trypanosoma brucei gambiense

Summary

Summary: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).

Top Publications

  1. Burri C, Brun R. Eflornithine for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2003;90 Supp 1:S49-52 pubmed
    ..It is the drug used mainly as a back-up for melarsoprol refractory Trypanosoma brucei gambiense cases. The most commonly used dosage regimen for the treatment of T. b...
  2. Simarro P, Ruiz J, Franco J, Josenando T. Attitude towards CATT-positive individuals without parasitological confirmation in the African Trypanosomiasis (T.b. gambiense) focus of Quiçama (Angola). Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4:858-61 pubmed
    ..CATT titration on diluted serum or plasma is useful for making therapeutical decisions. ..
  3. Bisser S, N Siesi F, Lejon V, Preux P, Van Nieuwenhove S, Miaka mia Bilenge C, et al. Equivalence trial of melarsoprol and nifurtimox monotherapy and combination therapy for the treatment of second-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:322-9 pubmed
    Treatment of second-stage sleeping sickness relies mainly on melarsoprol. Nifurtimox has been successfully used to cure melarsoprol-refractory sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection.
  4. Checchi F, Filipe J, Haydon D, Chandramohan D, Chappuis F. Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:16 pubmed publisher
    ..and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission...
  5. Darling T, Balber A, Blum J. A comparative study of D-lactate, L-lactate and glycerol formation by four species of Leishmania and by Trypanosoma lewisi and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1988;30:253-7 pubmed
    ..The four Leishmania species produced D-lactate, but not L-lactate, whereas T. b. gambiense procyclic forms produced L-lactate, but not D-lactate, and T. lewisi produced both isomers...
  6. Camara M, Camara O, Ilboudo H, Sakande H, Kaboré J, N Dri L, et al. Sleeping sickness diagnosis: use of buffy coats improves the sensitivity of the mini anion exchange centrifugation test. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:796-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the mAECT-bc protocol enabled a significant improvement of HAT parasitological diagnosis in Guinea, without any additional costs. It would deserve to be tested in other T.b. gambiense endemic areas. ..
  7. Migchelsen S, Büscher P, Hoepelman A, Schallig H, Adams E. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..cases reported over the past 20 years are reviewed; a total of 68 cases are reported, 19 cases of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT and 49 cases of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT...
  8. Capewell P, Veitch N, Turner C, Raper J, Berriman M, Hajduk S, et al. Differences between Trypanosoma brucei gambiense groups 1 and 2 in their resistance to killing by trypanolytic factor 1. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1287 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus there are differences in the mechanism of human serum resistance between T. b. gambiense groups 1 and 2. ..
  9. Richner D, Brun R, Jenni L. Production of metacyclic forms by cyclical transmission of west African Trypanosoma (T.) brucei isolates from man and animals. Acta Trop. 1988;45:309-19 pubmed
    ..centralis infected on mice, whereas successful transmission of the 10 isolates, identified as Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, was performed using G. palpalis gambiensis as vector. Glossina p...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kanmogne G, Stevens J, Asonganyi T, Gibson W. Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates using restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 5 variant surface glycoprotein genes. Acta Trop. 1996;61:239-54 pubmed
    Fifty-eight Type I Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (G) stocks, including 16 from 3 sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon, were compared by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with 14 T.b. brucei and T.b...
  2. Jelinek T, Bisoffi Z, Bonazzi L, van Thiel P, Bronner U, de Frey A, et al. Cluster of African trypanosomiasis in travelers to Tanzanian national parks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:634-5 pubmed
    ..The outbreak was detected through TropNetEurop, a sentinel surveillance network of clinical sites throughout Europe. ..
  3. Chappuis F, Stivanello E, Adams K, Kidane S, Pittet A, Bovier P. Card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) end-dilution titer and cerebrospinal fluid cell count as predictors of human African Trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) among serologically suspected individuals in southern Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:313-7 pubmed
    The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies on an initial serologic screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for T. b...
