trypanosoma

Summary

Summary: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the BLOOD and LYMPH of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.

Top Publications

  1. Da Silva A, Wolkmer P, Costa M, Tonin A, Eilers T, Gressler L, et al. Biochemical changes in cats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:48-52 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at evaluating biochemical changes of cats (Felis catus) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Seven animals were infected with 10(8) blood trypomastigotes per animal and six were used as controls...
  2. Malele I, Magwisha H, Nyingilili H, Mamiro K, Rukambile E, Daffa J, et al. Multiple Trypanosoma infections are common amongst Glossina species in the new farming areas of Rufiji district, Tanzania. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:217 pubmed publisher
    ..of available traps for catching tsetse flies, Glossina species infesting the area, their infection rates and Trypanosoma species circulating in the area...
  3. Pallavi R, Roy N, Nageshan R, Talukdar P, Pavithra S, Reddy R, et al. Heat shock protein 90 as a drug target against protozoan infections: biochemical characterization of HSP90 from Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma evansi and evaluation of its inhibitor as a candidate drug. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37964-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we have explored the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of Trypanosoma infection in animals...
  4. Martinkovic F, Matanović K, Rodrigues A, Garcia H, Teixeira M. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2012;59:134-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae)...
  5. Salim B, Bakheit M, Salih S, Kamau J, Nakamura I, Nakao R, et al. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:74 pubmed publisher
    ..of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle...
  6. von Wissmann B, Machila N, Picozzi K, Fèvre E, Dec Bronsvoort B, Handel I, et al. Factors associated with acquisition of human infective and animal infective trypanosome infections in domestic livestock in Western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e941 pubmed publisher
    ..Busia District also remains endemic for human sleeping sickness with sporadic cases of sleeping sickness reported...
  7. Farikou O, Njiokou F, Mbida Mbida J, Njitchouang G, Djeunga H, Asonganyi T, et al. Tripartite interactions between tsetse flies, Sodalis glossinidius and trypanosomes--an epidemiological approach in two historical human African trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis was statistically tested and assessed, showing that S. glossinidius is potentially an efficient target for controlling tsetse fly vectorial competence and consequently sleeping sickness...
  8. Soumana I, Simo G, Njiokou F, Tchicaya B, Abd Alla A, Cuny G, et al. The bacterial flora of tsetse fly midgut and its effect on trypanosome transmission. J Invertebr Pathol. 2013;112 Suppl:S89-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The data delineated in these studies under score the need to carry out detailed investigations on the role of resident bacteria on the physiology of the fly and vector competence...
  9. Averis S, Thompson R, Lymbery A, Wayne A, Morris K, Smith A. The diversity, distribution and host-parasite associations of trypanosomes in Western Australian wildlife. Parasitology. 2009;136:1269-79 pubmed publisher
    Little is known regarding the diversity, distribution or host-parasite associations of Trypanosoma spp. in Australian wildlife...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Rudenko G. Epigenetics and transcriptional control in African trypanosomes. Essays Biochem. 2010;48:201-19 pubmed publisher
    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite which causes African sleeping sickness...
  2. Jia Y, Zhao X, Zou J, Suo X. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be ..
  3. Garcia H, Kamyingkird K, Rodrigues A, Jittapalapong S, Teixeira M, Desquesnes M. High genetic diversity in field isolates of Trypanosoma theileri assessed by analysis of cathepsin L-like sequences disclosed multiple and new genotypes infecting cattle in Thailand. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:363-7 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we describe the first survey in Thailand of Trypanosoma theileri, a widespread and prevalent parasite of cattle that is transmitted by tabanid flies...
  4. Pagabeleguem S, Sangaré M, Bengaly Z, Akoudjin M, Belem A, Bouyer J. Climate, cattle rearing systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis risk in Burkina Faso. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49762 pubmed publisher
    ..In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends to a buffer area around their distribution belt, corresponding to the herd transhumance radius. ..
