trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Summary

Summary: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.

Top Publications

  1. MacLean L, Odiit M, MacLeod A, Morrison L, Sweeney L, Cooper A, et al. Spatially and genetically distinct African Trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-gamma response. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1620-8 pubmed
    ..The Tororo and Soroti foci of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection were genetically distinct as characterized by 6 microsatellite and 1 minisatellite ..
  2. Ngotho M, Maina N, Kagira J, Royo F, Farah I, Hau J. IL-10 is up regulated in early and transitional stages in vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Parasitol Int. 2006;55:243-8 pubmed
    ..The IL-10 peak observed on day 42 of infection might indicate onset of parasite neuroinvasion coinciding with a peak in white blood cell counts in the blood and CSF. ..
  3. Ngotho M, Kagira J, Jensen H, Karanja S, Farah I, Hau J. Immunospecific immunoglobulins and IL-10 as markers for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense late stage disease in experimentally infected vervet monkeys. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:736-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Vervet monkeys were infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently given sub-curative and curative treatment 28 and 140 days post-infection (dpi) ..
  4. Campillo N, Carrington M. The origin of the serum resistance associated (SRA) gene and a model of the structure of the SRA polypeptide from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2003;127:79-84 pubmed
  5. Simarro P, Cecchi G, Paone M, Franco J, Diarra A, Ruiz J, et al. The Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis: a contribution to global mapping of neglected tropical diseases. Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:57 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason WHO launched the HAT Atlas initiative, jointly implemented with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis...
  6. Gehrig S, Efferth T. Development of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis with natural products (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:411-9 pubmed
    ..This study provides an overview of the recently discovered small molecules with trypanocidal activity against T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. In addition, former promising compounds are touched upon. ..
  7. Naessens J, Kitani H, Nakamura Y, Yagi Y, Sekikawa K, Iraqi F. TNF-alpha mediates the development of anaemia in a murine Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection, but not the anaemia associated with a murine Trypanosoma congolense infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;139:405-10 pubmed
    ..In contrast, during an infection with the human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the number of red blood cells in TNF-alpha-deficient mice remained significantly higher than in the ..
  8. Coleman P, Welburn S. Are fitness costs associated with resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense?. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:311-5 pubmed
  9. Welburn S, Maudlin I, Simarro P. Controlling sleeping sickness - a review. Parasitology. 2009;136:1943-9 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications82

  1. Sternberg J. Human African trypanosomiasis: clinical presentation and immune response. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:469-76 pubmed
    ..The impact of dysregulated inflammatory responses in both systemic and CNS pathology will be examined and the potential for host genotype variation in disease severity and control will be discussed. ..
  2. Sternberg J, MacLean L. A spectrum of disease in human African trypanosomiasis: the host and parasite genetics of virulence. Parasitology. 2010;137:2007-15 pubmed publisher
    ..has been known that there are considerable differences in the severity and rate of progression of both Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense infection between individuals...
  3. Odiit M, Bessell P, Fèvre E, Robinson T, Kinoti J, Coleman P, et al. Using remote sensing and geographic information systems to identify villages at high risk for rhodesiense sleeping sickness in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:354-62 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the potential of remote sensing and GIS to characterize village-level risk of sleeping sickness in endemic regions. ..
  4. Garcia A, Courtin D, Solano P, Koffi M, Jamonneau V. Human African trypanosomiasis: connecting parasite and host genetics. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:405-9 pubmed
    ..However, research based on host and trypanosome interactions should be encouraged to help develop innovative tools for HAT diagnosis and treatment to prevent re-emergence...
  5. Vanhamme L, Paturiaux Hanocq F, Poelvoorde P, Nolan D, Lins L, Van den Abbeele J, et al. Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanosome lytic factor of human serum. Nature. 2003;422:83-7 pubmed
    Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS)...
  6. Radwanska M, Chamekh M, Vanhamme L, Claes F, Magez S, Magnus E, et al. The serum resistance-associated gene as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:684-90 pubmed
    In the search for new diagnostic methods that would distinguish Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from T. b. brucei and T. b. gambiense, we have developed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets...
  7. Stephens N, Hajduk S. Endosomal localization of the serum resistance-associated protein in African trypanosomes confers human infectivity. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness. While the closely related subspecies T...
  8. Fèvre E, Tilley A, Picozzi K, Fyfe J, Anderson I, Magona J, et al. Central point sampling from cattle in livestock markets in areas of human sleeping sickness. Acta Trop. 2006;97:229-32 pubmed
    ..We also find that animals infected with trypanosomiasis are more likely to be brought for sale in livestock markets in endemic areas; we discuss these results in relation to the prevention of the spread of sleeping sickness. ..