  4. Njiokou F, Laveissiere C, Simo G, Nkinin S, Grebaut P, Cuny G, et al. Wild fauna as a probable animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Cameroon. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:147-53 pubmed
    In order to study the existence of a wild animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in South Cameroon, blood was collected from wild animals in three human African trypanosomiasis foci and from a nonendemic control area...
  5. Picozzi K, Fèvre E, Odiit M, Carrington M, Eisler M, Maudlin I, et al. Sleeping sickness in Uganda: a thin line between two fatal diseases. BMJ. 2005;331:1238-41 pubmed
    ..To determine, through the use of molecular diagnostic tools, whether the two species of parasite that cause human African trypanosomiasis have become sympatric...
  6. Herder S, Simo G, Nkinin S, Njiokou F. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Parasite. 2002;9:345-9 pubmed
    ..monticola), in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina) and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus). 13 species (54%) were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1...
  7. Balasegaram M, Harris S, Checchi F, Hamel C, Karunakara U. Treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse in patients with early-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Republic of the Congo. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:777-82 pubmed
    ..We assessed patients treated for stage 1 HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Republic of the Congo between April 2001 and April 2005...
  8. Fèvre E, Wissmann B, Welburn S, Lutumba P. The burden of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e333 pubmed publisher
    ..or sleeping sickness) is a protozoan parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. These are neglected tropical diseases, and T.b. rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis...
  9. Garcia A, Courtin D, Solano P, Koffi M, Jamonneau V. Human African trypanosomiasis: connecting parasite and host genetics. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:405-9 pubmed
    ..However, research based on host and trypanosome interactions should be encouraged to help develop innovative tools for HAT diagnosis and treatment to prevent re-emergence...
  10. Balasegaram M, Young H, Chappuis F, Priotto G, Raguenaud M, Checchi F. Effectiveness of melarsoprol and eflornithine as first-line regimens for gambiense sleeping sickness in nine Médecins Sans Frontières programmes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the effectiveness of first-line regimens for stage 2 human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection in nine Médecins Sans Frontières HAT treatment programmes in Angola, Republic of Congo, ..
  11. Radwanska M. Emerging trends in the diagnosis of human African Trypanosomiasis. Parasitology. 2010;137:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense...
  12. Lejon V, Boelaert M, Jannin J, Moore A, Buscher P. The challenge of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness diagnosis outside Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:804-8 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of such imported cases can be problematic when the infection is due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the chronic form of sleeping sickness found in west and central Africa...
  13. Buguet A, Bisser S, Josenando T, Chapotot F, Cespuglio R. Sleep structure: a new diagnostic tool for stage determination in sleeping sickness. Acta Trop. 2005;93:107-17 pubmed
    ..The reversibility of the sleep-wake cycle and sleep structure alterations after appropriate treatment constitutes the basis of an evaluation of the healing process. ..
  14. Pepin J, Mpia B. Randomized controlled trial of three regimens of melarsoprol in the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:437-41 pubmed
    A total of 389 patients with late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and toxicity of three regimens of melarsoprol: regimen A, 3.6 mg/kg (max...
  15. Higgins M, Tkachenko O, Brown A, Reed J, Raper J, Carrington M. Structure of the trypanosome haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor and implications for nutrient uptake and innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1905-10 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei gambiense has been shown to be sufficient to reduce binding of both HpHb and TLF1, modulating ligand affinity in a delicate balancing act that allows nutrient acquisition but avoids TLF1 uptake...
  16. Bronner U, Brun R, Doua F, Ericsson O, Burri C, Keiser J, et al. Discrepancy in plasma melarsoprol concentrations between HPLC and bioassay methods in patients with T. gambiense sleeping sickness indicates that melarsoprol is metabolized. Trop Med Int Health. 1998;3:913-7 pubmed
    ..The significant trypanocidal activity determined by bioassay and simultaneous low or undetectable levels of melarsoprol assayed by HPLC indicate that the compound is transformed into metabolites with parasiticidal activity. ..