  5. Wolkmer P, Silva C, Paim F, Duarte M, Castro V, Palma H, et al. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitol Int. 2013;62:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..potential anti-inflammatory agent, through the evaluation of immunomodulatory mechanisms in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi...
  6. De Gaudenzi J, Noé G, Campo V, Frasch A, Cassola A. Gene expression regulation in trypanosomatids. Essays Biochem. 2011;51:31-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present chapter we will focus on particular characteristics of gene expression in the so-called TriTryp parasites: Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major.
  7. Kato H, Gomez E, Caceres A, Vargas F, Mimori T, Yamamoto K, et al. Natural infections of man-biting sand flies by Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in the northern Peruvian Andes. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..peruensis and 2.6% of Lu. (H.) caballeroi, and the parasite species were identified as Le. (V.) peruviana and Trypanosoma avium, respectively, by molecular biological methods...
  8. Oberholzer M, Lopez M, McLelland B, Hill K. Social motility in african trypanosomes. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000739 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei engages in social behavior when cultivated on semisolid agarose surfaces...
  9. Weiss B, Aksoy S. Microbiome influences on insect host vector competence. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:514-22 pubmed publisher
  10. Aslett M, Aurrecoechea C, Berriman M, Brestelli J, Brunk B, Carrington M, et al. TriTrypDB: a functional genomic resource for the Trypanosomatidae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:D457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, TriTrypDB integrates datasets from Leishmania braziliensis, L. infantum, L. major, L. tarentolae, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi...
  11. Tibayrenc M, Ayala F. How clonal are Trypanosoma and Leishmania?. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons with various other pathogens evidence general features among them and enhance our understanding of Trypanosoma and Leishmania population genetics...
  12. Cestari I, Evans Osses I, Schlapbach L, de Messias Reason I, Ramirez M. Mechanisms of complement lectin pathway activation and resistance by trypanosomatid parasites. Mol Immunol. 2013;53:328-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on trypanosomatids, the parasites that cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis). ..
  13. Oladiran A, Belosevic M. Trypanosoma carassii calreticulin binds host complement component C1q and inhibits classical complement pathway-mediated lysis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:396-405 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma carassii is an extracellular parasite of economically important fish species that has evolved several strategies to circumvent host immune responses...
  14. Mekata H, Konnai S, Mingala C, Abes N, Gutierrez C, Dargantes A, et al. Isolation, cloning, and pathologic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi field isolates. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:1513-21 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, the emergence of highly pathogenic Trypanosoma evansi strains in the Philippines has resulted in substantial losses in livestock production. In this study, we isolated T...
  15. Rodrigues A, Garcia H, Batista J, Minervino A, Góes Cavalcante G, Maia da Silva F, et al. Characterization of spliced leader genes of Trypanosoma ( Megatrypanum) theileri: phylogeographical analysis of Brazilian isolates from cattle supports spatial clustering of genotypes and parity with ribosomal markers. Parasitology. 2010;137:111-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri from cattle and trypanosomes of other artiodactyls form a clade of closely related species in analyses using ribosomal sequences...
  16. Roge S, Van Reet N, Odiwuor S, Tran T, Schildermans K, VanDamme S, et al. Recombinant expression of trypanosome surface glycoproteins in Pichia pastoris for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:571-9 pubmed publisher
    ..causes vast economic losses in livestock, is still based on native antigens purified from bloodstream form Trypanosoma (T.) evansi grown in rodents...
  17. Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, Carlson J, Sehgal R. Two new Trypanosoma species from African birds, with notes on the taxonomy of avian trypanosomes. J Parasitol. 2011;97:924-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma anguiformis n. sp. and Trypanosoma polygranularis n. sp...
  18. Schwede A, Carrington M. Bloodstream form Trypanosome plasma membrane proteins: antigenic variation and invariant antigens. Parasitology. 2010;137:2029-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma brucei is exposed to the adaptive immune system and complement in the blood of its mammalian hosts...
