leishmania mexicana

Summary

Summary: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.

Top Publications

  1. Ruhland A, Kima P. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling has a dominant negative effect on IL-12 production by macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Exp Parasitol. 2009;122:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K signaling activated by the infection is the negative signaling pathway that prevents IL-12 production. ..
  2. Guimarães E, Santos L, Ribeiro dos Santos R, Teixeira M, dos Santos W, Soares M. Role of interleukin-4 and prostaglandin E2 in Leishmania amazonensis infection of BALB/c mice. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1219-26 pubmed
    ..The lesions of indomethacin-treated groups contained mostly macrophages without vacuoles and small or absent necrotic areas. These results indicate that IL-4 and PGE(2) are susceptibility factors to L. amazonensis infection. ..
  3. Rodriguez Sosa M, Rivera Montoya I, Espinoza A, Romero Grijalva M, López Flores R, Gonzalez J, et al. Acute cysticercosis favours rapid and more severe lesions caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana infection, a role for alternatively activated macrophages. Cell Immunol. 2006;242:61-71 pubmed
    ..Taenia crassiceps favours parasitemia and induces larger cutaneous lesions during both Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana co-infections. Analysis of cytokine responses into draining lymph nodes indicated that co-infection of T...
  4. Gomes I, Palma L, Campos G, Lima J, DE Almeida T, DE Menezes J, et al. The scavenger receptor MARCO is involved in Leishmania major infection by CBA/J macrophages. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that MARCO has a role in macrophage infection by L. major in vitro as well as in vivo. ..
  5. Veras P, Welby Borges M, de Santana C, Nihei J, Cardillo F, de Freitas L. Leishmania amazonensis: participation of regulatory T and B cells in the in vitro priming (PIV) of CBA/J spleen cells susceptible response. Exp Parasitol. 2006;113:201-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in PIV, susceptibility to L. amazonensis is not related to Th cell polarization, but to the presence and activity of regulatory T and B cells. ..
  6. Galindo Sevilla N, Soto N, Mancilla J, Cerbulo A, Zambrano E, Chavira R, et al. Low serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol in human diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania mexicana. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:566-72 pubmed
    ..b>Leishmania mexicana mexicana was identified as the causal agent in patients with DL and LL...
  7. Gaur U, Roberts S, Dalvi R, Corraliza I, Ullman B, Wilson M. An effect of parasite-encoded arginase on the outcome of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Immunol. 2007;179:8446-53 pubmed
    ..These data intimate that parasite-encoded arginase of Leishmania mexicana subverts macrophage microbicidal activity by diverting arginine away from iNOS.
  8. Villaseñor Cardoso M, Salaiza N, Delgado J, Gutiérrez Kobeh L, Perez Torres A, Becker I. Mast cells are activated by Leishmania mexicana LPG and regulate the disease outcome depending on the genetic background of the host. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..mast cells (BMMCs) from susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice, stimulated in vitro with Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG)...
  9. Abu Dayyeh I, Hassani K, Westra E, Mottram J, Olivier M. Comparative study of the ability of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes to alter macrophage signaling and functions. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2438-45 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications90

  1. Martin Quintal Z, Moo Puc R, Gonzalez Salazar F, Chan Bacab M, Torres Tapia L, Peraza Sánchez S. In vitro activity of Tridax procumbens against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tridax procumbens is an active herb against leishmaniasis...
  2. Fernández M, Malchiodi E, Algranati I. Differential effects of paromomycin on ribosomes of Leishmania mexicana and mammalian cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicating differential effects of paromomycin on the translation processes of the Leishmania parasite and its mammalian hosts can explain the therapeutic efficiency of this antibiotic as an antileishmaniasis agent. ..
  3. Rosas L, Keiser T, Barbi J, Satoskar A, Septer A, Kaczmarek J, et al. Genetic background influences immune responses and disease outcome of cutaneous L. mexicana infection in mice. Int Immunol. 2005;17:1347-57 pubmed
    The experimental model of high-dose Leishmania mexicana infection is used frequently to study molecular mechanisms regulating Th2 response since most inbred mice regardless of their genetic background display Th2 cytokine-dependent ..