  17. Welburn S, Fèvre E, Coleman P, Odiit M, Maudlin I. Sleeping sickness: a tale of two diseases. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:19-24 pubmed
    ..In this review, Susan Welburn, Eric Fèvre, Paul Coleman, Martin Odiit and Ian Maudlin discuss the biology and distribution of these two diseases in relation to the evolution of hominids in Africa...
  18. Grab D, Kennedy P. Traversal of human and animal trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in man caused by the unicellular protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b...
  19. Mumba Ngoyi D, Lejon V, N Siesi F, Boelaert M, Buscher P. Comparison of operational criteria for treatment outcome in gambiense human African trypanosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Adequate detection of relapse was possible with a simple criterion but these findings should be validated in a prospective study before adoption in clinical practice. ..
  20. Sternberg J, MacLean L. A spectrum of disease in human African trypanosomiasis: the host and parasite genetics of virulence. Parasitology. 2010;137:2007-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b. rhodesiense infection in humans. While in both cases the mechanisms remain to be elucidated, the overall infection virulence phenotype is determined by both parasite and host genotype. ..
  21. Brun R, Schumacher R, Schmid C, Kunz C, Burri C. The phenomenon of treatment failures in Human African Trypanosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:906-14 pubmed
    ..During the last 50 years treatment failures with melarsoprol were not a major problem in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients...
  22. Jamonneau V, Garcia A, Ravel S, Cuny G, Oury B, Solano P, et al. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and clinical evolution of human African trypanosomiasis in Côte d'Ivoire. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7:610-21 pubmed
    ..0002) and on the ethnic group (P=0.0317) of the patient. Further investigations are required in order to study a possible selective impact of the use of the kit for in vitro isolation of trypanosomes as an isolation technique. ..
  23. Louis F, Kohagne Tongue L, Ebo O Eyenga V, Simarro P. [Organizing an active screening campaign for human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:11-6 pubmed
    ..The model described in this article allows screening of 300 to 600 persons a day in areas in which the endemic disease prevalence is higher than 1%. A variant for areas with lower endemicity allows screening of up to 1500 persons a day...
  24. Kaboré J, Koffi M, Bucheton B, MacLeod A, Duffy C, Ilboudo H, et al. First evidence that parasite infecting apparent aparasitemic serological suspects in human African trypanosomiasis are Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and are similar to those found in patients. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) is widely used for serological screening of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT)...
  25. Solano P, Jamonneau V, N Guessan P, N Dri L, Dje N, Miezan T, et al. Comparison of different DNA preparation protocols for PCR diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomosis in Côte d'Ivoire. Acta Trop. 2002;82:349-56 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the PCR could help in the diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomosis, but the use of other primers should be investigated. ..
  26. Girard M, Bisser S, Courtioux B, Vermot Desroches C, Bouteille B, Wijdenes J, et al. In vitro induction of microglial and endothelial cell apoptosis by cerebrospinal fluids from patients with human African trypanosomiasis. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:713-20 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis induction may participate in the pathogenesis during African trypanosomiasis, and the presence of sFasL and anti-Fas antibodies may provide new tools for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. ..
  27. Chappuis F, Loutan L, Simarro P, Lejon V, Büscher P. Options for field diagnosis of human african trypanosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:133-46 pubmed
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense remains highly prevalent in several rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and is lethal if left untreated...
  28. Wenzler T, Boykin D, Ismail M, Hall J, Tidwell R, Brun R. New treatment option for second-stage African sleeping sickness: in vitro and in vivo efficacy of aza analogs of DB289. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, DB868 with oral and DB829 with parenteral application are potential candidates for further development of a second-stage African sleeping sickness drug...
  29. Penchenier L, Alhadji D, Bahébégué S, Simo G, Laveissiere C, Cuny G. Spontaneous cure of domestic pigs experimentally infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Implications for the control of sleeping sickness. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:7-11 pubmed
    The existence of a pig reservoir for human African trypanosomosis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense complicates the fight against this disease...