  19. Alves A, Mouta Confort E, Figueiredo F, Oliveira R, Schubach A, Madeira M. Evaluation of serological cross-reactivity between canine visceral leishmaniasis and natural infection by Trypanosoma caninum. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:1329-33 pubmed publisher
    In order to evaluate if the presence of Trypanosoma caninum can lead to a confuse diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), we investigated the serological status of dogs infected by T...
  20. McInnes L, Dargantes A, Ryan U, Reid S. Microsatellite typing and population structuring of Trypanosoma evansi in Mindanao, Philippines. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:129-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi, a blood-borne protozoan parasite with an extensive geographical range is the causative agent of the livestock disease known as surra. A total of 140 out of 179 T...
  21. Beldomenico P, Telfer S, Gebert S, Lukomski L, Bennett M, Begon M. The vicious circle and infection intensity: the case of Trypanosoma microti in field vole populations. Epidemics. 2009;1:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the temporal relationship between host condition and intensity of infection by a specific pathogen using as a system the dynamics of the protozoan Trypanosoma microti in field vole (Microtus agrestis) populations.
  22. Morrison L, Marcello L, McCulloch R. Antigenic variation in the African trypanosome: molecular mechanisms and phenotypic complexity. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1724-34 pubmed publisher
  23. Paparini A, Irwin P, Warren K, McInnes L, de Tores P, Ryan U. Identification of novel trypanosome genotypes in native Australian marsupials. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..significance of these infections is currently unknown, the identification of these novel sequences may support future investigations on transmission, threats to endangered wildlife, and evolutionary history of the genus Trypanosoma.
  24. Thompson C, Botero A, Wayne A, Godfrey S, Lymbery A, Thompson R. Morphological polymorphism of Trypanosoma copemani and description of the genetically diverse T. vegrandis sp. nov. from the critically endangered Australian potoroid, the brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata (Gray, 1837)). Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:121 pubmed publisher
    ..At a species level, woylies are critically endangered and have declined by 90% since 1999. The predation of individuals made more vulnerable by disease is thought to be the primary cause of this decline, but remains to be proven...
  25. Mekata H, Konnai S, Mingala C, Abes N, Gutierrez C, Dargantes A, et al. Kinetics of regulatory dendritic cells in inflammatory responses during Trypanosoma evansi infection. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:318-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) causes a wasting disease in almost all mammals. Trypanosoma evansi infection gives rise to the inflammatory responses that contribute to the development of inflammation-associated tissue injury...
  26. Salim B, de Meeus T, Bakheit M, Kamau J, Nakamura I, Sugimoto C. Population genetics of Trypanosoma evansi from camel in the Sudan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1196 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei brucei. Though the first hypothesis is the most likely, discriminating between these two incompatible hypotheses will require further studies at much localized scales...
  27. Adams E, Hamilton P, Gibson W. African trypanosomes: celebrating diversity. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We should first acknowledge that these novel trypanosomes exist and then take steps to investigate their host range, pathogenicity to livestock and response to chemotherapy...
  28. Amer S, Ryu O, Tada C, Fukuda Y, Inoue N, Nakai Y. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt, a pilot study. Acta Trop. 2011;117:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, analysis of variable surface glycoprotein RoTat 1.2 gene marker revealed some heterogeneity at this gene locus. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular analysis of T. evansi in Egypt...
  29. Ferreira F, Cano J, Furtado A, Ndong Mabale N, Ndong Asumu P, Benito A, et al. An alternative approach to detect Trypanosoma in Glossina (Diptera, Glossinidae) without dissection. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008;2:63-7 pubmed
    ..In this study we tested a possible alternative approach that uses the entire insect vector for DNA extraction and PCR analysis to detect and identify Trypanosoma spp. in field collected tsetse flies.
  30. Truc P, Büscher P, Cuny G, Gonzatti M, Jannin J, Joshi P, et al. Atypical human infections by animal trypanosomes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2256 pubmed publisher
    The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T...