  9. Burri C. Chemotherapy against human African trypanosomiasis: is there a road to success?. Parasitology. 2010;137:1987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the key information about the existing drugs and gives a comprehensive summary about the recent and currently ongoing efforts towards new drugs...
  10. Jannin J, Cattand P. Treatment and control of human African trypanosomiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:565-71 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the development of new diagnostic tools and drugs and the opportunity offered by new technologies for their further improvement...
  11. Njiru Z, Mikosza A, Armstrong T, Enyaru J, Ndung U J, Thompson A. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e147 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, a LAMP test was designed from the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the cause of the acute form of African sleeping sickness, and used to detect parasite DNA from ..
  12. Matete G, Kajejo O. Human African trypanosomiasis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in Western Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005;82:20-3 pubmed
    To determine possible interaction between infections of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness and HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya.
  13. Hu L, Arafa R, Ismail M, Patel A, Munde M, Wilson W, et al. Synthesis and activity of azaterphenyl diamidines against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:6651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..diamidines has been synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiprotozoal activity against both Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. r.) and Plasmodium falciparum (P. f...
  14. Lejon V, Buscher P. Review Article: cerebrospinal fluid in human African trypanosomiasis: a key to diagnosis, therapeutic decision and post-treatment follow-up. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:395-403 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the disease, with emphasis on CSF characteristics and interpretation of the CSF results for therapeutic decision and post-treatment follow-up...
  15. Welburn S, Lillico S, Murphy N. Programmed cell death in procyclic form Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense --identification of differentially expressed genes during con A induced death. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1999;94:229-34 pubmed
    b>Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense can be induced to undergo apoptosis after stimulation with Con A...
  16. Kibona S, Matemba L, Kaboya J, Lubega G. Drug-resistance of Trypanosoma b. rhodesiense isolates from Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:144-55 pubmed
    To determine the drug resistance of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense strains isolated from sleeping sickness patients in Tanzania.
  17. Gachet M, Kunert O, Kaiser M, Brun R, Zehl M, Keller W, et al. Antiparasitic compounds from Cupania cinerea with activities against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..was found to show significant in vitro activity against the Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Subsequently, activity-guided isolation of the n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts from the bark of ..
  18. MacLean L, Odiit M, Chisi J, Kennedy P, Sternberg J. Focus-specific clinical profiles in human African Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e906 pubmed publisher
    Diverse clinical features have been reported in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) foci caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b...
  19. Kagira J, Maina N. Occurrence of multiple drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense isolated from sleeping sickness patients. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2007;74:17-22 pubmed
    The occurrence of cross-resistance among melarsoprol-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense isolates was investigated in this study. The isolates, T. b...
  20. Maina N, Ngotho J, Were T, Thuita J, Mwangangi D, Kagira J, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in the early phase of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Infect Immun. 2004;72:3063-5 pubmed
    ..At no time were these cytokines detectable in the CSF...
  21. MacLeod A, Welburn S, Maudlin I, Turner C, Tait A. Evidence for multiple origins of human infectivity in Trypanosoma brucei revealed by minisatellite variant repeat mapping. J Mol Evol. 2001;52:290-301 pubmed
  22. Ismail M, Brun R, Easterbrook J, Tanious F, Wilson W, Boykin D. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of aza-analogues of furamidine. J Med Chem. 2003;46:4761-9 pubmed
    ..of less than 10 nM. Against P. f. 8a, 8b, and 14b exhibited IC(50) values less than 10 nM. In an in vivo mouse model for T. b. r. four compounds 6a, 6c, 6d, and 8a were curative. Compound 6a produced cures at an oral dosage of 5 mg/kg...
  23. Wube A, Bucar F, Gibbons S, Asres K, Rattray L, Croft S. Antiprotozoal activity of drimane and coloratane sesquiterpenes towards Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1468-72 pubmed publisher
    ..and chloroquine-resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum and antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The dichloromethane extract displayed strong antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities with IC(..
  24. Lecordier L, Vanhollebeke B, Poelvoorde P, Tebabi P, Paturiaux Hanocq F, Andris F, et al. C-terminal mutants of apolipoprotein L-I efficiently kill both Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000685 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they provide a possible explanation for the ability of Papio serum to kill T. b. rhodesiense, and offer a perspective to generate transgenic cattle resistant to both T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense...
  25. MacLean L, Odiit M, Sternberg J. Intrathecal cytokine responses in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:270-5 pubmed
    Intrathecal cytokine levels and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier function were studied in 91 Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense-infected patients...