  30. de Koning H. Ever-increasing complexities of diamidine and arsenical crossresistance in African trypanosomes. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:345-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Hamadien M, Lycke N, Bakhiet M. Induction of the trypanosome lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF) and neutralizing antibodies to the TLTF in experimental african trypanosomiasis. Immunology. 1999;96:606-11 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate a role of IFN-gamma in the generation of neutralizing antibodies to TLTF. Furthermore, the induction of TLTF and its antibodies may constitute a new approach for future diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. ..
  32. Uzureau P, Uzureau S, Lecordier L, Fontaine F, Tebabi P, Homblé F, et al. Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resistance to human serum. Nature. 2013;501:430-4 pubmed publisher
    The African parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 97% of human sleeping sickness cases. T. b...
  33. Legros D, Ollivier G, Gastellu Etchegorry M, Paquet C, Burri C, Jannin J, et al. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis--present situation and needs for research and development. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:437-40 pubmed
    ..At the same time, on a long term basis, ambitious research programmes for new compounds must be supported to ensure the sustainable development of new drugs...
  34. Kuboki N, Inoue N, Sakurai T, Di Cello F, Grab D, Suzuki H, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of African trypanosomes. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5517-24 pubmed
    ..In vivo studies in mice infected with human-infective T. brucei gambiense further highlight the potential clinical importance of LAMP as a diagnostic tool for the identification of African trypanosomiasis. ..
  35. Massussi J, Djieto Lordon C, Njiokou F, Laveissiere C, Van Der Ploeg J. Influence of habitat and seasonal variation on wild mammal diversity and distribution with special reference to the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense host-reservoir in Bipindi (Cameroon). Acta Trop. 2009;112:308-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Bipindi (southwestern Cameroon)...
  36. Pepin J, Mpia B, Iloasebe M. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense African trypanosomiasis: differences between men and women in severity of disease and response to treatment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:421-6 pubmed
    To compare the characteristics of women and men with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis, all 3231 cases treated in Nioki hospital, Democratic Republic of Congo, from 1982 to 2000 were reviewed for demographic information, date ..
  37. Kanmogne G, Asonganyi T, Gibson W. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, in serologically positive but aparasitaemic sleeping-sickness suspects in Cameroon, by PCR. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1996;90:475-83 pubmed
    ..Although PCR analysis is too expensive for routine diagnosis, it could be very useful in determining which sleeping-suspects should be closely followed up...
  38. Pays E, Vanhollebeke B. Mutual self-defence: the trypanolytic factor story. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:985-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two T. brucei clones, termed Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, have managed to resist this lysis mechanism and, therefore, cause sleeping sickness in humans...
  39. Jamonneau V, Truc P, Garcia A, Magnus E, Buscher P. Preliminary evaluation of LATEX/T. b. gambiense and alternative versions of CATT/T. b. gambiense for the serodiagnosis of human african trypanosomiasis of a population at risk in Côte d'Ivoire: considerations for mass-screening. Acta Trop. 2000;76:175-83 pubmed
    ..5% specific). However, when immune trypanolysis data and feasibility are taken into account, the classical CATT remains the test of choice for mass screening under the given field conditions...
  40. Berberof M, Perez Morga D, Pays E. A receptor-like flagellar pocket glycoprotein specific to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;113:127-38 pubmed
    b>Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are protozoan parasites causing sleeping sickness in humans due to their resistance to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Based on the observation that the resistance gene of T. b...
  41. Truc P, Lejon V, Magnus E, Jamonneau V, Nangouma A, Verloo D, et al. Evaluation of the micro-CATT, CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and LATEX/T b gambiense methods for serodiagnosis and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis in West and Central Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:882-6 pubmed
    ..b. gambiense) (wb-CATT) and latex agglutination (LATEX/T.b. gambiense) (wb-LATEX)) for the serodiagnosis and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis in West and Central Africa...