  31. Maeda F, Cortez C, Alves R, Yoshida N. Mammalian cell invasion by closely related Trypanosoma species T. dionisii and T. cruzi. Acta Trop. 2012;121:141-7 pubmed publisher
    Protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma can infect virtually all mammalian species...
  32. Wang J, Wu Y, Yang G, Aksoy S. Interactions between mutualist Wigglesworthia and tsetse peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-LB) influence trypanosome transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A dynamic interplay between Wigglesworthia and host immunity apparently is influential in tsetse's ability to transmit trypanosomes...
  33. Nimpaye H, Njiokou F, Njine T, Njitchouang G, Cuny G, Herder S, et al. Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense "forest type" and T. simiae: prevalence in domestic animals of sleeping sickness foci of Cameroon. Parasite. 2011;18:171-9 pubmed
    ..trypanosomiasis that occur together in sleeping sickness foci, a study of prevalences of animal parasites (Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense "forest type", and T...
  34. Mijares A, Concepción J, Vielma J, Portillo R. Immune detection of acetylcholinesterase in subcellular compartments of Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi is a worldwide distributed hemoparasite with a strong economic impact in veterinary activities. Despite widespread knowledge about the etiology of the disease caused by T...
  35. Salim B, Bakheit M, Kamau J, Nakamura I, Sugimoto C. Molecular epidemiology of camel trypanosomiasis based on ITS1 rDNA and RoTat 1.2 VSG gene in the Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:31 pubmed publisher
  36. Holm S, Beech J, Barrett M, Tegenfeldt J. Separation of parasites from human blood using deterministic lateral displacement. Lab Chip. 2011;11:1326-32 pubmed publisher
  37. Desquesnes M, Dargantes A, Lai D, Lun Z, Holzmuller P, Jittapalapong S. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on transmission, epidemiology and control, impact, and zoonotic aspects. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:321237 pubmed publisher
    This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp...
  38. Daniels J, Gull K, Wickstead B. Cell biology of the trypanosome genome. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2010;74:552-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We also compare this nuclear organization to those in other systems in order to shed light on the evolution of nuclear architecture in eukaryotes...
  39. Queiroz R, Benz C, Fellenberg K, Hoheisel J, Clayton C. Transcriptome analysis of differentiating trypanosomes reveals the existence of multiple post-transcriptional regulons. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:495 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here the transitions in gene expression that occur during differentiation of in-vitro cultured bloodstream forms to procyclic forms...
  40. Allou K, Acapovi Yao G, Kaba D, Bosson Vanga H, Solano P, N Goran K. [Eco-distribution and Trypanosoma infection of Glossina palpalis palpalis in the Banco forest of and its relics, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)]. Parasite. 2009;16:289-95 pubmed
    ..One species of tsetse fly (Glossina polpalis palpalis) and two species of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax) have been revealed...
  41. Roy Chowdhury A, Bakshi R, Wang J, Yildirir G, Liu B, Pappas Brown V, et al. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001226 pubmed publisher
  42. La Greca F, Magez S. Vaccination against trypanosomiasis: can it be done or is the trypanosome truly the ultimate immune destroyer and escape artist?. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:1225-33 pubmed publisher
  43. Changtam C, de Koning H, Ibrahim H, Sajid M, Gould M, Suksamrarn A. Curcuminoid analogs with potent activity against Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:941-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of curcuminoid analogs and these parent curcuminoids and their analogs were assessed against protozoa of the Trypanosoma and Leishmania species...
  44. Costa M, Dos Anjos Lopes S, França R, Da Silva A, Paim F, Palma H, et al. Role of acute phase proteins in the immune response of rabbits infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to characterize the response of acute phase proteins (APP) in rabbits experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi (T...