  26. Aksoy S, Caccone A, Galvani A, Okedi L. Glossina fuscipes populations provide insights for human African trypanosomiasis transmission in Uganda. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:394-406 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of these findings for large-scale tsetse control programs, including suppression or eradication, being undertaken in Uganda, and potential future genetic applications. ..
  27. Fèvre E, Picozzi K, Fyfe J, Waiswa C, Odiit M, Coleman P, et al. A burgeoning epidemic of sleeping sickness in Uganda. Lancet. 2005;366:745-7 pubmed
    The epidemic of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in eastern Uganda, which began in 1998 as a result of movements of the livestock reservoir of the parasite, has continued to spread...
  28. Tsuda A, Witola W, Ohashi K, Onuma M. Expression of alternative oxidase inhibits programmed cell death-like phenomenon in bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:243-51 pubmed
    b>Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is one of the causative agents of African Trypanosomiasis. Programmed cell death (PCD) is fundamental in the development, homeostasis and immune mechanisms of multicellular organisms...
  29. Martin M, Sanders J, Kendrick H, de Luca Fradley K, Lewis J, Grimley J, et al. Activity of bisphosphonates against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. J Med Chem. 2002;45:2904-14 pubmed
    ..molecular field analysis (CoMFA) investigation of the growth inhibition of the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense trypomastigotes by bisphosphonates...
  30. Maclean L, Odiit M, Sternberg J. Nitric oxide and cytokine synthesis in human African trypanosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1086-90 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that human African trypanosomiasis leads to the development of a strong anti-inflammatory cytokine response...
  31. Xong H, Vanhamme L, Chamekh M, Chimfwembe C, van den Abbeele J, Pays A, et al. A VSG expression site-associated gene confers resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma rhodesiense. Cell. 1998;95:839-46 pubmed
    Infectivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to humans is due to its resistance to a lytic factor present in human serum. In the ETat 1 strain this character was associated with antigenic variation, since expression of the ETat 1...
  32. Gibson W, Backhouse T, Griffiths A. The human serum resistance associated gene is ubiquitous and conserved in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense throughout East Africa. Infect Genet Evol. 2002;1:207-14 pubmed
    The human serum resistance associated (SRA) gene isolated from a Ugandan strain of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense has been shown to be capable by itself of conferring the trait of human infectivity on T.b. brucei by transfection...
  33. Chappuis F, Loutan L, Simarro P, Lejon V, Büscher P. Options for field diagnosis of human african trypanosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:133-46 pubmed
    ..Apart from the urgent need for better tools for the field diagnosis of this neglected disease, improved access to diagnosis and treatment for the population at risk remains the greatest challenge for the coming years...
  34. Waiswa C, Picozzi K, Katunguka Rwakishaya E, Olaho Mukani W, Musoke R, Welburn S. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the trypanosomiasis endemic areas of south eastern Uganda: apparent density, trypanosome infection rates and host feeding preferences. Acta Trop. 2006;99:23-9 pubmed
    ..The implication of this, in relation to the cycle of transmission for human infective trypanosomes between domestic animals and man, is discussed...
  35. Nikolskaia O, de A Lima A, Kim Y, Lonsdale Eccles J, Fukuma T, Scharfstein J, et al. Blood-brain barrier traversal by African trypanosomes requires calcium signaling induced by parasite cysteine protease. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2739-47 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these in vitro studies implicate brucipain as a critical driver of T. b. gambiense transendothelial migration of the human BBB...
  36. Inverso J, Uphoff T, Johnson S, Paulnock D, Mansfield J. Biological variation among african trypanosomes: I. Clonal expression of virulence is not linked to the variant surface glycoprotein or the variant surface glycoprotein gene telomeric expression site. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The VSG gene sequences expressed by clones LouTat 1 and LouTat 1A of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense were identical, and gene expression in both clones occurred precisely by the same gene conversion ..
  37. Odiit M, Shaw A, Welburn S, Fèvre E, Coleman P, McDermott J. Assessing the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and awareness among sleeping-sickness patients in eastern Uganda. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:339-48 pubmed
  38. Asonganyi T, Doua F, Kibona S, Nyasulu Y, Masake R, Kuzoe F. A multi-centre evaluation of the card indirect agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (TrypTect CIATT). Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998;92:837-44 pubmed
    ..0%) had no detectable trypanosome antigens in their peripheral blood. The test could therefore be used for evaluating chemotherapeutic cure, as well as for diagnosis...