  42. Lejon V, Reiber H, Legros D, Djé N, Magnus E, Wouters I, et al. Intrathecal immune response pattern for improved diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in trypanosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:1475-83 pubmed
    ..antibody synthesis, and CSF lactate concentrations were analyzed in 272 patients with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection...
  43. Abel P, Kiala G, Lôa V, Behrend M, Musolf J, Fleischmann H, et al. Retaking sleeping sickness control in Angola. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:141-8 pubmed
  44. Jannin J, Cattand P. Treatment and control of human African trypanosomiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:565-71 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the development of new diagnostic tools and drugs and the opportunity offered by new technologies for their further improvement...
  45. Ilboudo H, Berthier D, Camara M, Camara O, Kaboré J, Léno M, et al. APOL1 expression is induced by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection but is not associated with differential susceptibility to sleeping sickness. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1519-23 pubmed publisher
    ..006). This result suggests that APOL1 expression is likely induced by T. b. gambiense, but is not related to resistance/susceptibility in its human host...
  46. Agbo E, Majiwa P, Claassen E, Roos M. Measure of molecular diversity within the Trypanosoma brucei subspecies Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense as revealed by genotypic characterization. Exp Parasitol. 2001;99:123-31 pubmed
    ..Our data show that cryptic species within the T. brucei group can be distinguished by differences in the PCR-RFLP profile of the rDNA repeat...
  47. Grebaut P, Mbida J, Kondjio C, Njiokou F, Penchenier L, Laveissiere C. Spatial and temporal patterns of human African trypanosomosis (HAT) transmission risk in the Bipindi focus, in the forest zone of southern Cameroon. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:230-8 pubmed
    ..Game animals, contributing to 46% and 64% of the blood meals during the short rainy season and the long dry season, respectively, are also favored as feeding hosts in this particular HAT focus...
  48. Inojosa W, Augusto I, Bisoffi Z, Josenado T, Abel P, Stich A, et al. Diagnosing human African trypanosomiasis in Angola using a card agglutination test: observational study of active and passive case finding strategies. BMJ. 2006;332:1479 pubmed
    ..To assess the operational feasibility of detecting human African trypanosomiasis by active and passive case finding using the card agglutination test with serial dilution of serum to guide treatment...
  49. Simo G, Cuny G, Demonchy R, Herder S. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: study of population genetic structure of Central African stocks using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:172-80 pubmed
    ..The presence of minor and major genotypes in HAT foci may explain the persistence and the resurgence of Central African sleeping sickness foci...
  50. Burri C. Chemotherapy against human African trypanosomiasis: is there a road to success?. Parasitology. 2010;137:1987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the key information about the existing drugs and gives a comprehensive summary about the recent and currently ongoing efforts towards new drugs...
  51. Van Reet N, Pyana P, Deborggraeve S, Buscher P, Claes F. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: HMI-9 medium containing methylcellulose and human serum supports the continuous axenic in vitro propagation of the bloodstream form. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..1% (w/v) methylcellulose, 15% (v/v) fetal calf serum and 5% (v/v) heat-inactivated human serum...
  52. Ilboudo H, Jamonneau V, Camara M, Camara O, Dama E, Léno M, et al. Diversity of response to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections in the Forecariah mangrove focus (Guinea): perspectives for a better control of sleeping sickness. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:943-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that SERO TL? individuals are asymptomatic carriers. In the context where disease prevalence is sufficiently low, treating SERO TL? individual may thus be of crucial importance in order to cut transmission...
  53. Buscher P, Lejon V, Magnus E, Van Meirvenne N. Improved latex agglutination test for detection of antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infected patients. Acta Trop. 1999;73:11-20 pubmed
    ..b. gambiense) for detection of antibodies in patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is presented...