  45. Milocco C, Kamyingkird K, Desquesnes M, Jittapalapong S, Herbreteau V, Chaval Y, et al. Molecular demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi DNA in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:17-26 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated the molecular evidence of Trypanosoma evansi in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand...
  46. Liotta F, Siekierka J. Apicomplexa, trypanosoma and parasitic nematode protein kinases as antiparasitic therapeutic targets. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010;11:147-56 pubmed
    Parasitic infections caused by Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma and parasitic nematodes affect hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide and are the cause of significant mortality and morbidity, particularly in ..
  47. Thekisoe O, Rodriguez C, Rivas F, Coronel Servian A, Fukumoto S, Sugimoto C, et al. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli infections from Rhodnius pallescens bugs by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:855-60 pubmed publisher
    We have developed two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for specific detection of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli based on the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) genes, respectively...
  48. Clausen P, Bauer B, Zessin K, Diall O, Bocoum Z, Sidibe I, et al. Preventing and containing trypanocide resistance in the cotton zone of West Africa. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Engagement was initiated with actors involved in the problem of resistance and for its solution, including manufacturers, sellers and users of drugs, regulators and extension providers...
  49. Paim F, Duarte M, Costa M, Da Silva A, Wolkmer P, Silva C, et al. Cytokines in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF-?), interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi and to correlate these levels with hematological parameters...
  50. Oladiran A, Beauparlant D, Belosevic M. The expression analysis of inflammatory and antimicrobial genes in the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) infected with Trypanosoma carassii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:606-13 pubmed publisher
    We report results of a comprehensive analysis of inflammatory gene expression during the course of infection of Trypanosoma carassii in the goldfish...
  51. Desquesnes M, Holzmuller P, Lai D, Dargantes A, Lun Z, Jittaplapong S. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on origin, history, distribution, taxonomy, morphology, hosts, and pathogenic effects. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:194176 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of "surra," is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa...
  52. Konnai S, Mekata H, Mingala C, Abes N, Gutierrez C, Herrera J, et al. Development and application of a quantitative real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Surra in water buffaloes. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:449-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) causes the disease called Surra in domestic animals, which is of great economic importance in South Asian countries...
  53. Kurup S, Tewari A. Induction of protective immune response in mice by a DNA vaccine encoding Trypanosoma evansi beta tubulin gene. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:9-16 pubmed publisher
    Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is an economically important veterinary disease of the tropics. Lack of effective drugs or vaccines have made surra a severe economic burden particularly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa...
  54. Antoine Moussiaux N, Cornet A, Cornet F, Glineur S, Dermine M, Desmecht D. A non-cytosolic protein of Trypanosoma evansi induces CD45-dependent lymphocyte death. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5728 pubmed publisher
    In a recent study dealing with a mouse model of Trypanosoma evansi-associated disease, a remarkable synchrony between the parasitaemia peak and the white-blood-cell count nadir was noticed...
  55. Aref M, Yasin S, Bahear W, Ghulam Z, Hastie L, Dennison T, et al. Canine Trypanosoma evansi infection in Afghanistan. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:638-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We here describe the clinical picture of the animal and how the parasite was identified as Trypanosoma evansi by DNA extraction from a blood smear and molecular analysis with taxon-specific PCR assays.
  56. Simo G, Silatsa B, Flobert N, Lutumba P, Mansinsa P, Madinga J, et al. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:201 pubmed publisher
  57. Herrera H, Rocha F, Lisboa C, Rademaker V, Mourão G, Jansen A. Food web connections and the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in the Pantanal Region, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:380-7 pubmed publisher
    We examined by parasitological tests (hemocultures and buffy coat) infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi in blood samples from Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous and domestic dogs. Besides, 25 T...
  58. Magez S, Caljon G. Mouse models for pathogenic African trypanosomes: unravelling the immunology of host-parasite-vector interactions. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:423-9 pubmed publisher
  59. Otto M, Da Silva A, Gressler L, Farret M, Tavares K, Zanette R, et al. Susceptibility of Trypanosoma evansi to human blood and plasma in infected mice. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the longer longevity, treatments were capable of curing 50% of mice of group B, 37.5% of group C, 37.5% of group D and 25% of the animals from group E...