  4. D az Gandarilla J, Osorio Trujillo C, Hern ndez Ram rez V, Talam s Rohana P. PPAR activation induces M1 macrophage polarization via cPLA?-COX-2 inhibition, activating ROS production against Leishmania mexicana. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:215283 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
  5. Real F, Pouchelet M, Rabinovitch M. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis: fusion between parasitophorous vacuoles in infected bone-marrow derived mouse macrophages. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The model should be useful in studies of parasite and host cell factors and mechanisms involved in PV fusogenicity. ..
  6. Saunders E, Ng W, Chambers J, Ng M, Naderer T, Krömer J, et al. Isotopomer profiling of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes reveals important roles for succinate fermentation and aspartate uptake in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) anaplerosis, glutamate synthesis, and growth. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..incorporation of various (13)C-labeled carbon sources into the intracellular and secreted metabolites of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and (13)C NMR...
  7. Wanderley J, Moreira M, Benjamin A, Bonomo A, Barcinski M. Mimicry of apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine participates in the establishment of amastigotes of Leishmania (L) amazonensis in mammalian hosts. J Immunol. 2006;176:1834-9 pubmed
    ..The intensity of macrophage macropinocytic activity is dependent on the amount of surface PS displayed by the infecting amastigote. ..
  8. Petritus P, Manzoni de Almeida D, Gimblet C, Gonzalez Lombana C, Scott P. Leishmania mexicana induces limited recruitment and activation of monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells early during infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1858 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that during L. mexicana infection reduced recruitment, activation and subsequent migration of monocytes and mo-DCs to the draining lymph nodes may result in the insufficient priming of a Th1 response. ..
  9. Alves C, Corte Real S, Bourguignon S, Chaves C, Saraiva E. Leishmania amazonensis: early proteinase activities during promastigote-amastigote differentiation in vitro. Exp Parasitol. 2005;109:38-48 pubmed
    ..Our results show different proteinase activity modulation and expression during the early phases of the shock-induced parasite transformation. ..
  10. Chalé Balboa W, Mut Martin M, Ramirez Sierra M, Garcia Miss M, Dumonteil E. A combination DNA vaccine encoding nucleoside hydrolase 36 and glycoproteine 63 protects female but not male hamsters against Leishmania mexicana. Parasite. 2009;16:227-30 pubmed
    ..Male hamsters were more susceptible to infection by Leishmania mexicana than females...
  11. Yang Z, Mosser D, Zhang X. Activation of the MAPK, ERK, following Leishmania amazonensis infection of macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;178:1077-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings reveal an important role of MAPK, ERK signaling in the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection. ..
  12. Cortázar T, Hernández J, Echeverry M, Camacho M. [Role of the parasitophorous vacuole of murine macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis in molecule acquisition]. Biomedica. 2006;26 Suppl 1:26-37 pubmed
    ..A poorly selective ion current on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane is reported for the first time. ..
  13. Bengs F, Scholz A, Kuhn D, Wiese M. LmxMPK9, a mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue affects flagellar length in Leishmania mexicana. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1606-15 pubmed
    ..A mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue, designated LmxMPK9 from Leishmania mexicana, has been recently identified in a homology screen and its mRNA found to be present in all life stages...
  14. Pinheiro R, Nunes M, Pinheiro C, D Avila H, Bozza P, Takiya C, et al. Induction of autophagy correlates with increased parasite load of Leishmania amazonensis in BALB/c but not C57BL/6 macrophages. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that autophagy regulates the outcome of L. amazonensis infection in macrophages in a host strain specific manner. ..
  15. Martínez Salazar M, Delgado Dominguez J, Silva Estrada J, Gonzalez Bonilla C, Becker I. Vaccination with Leishmania mexicana LPG induces PD-1 in CD8? and PD-L2 in macrophages thereby suppressing the immune response: a model to assess vaccine efficacy. Vaccine. 2014;32:1259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..and CD4(+) lymphocytes and it is ligand PD-L2 in macrophages of BALB/c mice immunized with various doses of Leishmania mexicana LPG and re-stimulated in vitro with different concentrations of LPG...