  54. Magnus E, Lejon V, Bayon D, Buyse D, Simarro P, Verloo D, et al. Evaluation of an EDTA version of CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense for serological screening of human blood samples. Acta Trop. 2002;81:7-12 pubmed
    CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, a direct card agglutination test designed for field surveys on human African trypanosomosis, is currently used with freshly collected heparinized blood samples...
  55. Yun O, Priotto G, Tong J, Flevaud L, Chappuis F. NECT is next: implementing the new drug combination therapy for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e720 pubmed publisher
  56. Lejon V, Buscher P. Stage determination and follow-up in sleeping sickness. Med Trop (Mars). 2001;61:355-60 pubmed
    ..Alternative markers for stage determination and follow-up include trypanosome specific antibodies, anti-galactocerebroside antibodies and IgM measurement in CSF...
  57. Lejon V, Jamonneau V, Solano P, Atchade P, Mumba D, Nkoy N, et al. Detection of trypanosome-specific antibodies in saliva, towards non-invasive serological diagnosis of sleeping sickness. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:620-7 pubmed
    ..We wanted to optimize the test format of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody detection system...
  58. Pays E, Vanhollebeke B, Vanhamme L, Paturiaux Hanocq F, Nolan D, Perez Morga D. The trypanolytic factor of human serum. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:477-86 pubmed
    ..this activity has arisen in two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei - Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense - allowing these parasites to infect humans, and this results in sleeping sickness in East Africa and ..
  59. Holzmuller P, Biron D, Courtois P, Koffi M, Bras Gonçalves R, Daulouede S, et al. Virulence and pathogenicity patterns of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field isolates in experimentally infected mouse: differences in host immune response modulation by secretome and proteomics. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:79-86 pubmed
    Human African trypanosomiasis is characterised by an important clinical diversity. Although Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field stocks isolated from patients in the same focus did not exhibit apparent genetic variability, they showed ..
  60. Glover L, Alsford S, Horn D. DNA break site at fragile subtelomeres determines probability and mechanism of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003260 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show how subtelomere fragility can generate the triggers for the major antigenic variation mechanisms in the African trypanosome...
  61. Wenzler T, Yang S, Braissant O, Boykin D, Brun R, Wang M. Pharmacokinetics, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense efficacy, and time of drug action of DB829, a preclinical candidate for treatment of second-stage human African trypanosomiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:5330-43 pubmed publisher
    ..sickness), a neglected tropical disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, is caused by the parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodesiense...
  62. Kyambadde J, Enyaru J, Matovu E, Odiit M, Carasco J. Detection of trypanosomes in suspected sleeping sickness patients in Uganda using the polymerase chain reaction. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:119-24 pubmed
  63. Garcia A, Jamonneau V, Magnus E, Laveissiere C, Lejon V, N Guessan P, et al. Follow-up of Card Agglutination Trypanosomiasis Test (CATT) positive but apparently aparasitaemic individuals in Côte d'Ivoire: evidence for a complex and heterogeneous population. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5:786-93 pubmed
  64. Maina N, Oberle M, Otieno C, Kunz C, Maeser P, Ndung u J, et al. Isolation and propagation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense from sleeping sickness patients in south Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:540-6 pubmed
    This study aimed at isolating Trypanosoma brucei gambiense from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients from south Sudan...
  65. Nerima B, Matovu E, Lubega G, Enyaru J. Detection of mutant P2 adenosine transporter (TbAT1) gene in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from northwest Uganda using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1361-8 pubmed
    To assess the application of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) as a fast, cheap and reliable method for detecting mutant TbAT1 associated with melarsoprol relapse in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from northwest Uganda.
  66. Nishimura K, Nakaya H, Nakagawa H, Matsuo S, Ohnishi Y, Yamasaki S. Differential effects of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei on rat macrophages. J Parasitol. 2011;97:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of cobalt chloride on spleen macrophages and HS-P cells cocultured with WS was restricted. These results suggest that anemia-induced hypoxia in ILS-infected rats stimulates the immune system and activates macrophages...