  60. Pruvot M, Kamyingkird K, Desquesnes M, Sarataphan N, Jittapalapong S. A comparison of six primer sets for detection of Trypanosoma evansi by polymerase chain reaction in rodents and Thai livestock. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:185-93 pubmed publisher
    To face the worldwide threat of Surra caused by Trypanosoma evansi, international organizations have stressed the need to evaluate and standardize diagnostic tools. PCR detection of T...
  61. Roy N, Nageshan R, Pallavi R, Chakravarthy H, Chandran S, Kumar R, et al. Proteomics of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rodents. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9796 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi infections, commonly called 'surra', cause significant economic losses to livestock industry...
  62. Rico E, Rojas F, Mony B, Szoor B, MacGregor P, Matthews K. Bloodstream form pre-adaptation to the tsetse fly in Trypanosoma brucei. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:78 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, their potential to act as targets for therapeutic strategies that disrupt parasite development either in the mammalian bloodstream or upon their transmission to tsetse flies is also discussed. ..
  63. Oliveira C, Da Silva A, Souza V, Costa M, Jaques J, Leal D, et al. NTPDase activity in lymphocytes of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitology. 2012;139:232-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi is the aetiological agent of trypanosomosis in domestic animals. In this pathology, an inflammatory response can be observed and, as a consequence, the increase of extracellular adenine nucleotides such as ATP...
  64. Sengupta P, Balumahendiran M, Balamurugan V, Rudramurthy G, Prabhudas K. Expressed truncated N-terminal variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma evansi in E. coli exhibits immuno-reactivity. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The fused His-tagged expressed VSG protein (43 kDa) of the Trypanosoma evansi was characterized in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using hyperimmune/immune sera raised against buffalo, ..
  65. Nair A, Ravindran R, Lakshmanan B, Kumar S, Tresamol P, Saseendranath M, et al. Haemoprotozoa of cattle in Northern Kerala, India. Trop Biomed. 2011;28:68-75 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction using specific primers revealed amplification of products specific for Trypanosoma evansi (34.6%), Theileria sp. other than T. annulata (16%) and B. bigemina (0.6%)...
  66. Michaeli S. Trans-splicing in trypanosomes: machinery and its impact on the parasite transcriptome. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:459-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the SL silencing mechanism, which is harnessed by the parasite to control gene expression under stress, is discussed...
  67. Tamarit A, Gutierrez C, Arroyo R, Jimenez V, Zagalá G, Bosch I, et al. Trypanosoma evansi infection in mainland Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:74-6 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of Trypanosoma evansi infection that occurred in mainland Spain is described...
  68. Doniger T, Michaeli S, Unger R. Families of H/ACA ncRNA molecules in trypanosomatids. RNA Biol. 2009;6:370-4 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the repertoire of the 46 published H/ACA molecules in Trypanosoma brucei, as well as identify the orthologous counterparts in other Trypanosomatids enlarging the H/ACA ..
  69. Dick C, Dos Santos A, Fonseca de Souza A, Rocha Ferreira J, Meyer Fernandes J. Trypanosoma rangeli: differential expression of ecto-phosphatase activities in response to inorganic phosphate starvation. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:386-93 pubmed publisher
    In this work, we showed that living cells of Trypanosoma rangeli express different ecto-phosphatase activities in response to different inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in the culture medium. The ecto-phosphatase activity from T...
  70. MARTINEZ CALVILLO S, Vizuet de Rueda J, Florencio Martínez L, Manning Cela R, Figueroa Angulo E. Gene expression in trypanosomatid parasites. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:525241 pubmed publisher
    The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively...