  39. Bakunov S, Bakunova S, Wenzler T, Ghebru M, Werbovetz K, Brun R, et al. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of cationic 1,4-diphenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles. J Med Chem. 2010;53:254-72 pubmed publisher
    ..nature of aromatic substituents influenced in vitro antiprotozoal activities of compounds 1-60 against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Plasmodium falciparum, and Leishmania donovani and their cytotoxicity for mammalian cells...
  40. Zoller T, Fèvre E, Welburn S, Odiit M, Coleman P. Analysis of risk factors for T. brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness within villages in south-east Uganda. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:88 pubmed publisher
    ..e. within affected villages. In the present work, we use a case-control methodology to analyse both behavioural and spatial risk factors for HAT in an endemic area...
  41. Caffrey C, Hansell E, Lucas K, Brinen L, Alvarez Hernandez A, Cheng J, et al. Active site mapping, biochemical properties and subcellular localization of rhodesain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;118:61-73 pubmed
    ..and further characterize the enzyme, we expressed and purified rhodesain, the target protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (MVAT4 strain), in reagent quantities from Pichia pastoris...
  42. Bernhard S, Nerima B, Maser P, Brun R. Melarsoprol- and pentamidine-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense populations and their cross-resistance. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1443-8 pubmed
    Resistance to melarsoprol and pentamidine was induced in bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900 in vitro, and drug sensitivity was determined for melarsoprol, pentamidine and furamidine...
  43. Mishina Y, Krishna S, Haynes R, Meade J. Artemisinins inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vitro growth. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1852-4 pubmed
    Artemisinin compounds inhibit in vitro growth of cultured Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense at concentrations in the low micromolar range. Artemisinin also inhibits calcium-dependent ATPase activity in T...
  44. Barrett M. The rise and fall of sleeping sickness. Lancet. 2006;367:1377-8 pubmed
  45. Chisi J, Misiri H, Zverev Y, Nkhoma A, Sternberg J. Anaemia in human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. East Afr Med J. 2004;81:505-8 pubmed
    ..To find out if indeed anaemia is a major sign in human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodensiense...
  46. Welburn S, Fèvre E, Coleman P, Odiit M, Maudlin I. Sleeping sickness: a tale of two diseases. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:19-24 pubmed
    ..In this review, Susan Welburn, Eric Fèvre, Paul Coleman, Martin Odiit and Ian Maudlin discuss the biology and distribution of these two diseases in relation to the evolution of hominids in Africa...
  47. Wardrop N, Fèvre E, Atkinson P, Kakembo A, Welburn S. An exploratory GIS-based method to identify and characterise landscapes with an elevated epidemiological risk of Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:316 pubmed publisher
    Specific land cover types and activities have been correlated with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense distributions, indicating the importance of landscape for epidemiological risk...
  48. Simarro P, Jannin J, Cattand P. Eliminating human African trypanosomiasis: where do we stand and what comes next?. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e55 pubmed publisher
  49. MacLeod A, Tweedie A, Welburn S, Maudlin I, Turner C, Tait A. Minisatellite marker analysis of Trypanosoma brucei: reconciliation of clonal, panmictic, and epidemic population genetic structures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13442-7 pubmed
  50. Migchelsen S, Büscher P, Hoepelman A, Schallig H, Adams E. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..a total of 68 cases are reported, 19 cases of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT and 49 cases of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT. Patients ranged in age from 19 months to 72 years and all but two patients survived...
  51. Ngotho M, Kagira J, Kariuki C, Maina N, Thuita J, Mwangangi D, et al. Influence of trypanocidal therapy on the haematology of vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Acta Trop. 2011;119:14-8 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to characterise the sequential haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently treated with sub-curative diminazene aceturate (DA) and curative melarsoprol (MelB) ..
  52. Fèvre E, Wissmann B, Welburn S, Lutumba P. The burden of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e333 pubmed publisher
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) is a protozoan parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. These are neglected tropical diseases, and T.b...
  53. Thuita J, Kagira J, Mwangangi D, Matovu E, Turner C, Masiga D. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense transmitted by a single tsetse fly bite in vervet monkeys as a model of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e238 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the pathogenicity of tsetse (Glossina pallidipes)-transmitted cloned strains of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vervet monkeys...
  54. Enanga B, Burchmore R, Stewart M, Barrett M. Sleeping sickness and the brain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002;59:845-58 pubmed
  55. Legros D, Ollivier G, Gastellu Etchegorry M, Paquet C, Burri C, Jannin J, et al. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis--present situation and needs for research and development. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:437-40 pubmed
    ..At the same time, on a long term basis, ambitious research programmes for new compounds must be supported to ensure the sustainable development of new drugs...
  56. Gibson W. The SRA gene: the key to understanding the nature of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Parasitology. 2005;131:143-50 pubmed
  57. Auty H, Picozzi K, Malele I, Torr S, Cleaveland S, Welburn S. Using molecular data for epidemiological inference: assessing the prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in tsetse in Serengeti, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1501 pubmed publisher
    Measuring the prevalence of transmissible Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in tsetse populations is essential for understanding transmission dynamics, assessing human disease risk and monitoring spatio-temporal trends and the impact of ..
  58. Fèvre E, Odiit M, Coleman P, Woolhouse M, Welburn S. Estimating the burden of rhodesiense sleeping sickness during an outbreak in Serere, eastern Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:96 pubmed publisher
    Zoonotic sleeping sickness, or HAT (Human African Trypanosomiasis), caused by infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is an under-reported and neglected tropical disease...
  59. Njiru Z, Ndung u K, Matete G, Ndungu J, Gibson W. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in animals from sleeping sickness foci in East Africa using the serum resistance associated (SRA) gene. Acta Trop. 2004;90:249-54 pubmed
    The human serum resistance associated (SRA) gene has been found exclusively in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, allowing the unequivocal detection of this pathogen in reservoir hosts and the tsetse vector without recourse to laborious ..
  60. Komba E, Odiit M, Mbulamberi D, Chimfwembe E, Nantulya V. Multicentre evaluation of an antigen-detection ELISA for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness. Bull World Health Organ. 1992;70:57-61 pubmed
    ..for the detection, in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, of an invariant trypanosome antigen to diagnose Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness was evaluated in four clinical treatment centres...
  61. Rodgers J. Trypanosomiasis and the brain. Parasitology. 2010;137:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
  62. Burri C, Brun R. Eflornithine for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2003;90 Supp 1:S49-52 pubmed
    ..Its efficacy against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is limited due to the innate lack of susceptibility of this parasite based on a higher ornithine ..
  63. Poelvoorde P, Vanhamme L, Van den Abbeele J, Switzer W, Pays E. Distribution of apolipoprotein L-I and trypanosome lytic activity among primate sera. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;134:155-7 pubmed
  64. Kabasa J. Public-private partnership works to stamp out sleeping sickness in Uganda. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:191-2 pubmed
  65. Enyaru J, Odiit M, Winyi Kaboyo R, Sebikali C, Matovu E, Okitoi D, et al. Evidence for the occurrence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness outside the traditional focus in south-eastern Uganda. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1999;93:817-22 pubmed
    The occurrence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense west of the River Nile, in Masindi district in the mid-western part of Uganda, is confirmed. Masindi borders the traditional belt of T. b...
  66. Kuepfer I, Hhary E, Allan M, Edielu A, Burri C, Blum J. Clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense sleeping sickness in second stage patients from Tanzania and Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e968 pubmed publisher
    A wide spectrum of disease severity has been described for Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b...
  67. MacLean L, Chisi J, Odiit M, Gibson W, Ferris V, Picozzi K, et al. Severity of human african trypanosomiasis in East Africa is associated with geographic location, parasite genotype, and host inflammatory cytokine response profile. Infect Immun. 2004;72:7040-4 pubmed
    ..1%), despite infections of several months' duration. All infections were confirmed to be Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense by testing for the presence of the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene, but trypanosomes isolated ..
  68. Mdachi R, Thuita J, Kagira J, Ngotho J, Murilla G, Ndung u J, et al. Efficacy of the novel diamidine compound 2,5-Bis(4-amidinophenyl)- furan-bis-O-Methlylamidoxime (Pafuramidine, DB289) against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection in vervet monkeys after oral administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Five groups of three animals each were infected intravenously with 10(4) Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense KETRI 2537 cells. On the seventh day postinfection (p.i...
  69. Manful T, Mulindwa J, Frank F, Clayton C, Matovu E. A search for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense diagnostic antigens by proteomic screening and targeted cloning. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9630 pubmed publisher
    ..The only available diagnostic method for East African trypanosomiasis is light microscopy of blood samples. A simple immunodiagnostic would greatly aid trypanosomiasis control...
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    ..In conclusion, DB868 with oral and DB829 with parenteral application are potential candidates for further development of a second-stage African sleeping sickness drug...
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    ..A clear understanding of how trypanosomes enter the CNS is critical for both understanding the neuropathogenesis of HAT and in developing more effective drug therapies for late-stage disease...
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    ..Finally we report on new initiatives that might allow progress to be made in developing new and satisfactory drugs for this terrible disease...
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    ..To determine, through the use of molecular diagnostic tools, whether the two species of parasite that cause human African trypanosomiasis have become sympatric...