  67. Youan B, Coulibaly S, Miezan T, Doua F, Bamba M. In vivo evaluation of sixteen plant extracts on mice inoculated with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Bull World Health Organ. 1997;75:343-8 pubmed
    ..or decoction, either orally or intraperitoneally to Swiss mice that had previously been inoculated with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), strain MHOM/Cl/81/Dal 083...
  68. Ravel S, Mariani C, Grebaut P, Jamonneau V, Cuisance D, Cuny G. Inhibition of the DNA amplification of trypanosomes present in tsetse flies midguts: implications for the identification of trypanosome species in wild tsetse flies. Parasite. 2004;11:107-9 pubmed
    ..morsitans morsitans) were therefore experimentally infected with two different species of Trypanosoma (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or Trypanosoma congolense)...
  69. Lejon V, Buscher P. Review Article: cerebrospinal fluid in human African trypanosomiasis: a key to diagnosis, therapeutic decision and post-treatment follow-up. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:395-403 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the disease, with emphasis on CSF characteristics and interpretation of the CSF results for therapeutic decision and post-treatment follow-up...
  70. Maina N, Kunz C, Brun R. Cryopreservation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in a commercial cryomedium developed for bull semen. Acta Trop. 2006;98:207-11 pubmed
    ..the commercial cryomedium Triladyl developed for bull semen was evaluated for the cryopreservation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Cryopreservation efficacy was determined by direct counting of motile trypanosomes and by viability ..
  71. Maudlin I. African trypanosomiasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:679-701 pubmed
    ..After more than 100 years of effort, trypanosomiasis control remains a controversial topic, subject to the tides of fashion and politics...
  72. Van Nieuwenhove L, Rogé S, Balharbi F, Dieltjens T, Laurent T, Guisez Y, et al. Identification of peptide mimotopes of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense variant surface glycoproteins. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1189 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to identify mimotopic peptides for epitopes of T.b. gambiense VSGs that, when produced synthetically, can replace the native proteins in antibody detection tests...
  73. Moore A, Richer M. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in southern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:342-7 pubmed
    ..Prevalence of confirmed Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection in humans now exceeds 5% in several foci...
  74. Ripamonti D, Massari M, Arici C, Gabbi E, Farina C, Brini M, et al. African sleeping sickness in tourists returning from Tanzania: the first 2 Italian cases from a small outbreak among European travelers. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:E18-22 pubmed
    ..Because neither vaccine nor drug prophylaxis is currently recommended and/or available for persons traveling to areas of endemicity, physicians should be alerted about this uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease...
  75. Radwanska M, Claes F, Magez S, Magnus E, Perez Morga D, Pays E, et al. Novel primer sequences for polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:289-95 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using primers derived from the recently identified sequence of the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense-specific glycoprotein (TgsGP)...
  76. Veitch N, Johnson P, Trivedi U, Terry S, Wildridge D, MacLeod A. Digital gene expression analysis of two life cycle stages of the human-infective parasite, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense reveals differentially expressed clusters of co-regulated genes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:124 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this in the clinically relevant sub-species, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is the causative agent of the fatal human disease African sleeping sickness, we have compared ..
  77. Gibson W, Nemetschke L, Ndung u J. Conserved sequence of the TgsGP gene in Group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:453-8 pubmed publisher
    The trypanosome responsible for the majority of cases of human trypanosomiasis in Africa is Group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Currently the most reliable test for the parasite is based on a single gene, which encodes a 47kDa receptor-..
  78. Graf F, Ludin P, Wenzler T, Kaiser M, Brun R, Pyana P, et al. Aquaporin 2 mutations in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field isolates correlate with decreased susceptibility to pentamidine and melarsoprol. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2475 pubmed publisher
    ..b. gambiense carrying such mutations correlate with a significantly reduced susceptibility to pentamidine and melarsoprol. ..