  71. Cavazzana M, Marcili A, Lima L, da Silva F, Junqueira A, Veludo H, et al. Phylogeographical, ecological and biological patterns shown by nuclear (ssrRNA and gGAPDH) and mitochondrial (Cyt b) genes of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum parasitic in Brazilian bats. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:345-55 pubmed publisher
    The genetic diversity and phylogeographical patterns of Trypanosoma species that infect Brazilian bats were evaluated by examining 1043 bats from 63 species of seven families captured in Amazonia, the Pantanal, Cerrado and the Atlantic ..
  72. Gillingwater K, Kumar A, Anbazhagan M, Boykin D, Tidwell R, Brun R. In vivo investigations of selected diamidine compounds against Trypanosoma evansi using a mouse model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:5074-9 pubmed publisher
    Surra is an animal pathogenic protozoan infection, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, that develops into a fatal wasting disease. Control measures rely on diagnosis and treatment...
  73. Desquesnes M, Kamyingkird K, Vergne T, Sarataphan N, Pranee R, Jittapalapong S. An evaluation of melarsomine hydrochloride efficacy for parasitological cure in experimental infection of dairy cattle with Trypanosoma evansi in Thailand. Parasitology. 2011;138:1134-42 pubmed publisher
    Melarsomine hydrochloride can cure Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels at a dose of 0·25 mg/kg, but at that dose relapses occur in cattle...
  74. Arias D, Cabeza M, Erben E, Carranza P, Lujan H, T llez I n M, et al. Functional characterization of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Trypanosoma spp. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzymes were specific for L-Met(S)SO reduction, using Trypanosoma cruzi tryparedoxin I as the reducing substrate...
  75. Pruvot M, Kamyingkird K, Desquesnes M, Sarataphan N, Jittapalapong S. The effect of the DNA preparation method on the sensitivity of PCR for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi in rodents and implications for epidemiological surveillance efforts. Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:203-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma evansi is responsible for the most largely distributed animal trypanosomosis, affecting a wide range of wild and domestic animals. Its surveillance requires the implementation of standardized and reliable diagnostic tools...
  76. Kone N, N Goran E, Sidibe I, Kombassere A, Bouyer J. Spatio-temporal distribution of tsetse and other biting flies in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:156-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent infection was Trypanosoma vivax (1.4%), followed by Trypanosoma congolense (0.3%) and Trypanosoma brucei (0.05%)...
  77. Haridy F, El Metwally M, Khalil H, Morsy T. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011;41:65-76 pubmed
    b>Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days...
  78. Thomson R, Samanovic M, Raper J. Activity of trypanosome lytic factor: a novel component of innate immunity. Future Microbiol. 2009;4:789-96 pubmed publisher
    ..TLFs are characterized by their ability to kill extracellular protozoon parasites of the genus Trypanosoma. Two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei have evolved resistance to TLFs and can consequently infect humans, ..
  79. McInnes L, Hanger J, Simmons G, Reid S, Ryan U. Novel trypanosome Trypanosoma gilletti sp. (Euglenozoa: Trypanosomatidae) and the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Parasitology. 2011;138:59-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosoma irwini was previously described from koalas and we now report the finding of a second novel species, T. gilletti, as well as the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include koalas...
  80. Kumar R, Kumar S, Khurana S, Yadav S. Development of an antibody-ELISA for seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in equids of North and North-western regions of India. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:251-7 pubmed publisher
    The importance of Trypanosoma evansi as the etiological agent for surra is often overlooked due to difficulty in accurate diagnosis of the disease...
  81. Basiye F, Schoone G, Beld M, Minnaar R, Ngeranwa J, Wasunna M, et al. Comparison of short-term and long-term protocols for stabilization and preservation of RNA and DNA of Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;69:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..identifying a suitable protocol for stabilization and preservation of RNA and DNA in bioclinical specimens for Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Plasmodium research...
  82. Anderson N, Mubanga J, Fèvre E, Picozzi K, Eisler M, Thomas R, et al. Characterisation of the wildlife reservoir community for human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1211 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from domesticated hosts...