  16. Delgado Dominguez J, Gonzalez Aguilar H, Aguirre Garcia M, Gutiérrez Kobeh L, Berzunza Cruz M, Ruiz Remigio A, et al. Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan differentially regulates PKCalpha-induced oxidative burst in macrophages of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophage oxidative burst, yet it is not known if different susceptibility of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to Leishmania mexicana could be related to PKCalpha. We analysed the effect of L...
  17. Rogers M, Hajmová M, Joshi M, Sadlova J, Dwyer D, Volf P, et al. Leishmania chitinase facilitates colonization of sand fly vectors and enhances transmission to mice. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized the ability of Leishmania mexicana episomally transfected with LmexCht1 (the L...
  18. Miguel D, Yokoyama Yasunaka J, Andreoli W, Mortara R, Uliana S. Tamoxifen is effective against Leishmania and induces a rapid alkalinization of parasitophorous vacuoles harbouring Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:526-34 pubmed
    ..5 when compared with cultures at pH 4.5. Tamoxifen effectively kills several Leishmania species and its activity against the parasite is increased by a modulation of the host cell intravacuolar pH induced by the drug. ..
  19. Bryson K, Besteiro S, McGachy H, Coombs G, Mottram J, Alexander J. Overexpression of the natural inhibitor of cysteine peptidases in Leishmania mexicana leads to reduced virulence and a Th1 response. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2971-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania mexicana cysteine peptidases (CPs) have been identified as important parasite virulence factors. More recently, a natural inhibitor of CPs (ICP) from L. mexicana has been characterized, and ICP mutants have been created...
  20. Adhiambo C, Forney J, Asai D, LeBowitz J. The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;143:216-25 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2...
  21. Wanasen N, MacLeod C, Ellies L, Soong L. L-arginine and cationic amino acid transporter 2B regulate growth and survival of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in macrophages. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2802-10 pubmed
    ..A possible role of mCAT-2B in supplying L-arginine directly to the parasites for their proliferation is discussed...
  22. Bryson K, Wei X, Alexander J. Interleukin-18 enhances a Th2 biased response and susceptibility to Leishmania mexicana in BALB/c mice. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin-18 deficient mice on a BALB/c background display increased resistance to cutaneous infection with Leishmania mexicana, with reduced lesion progression and reduced parasite burdens compared with wild-type mice...
  23. Ali S, Rezvan H, McArdle S, Khodadadi A, Asteal F, Rees R. CTL responses to Leishmania mexicana gp63-cDNA vaccine in a murine model. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..were to establish a suitable cytotoxicity assay to measure CTL activity and to compare immunity induced by Leishmania mexicana gp63 cDNA via i.m. injection and gene gun immunization in the BALB/c mouse model...
  24. Rovirosa Hernández M, Cortés Ortiz L, García Orduña F, Guzmán Gómez D, López Monteon A, Caba M, et al. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania mexicana in free-ranging howler monkeys in southeastern Mexico. Am J Primatol. 2013;75:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi and Leishmania mexicana through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test, indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot...
  25. Sobirk S, Morgelin M, Egesten A, Bates P, Shannon O, Collin M. Human chemokines as antimicrobial peptides with direct parasiticidal effect on Leishmania mexicana in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58129 pubmed publisher
    ..CCL3, CCL20, CCL27, CCL28) for antimicrobial effects on the promastigote form of the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana, and observed direct parasiticidal effects of several, CCL28 being the most potent...
  26. Xin L, Li K, Soong L. Down-regulation of dendritic cell signaling pathways by Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that La parasites, especially in their intracellular forms, have evolved unique strategies to actively down-regulate early innate signaling events, resulting in impaired DC function and Th1 activation...
  27. Hsu A, Scott P. Leishmania mexicana infection induces impaired lymph node expansion and Th1 cell differentiation despite normal T cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2007;179:8200-7 pubmed
    b>Leishmania mexicana infections in C57BL/6 mice are associated with minimal immune responses and persistent cutaneous lesions. In contrast, Leishmania major elicits a robust Th1 response that promotes lesion resolution...