  79. Burri C, Keiser J. Pharmacokinetic investigations in patients from northern Angola refractory to melarsoprol treatment. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:412-20 pubmed
    ..Serum and CSF concentrations for all patients were in the expected range. This result indicates that other underlying factors are responsible for treatment failures...
  80. Bisser S, Lejon V, Preux P, Bouteille B, Stanghellini A, Jauberteau M, et al. Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and intrathecal immunoglobulins compared to field diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in sleeping sickness. J Neurol Sci. 2002;193:127-35 pubmed
    ..Improved criteria including B-CSFB dysfunction and IgM detection are needed in order to provide an adapted treatment regimen...
  81. Malvy D, Djossou F, Weill F, Chapuis P, Longy Boursier M, Le Bras M. [Human African trypanosomiasis from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with inoculation chancre in a French expatriate]. Med Trop (Mars). 2001;61:323-7 pubmed
    ..Since this finding allowed early diagnosis, treatment was well-tolerated and effective. This case also demonstrates the important role of travellers or expatriate workers as sentinels for emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases...
  82. Lutumba P, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Simarro P, Shaw A, et al. [The efficiency of different detection strategies of human African trypanosomiasis by T. b. gambiense]. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:347-56 pubmed
    ..This decision analysis compared the efficiency of three alternative detection strategies: screening by LN only, CATT only and their combination (LN and CATT)...
  83. Brun R, Balmer O. New developments in human African trypanosomiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006;19:415-20 pubmed
    ..To review recent literature on human African trypanosomiasis, focussing on genome sequencing, diagnosis and drug discovery, and typing of trypanosomes...
  84. Ravel S, Patrel D, Koffi M, Jamonneau V, Cuny G. Cyclical transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Glossina palpalis gambiensis displays great differences among field isolates. Acta Trop. 2006;100:151-5 pubmed
    ..palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) were fed on mice infected with six different isolates of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (each mouse was infected with one of the isolates), previously isolated from patients in the sleeping ..
  85. Blum J, Burri C, Hatz C, Kazumba L, Mangoni P, Zellweger M. Sleeping hearts: the role of the heart in sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis). Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1422-32 pubmed
  86. Young R, Taylor J, Kurioka A, Becker M, Louis E, Rudenko G. Isolation and analysis of the genetic diversity of repertoires of VSG expression site containing telomeres from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, T. b. brucei and T. equiperdum. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:385 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously developed a method to selectively isolate sets of trypanosome BES containing telomeres using Transformation associated recombination (TAR) cloning in yeast...
  87. Massussi J, Massussi J, Mbida Mbida J, Djieto Lordon C, Njiokou F, Laveissiere C, et al. Diversity and spatial distribution of vectors and hosts of T. brucei gambiense in forest zones of, Southern Cameroon: epidemiological implications. Acta Trop. 2010;114:44-8 pubmed publisher
    Host and vector distribution of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. Six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in Bipindi were reservoir hosts...
  88. Zumla A. Drugs for neglected diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:393 pubmed
  89. Lejon V, Kwete J, Buscher P. Towards saliva-based screening for sleeping sickness?. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:585-8 pubmed
    ..All twenty-three saliva samples of parasitologically confirmed Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients tested positive in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas all 14 saliva ..
  90. Jackson A, Sanders M, Berry A, McQuillan J, Aslett M, Quail M, et al. The genome sequence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causative agent of chronic human african trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e658 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the causative agent of chronic Human African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, a disease endemic across often poor and rural areas of Western and Central Africa...
  91. Horn D, McCulloch R. Molecular mechanisms underlying the control of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010;13:700-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the factors and sequences recently linked to mutually exclusive transcription and VSG recombination, and how these act in the control of the key virulence mechanism of antigenic variation...
  92. Simarro P, Cecchi G, Paone M, Franco J, Diarra A, Ruiz J, et al. The Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis: a contribution to global mapping of neglected tropical diseases. Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:57 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason WHO launched the HAT Atlas initiative, jointly implemented with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis...