TNF-?-induced insulin resistance via suppressing PPAR-? phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2609-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Monascin (MS), a Monascus metabolite, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity in our recent study...
  63. Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Ukiya M, Kiyota A, Yasukawa K, Sakamoto N, et al. Anti-tumor-initiating effects of monascin, an azaphilonoid pigment from the extract of Monascus pilosus fermented rice (red-mold rice). Chem Biodivers. 2005;2:1305-9 pubmed
    Monascin (1) constitutes one of the azaphilonoid pigments in the extracts of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice)...
  64. Li M, Fan L, Zhang W, Sun J, Cao C. Quantitative analysis of lovastatin in capsule of Chinese medicine monascus by capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-vis detector. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:387-92 pubmed
    ..zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the quantitative analysis of lovastatin (Lvt) in capsule of monascus-Chinese medicine...
  65. Shimizu T, Kinoshita H, Ishihara S, Sakai K, Nagai S, Nihira T. Polyketide synthase gene responsible for citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3453-7 pubmed
    Citrinin produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species is a polyketide compound that has nephrotoxic activity in mammals and is bactericidal toward gram-positive bacteria...
  66. Li L, Shao Y, Li Q, Yang S, Chen F. Identification of Mga1, a G-protein alpha-subunit gene involved in regulating citrinin and pigment production in Monascus ruber M7. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;308:108-14 pubmed publisher
    The filamentous fungi Monascus spp...
  67. Su Y, Wang J, Lin T, Pan T. Production of the secondary metabolites gamma-aminobutyric acid and monacolin K by Monascus. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;30:41-6 pubmed
    ..acid (GABA), a hypotensive agent, and monacolin K, a cholesterol-lowering drug, can be produced by Monascus spp. Under optimal culture conditions, the products of fermentation using Monascus spp...