  28. Holzer T, Mishra K, LeBowitz J, Forney J. Coordinate regulation of a family of promastigote-enriched mRNAs by the 3'UTR PRE element in Leishmania mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;157:54-64 pubmed
    ..The nine-nucleotide paraflagellar rod regulatory element (PRE) in the 3'UTR of Leishmania mexicana PFR2 is both necessary and sufficient for the observed 10-fold higher level of PFR2 mRNA in promastigotes ..
  29. Lezama Dávila C, Isaac Márquez A, Barbi J, Oghumu S, Satoskar A. 17Beta-estradiol increases Leishmania mexicana killing in macrophages from DBA/2 mice by enhancing production of nitric oxide but not pro-inflammatory cytokines. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:1125-7 pubmed
    We have previously shown that female DBA/2 mice are significantly more resistant to Leishmania mexicana compared with males...
  30. Carrada G, Caneda C, Salaiza N, Delgado J, Ruiz A, Sanchez B, et al. Monocyte cytokine and costimulatory molecule expression in patients infected with Leishmania mexicana. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:117-26 pubmed
    b>Leishmania mexicana causes localized and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  31. Erdmann M, Scholz A, Melzer I, Schmetz C, Wiese M. Interacting protein kinases involved in the regulation of flagellar length. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2035-45 pubmed
    ..LmxMKK, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase from Leishmania mexicana, is required for growth of a full-length flagellum...
  32. Saraiva E, Pinto da Silva L, Wanderley J, Bonomo A, Barcinski M, Moreira M. Flow cytometric assessment of Leishmania spp metacyclic differentiation: validation by morphological features and specific markers. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:39-47 pubmed
    ..The method here described can be applied to the identification of metacyclics of different Leishmania spp within the whole stationary population...
  33. Holzer T, McMaster W, Forney J. Expression profiling by whole-genome interspecies microarray hybridization reveals differential gene expression in procyclic promastigotes, lesion-derived amastigotes, and axenic amastigotes in Leishmania mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;146:198-218 pubmed
    We examined the Leishmania mexicana transcriptome to identify differentially regulated mRNAs using high-density whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays designed from the genome data of a closely related species, Leishmania major...
  34. Benaim G, Garcia Marchan Y, Reyes C, Uzcanga G, Figarella K. Identification of a sphingosine-sensitive Ca2+ channel in the plasma membrane of Leishmania mexicana. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;430:1091-6 pubmed publisher
    The disruption of the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis of Leishmania mexicana represents a major target for the action of drugs, such as amiodarone and miltefosine...
  35. Al Mohammed H, Chance M, Bates P. Production and characterization of stable amphotericin-resistant amastigotes and promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3274-80 pubmed
    The sensitivities of Leishmania mexicana amastigote and promastigote forms to amphotericin B were investigated in vitro and found to be strongly influenced by the culture media used...
  36. Serrano Martín X, Garcia Marchan Y, Fernandez A, Rodriguez N, Rojas H, Visbal G, et al. Amiodarone destabilizes intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and biosynthesis of sterols in Leishmania mexicana. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that at therapeutic concentrations, amiodarone has a profound effect on the viability of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes...
  37. Machuca C, Rodriguez A, Herrera M, Silva S, Ponte Sucre A. Leishmania amazonensis: metabolic adaptations induced by resistance to an ABC transporter blocker. Exp Parasitol. 2006;114:1-9 pubmed
  38. Giardini M, Lira C, Conte F, Camillo L, de Siqueira Neto J, Ramos C, et al. The putative telomerase reverse transcriptase component of Leishmania amazonensis: gene cloning and characterization. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:447-54 pubmed
    ..A single messenger ribonucleic acid transcript was found in promastigotes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Leishmania telomerase might represent a liaison between the oldest and the newest branches of telomerases...
  39. Santos M, Silva M, Zampieri R, Lafraia R, Floeter Winter L. Correlation of meta 1 expression with culture stage, cell morphology and infectivity in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:190-3 pubmed
    ..No correlation was observed between meta 1 expression and infectivity. Conversely, infectivity correlated with the increase of apoptotic cells in the late stationary phase...
  40. Paape D, Lippuner C, Schmid M, Ackermann R, Barrios Llerena M, Zimny Arndt U, et al. Transgenic, fluorescent Leishmania mexicana allow direct analysis of the proteome of intracellular amastigotes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:1688-701 pubmed publisher
    ..By this approach the proteome of intracellular Leishmania mexicana amastigotes was compared with that of extracellular promastigotes that are transmitted by insect vectors...
  41. Rodriguez Contreras D, Feng X, Keeney K, Bouwer H, Landfear S. Phenotypic characterization of a glucose transporter null mutant in Leishmania mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;153:9-18 pubmed
    Glucose is a major source of energy and carbon in promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana, and its uptake is mediated by three glucose transporters whose genes are encoded within a single cluster...
  42. Zauli Nascimento R, Miguel D, Yokoyama Yasunaka J, Pereira L, Pelli de Oliveira M, Ribeiro Dias F, et al. In vitro sensitivity of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Brazilian isolates to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolates were also uniformly susceptible in vitro to amphotericin B...
  43. Gamboa León M, Aranda González I, Mut Martin M, Garcia Miss M, Dumonteil E. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production. Scand J Immunol. 2007;66:508-14 pubmed
    b>Leishmania mexicana is the main causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico...
  44. John von Freyend S, Rosenqvist H, Fink A, Melzer I, Clos J, Jensen O, et al. LmxMPK4, an essential mitogen-activated protein kinase of Leishmania mexicana is phosphorylated and activated by the STE7-like protein kinase LmxMKK5. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:969-78 pubmed publisher
    The essential mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), LmxMPK4, of Leishmania mexicana is minimally active when purified following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and was therefore unsuitable for drug screening until now...
  45. Maldonado J, Marina C, Puig J, Maizo Z, Avilan L. A study of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania mexicana in plasminogen-deficient mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2006;80:289-94 pubmed
    ..of plasminogen, the zymogenic form of the serine protease plasmin, was investigated in the infection of Leishmania mexicana in plasminogen-deficient (plg(-/-)) and Plg wild-type (plg(+/+)) mice...
  46. Chu N, Thomas B, Patel S, Buxbaum L. IgG1 is pathogenic in Leishmania mexicana infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:6939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In murine infection, Leishmania mexicana, which lives intracellularly in host macrophages, has developed pathways to hijack host IgG to induce a ..
  47. Stewart J, Curtis J, Spurck T, Ilg T, Garami A, Baldwin T, et al. Characterisation of a Leishmania mexicana knockout lacking guanosine diphosphate-mannose pyrophosphorylase. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:861-73 pubmed
    ..other eukaryotes, where deletion of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is lethal, deletion of this gene in Leishmania mexicana has no effect on viability, but leads to the generation of avirulent parasites...
  48. Lippuner C, Paape D, Paterou A, Brand J, Richardson M, Smith A, et al. Real-time imaging of Leishmania mexicana-infected early phagosomes: a study using primary macrophages generated from green fluorescent protein-Rab5 transgenic mice. FASEB J. 2009;23:483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Using real-time fluorescence imaging of phagosomes carrying Leishmania mexicana, we determined that parasite-infested phagosomes follow a uniform sequence of transient Rab5 recruitment...
  49. Kuhn D, Wiese M. LmxPK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase homologue of Leishmania mexicana with a potential role in parasite differentiation. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1169-82 pubmed
    Members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade are important for the establishment of a Leishmania mexicana infection and are involved in flagellar length control, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be ..
  50. Martínez Salazar B, Berzunza Cruz M, Becker I. [Leishmania mexicana DNA activates murine macrophages and increases their TLR9 expression]. Gac Med Mex. 2008;144:99-104 pubmed
    ..Schieicher et al. recently reported that genomic DNA from Leishmania infantum activates plasmacitoid dendritic cells through TLR9, leading to IFN type I production...
  51. Giraud E, Lecoeur H, Soubigou G, Coppee J, Milon G, Prina E, et al. Distinct transcriptional signatures of bone marrow-derived C57BL/6 and DBA/2 dendritic leucocytes hosting live Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1980 pubmed publisher
  52. Shweash M, Adrienne McGachy H, Schroeder J, Neamatallah T, Bryant C, Millington O, et al. Leishmania mexicana promastigotes inhibit macrophage IL-12 production via TLR-4 dependent COX-2, iNOS and arginase-1 expression. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1800-8 pubmed publisher
    The effects of Leishmania mexicana metacyclic promastigotes upon MAP kinase signalling in mouse bone marrow macrophages and subsequent expression of the disease regulatory proteins iNOS and COX-2 were studied...
  53. Fernández Figueroa E, Rangel Escareño C, Espinosa Mateos V, Carrillo Sánchez K, Salaiza Suazo N, Carrada Figueroa G, et al. Disease severity in patients infected with Leishmania mexicana relates to IL-1?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1533 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania mexicana can cause both localized (LCL) and diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis, yet little is known about factors regulating disease severity in these patients...
  54. Hassani K, Antoniak E, Jardim A, Olivier M. Temperature-induced protein secretion by Leishmania mexicana modulates macrophage signalling and function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18724 pubmed publisher
    ..We have observed that this TS induces a rapid and dramatic increase in protein release from Leishmania mexicana (cutaneous leishmaniasis) within 4 h...
  55. Wheeler R, Gluenz E, Gull K. The cell cycle of Leishmania: morphogenetic events and their implications for parasite biology. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:647-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that Leishmania mexicana undergoes large changes in morphology through the cell cycle and that the wide range of morphologies ..
  56. Real F, Mortara R, Rabinovitch M. Fusion between Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania major parasitophorous vacuoles: live imaging of coinfected macrophages. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e905 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations reported in this paper should be useful in further studies of the interactions between PVs to different species of Leishmania parasites, and of the mechanisms involved in the recognition and fusion of PVs...
  57. Aebischer T, Bennett C, Pelizzola M, Vizzardelli C, Pavelka N, Urbano M, et al. A critical role for lipophosphoglycan in proinflammatory responses of dendritic cells to Leishmania mexicana. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:476-86 pubmed
    ..Different forms of Leishmania mexicana have distinct effects on DC, with promastigotes and amastigotes being activating and apparently neutral, ..
  58. de Almeida Amaral E, Caruso Neves C, Pires V, Meyer Fernandes J. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:165-71 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, ouabain (1mM) did not change the growth of the parasite. Taken together, these results show that L. amazonensis expresses a P-type, ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase that could be involved with the growth of the parasite...
  59. Steert K, Berg M, Mottram J, Westrop G, Coombs G, Cos P, et al. ?-ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB. ChemMedChem. 2010;5:1734-48 pubmed publisher
    ..8; however, in?vitro whole-organism screening against a panel of protozoan parasites did not fully correlate with the observed inhibition of the cysteine protease...
  60. Thomas B, Buxbaum L. FcgammaRIII mediates immunoglobulin G-induced interleukin-10 and is required for chronic Leishmania mexicana lesions. Infect Immun. 2008;76:623-31 pubmed
    FcRgamma and interleukin-10 (IL-10) are both required for chronic disease in C57BL/6 mice with Leishmania mexicana parasite infection. FcRgamma is a component of several different FcRs and may be a component of some T-cell receptors...
  61. Tanaka A, Valero V, Takahashi H, Straus A. Inhibition of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis growth and infectivity by aureobasidin A. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:487-92 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of aureobasidin A, an inhibitor of inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, on Leishmania growth and infectivity...
  62. Joshi M, Rogers M, Shakarian A, Yamage M, Al Harthi S, Bates P, et al. Molecular characterization, expression, and in vivo analysis of LmexCht1: the chitinase of the human pathogen, Leishmania mexicana. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3847-61 pubmed
    ..structure of a single copy LmexCht1-chitinase gene from the primitive trypanosomatid pathogen of humans, Leishmania mexicana. The LmexCht1 encodes an approximately 50 kDa protein, with well conserved substrate binding and catalytic ..
  63. Williams R, Tetley L, Mottram J, Coombs G. Cysteine peptidases CPA and CPB are vital for autophagy and differentiation in Leishmania mexicana. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:655-74 pubmed
    In the past, ultrastructural investigations of Leishmania mexicana amastigotes revealed structures that were tentatively identified as autophagosomes...
  64. Bhardwaj N, Rosas L, Lafuse W, Satoskar A. Leishmania inhibits STAT1-mediated IFN-gamma signaling in macrophages: increased tyrosine phosphorylation of dominant negative STAT1beta by Leishmania mexicana. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:75-82 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we determined the effect of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana infection on STAT1-mediated IFN-gamma signaling pathway in J774A.1 and RAW264.7 macrophages...
  65. Tran K, Rodriguez Contreras D, Vieira D, Yates P, David L, Beatty W, et al. KHARON1 mediates flagellar targeting of a glucose transporter in Leishmania mexicana and is critical for viability of infectious intracellular amastigotes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:22721-33 pubmed publisher
    The LmxGT1 glucose transporter is selectively targeted to the flagellum of the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania mexicana, but the mechanism for targeting this and other flagella-specific membrane proteins among the Kinetoplastida is ..
  66. Lynn M, Marr A, McMaster W. Differential quantitative proteomic profiling of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania mexicana density gradient separated membranous fractions. J Proteomics. 2013;82:179-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania infantum are causative agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively...
  67. Valdivieso E, Dagger F, Rascon A. Leishmania mexicana: identification and characterization of an aspartyl proteinase activity. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:77-82 pubmed
    An aspartyl proteinase activity was detected in the soluble fraction (SF) of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes by the use of the synthetic substrate benzoyl-Arg-Gly-Phe-Phe-Leu-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide selective for Cathepsin D like ..
  68. Figuera L, Acosta H, Gómez Arreaza A, Dávila Vera D, Balza Quintero A, Quiñones W, et al. Plasminogen binding proteins in secreted membrane vesicles of Leishmania mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;187:14-20 pubmed publisher
    Membrane vesicles secreted by Leishmania mexicana were collected and analyzed. These vesicles can bind plasminogen and were shown to contain enolase, previously identified as a plasminogen-binding protein...
  69. Tulloch L, Morgan H, Hannaert V, Michels P, Fothergill Gilmore L, Walkinshaw M. Sulphate removal induces a major conformational change in Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase in the crystalline state. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:615-26 pubmed publisher
    We report X-ray structures of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana (LmPYK) that are trapped in different conformations...
  70. Buxbaum L. A detrimental role for IgG and FcgammaR in Leishmania mexicana infection. Immunol Res. 2008;42:197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leishmania mexicana causes primarily chronic cutaneous disease...
  71. Diaz Albiter H, Sant Anna M, Genta F, Dillon R. Reactive oxygen species-mediated immunity against Leishmania mexicana and Serratia marcescens in the sand phlebotomine fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23995-4003 pubmed publisher
    ..marcescens. Our study demonstrates a differential response of the sand fly ROS system to gut microbiota, an insect pathogen, and the Leishmania that utilize the sand fly as a vehicle for transmission between mammalian hosts...
  72. Kedzierski L, Malby R, Smith B, Perugini M, Hodder A, Ilg T, et al. Structure of Leishmania mexicana phosphomannomutase highlights similarities with human isoforms. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:215-27 pubmed
    ..Deletion of PMM from Leishmania mexicana results in loss of virulence, suggesting that PMM is a promising drug target for the development of anti-..
  73. Abu Dayyeh I, Shio M, Sato S, Akira S, Cousineau B, Olivier M. Leishmania-induced IRAK-1 inactivation is mediated by SHP-1 interacting with an evolutionarily conserved KTIM motif. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e305 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus provide the first demonstration that a pathogen can exploit a host protein tyrosine phosphatase, namely SHP-1, to directly inactivate IRAK-1 through a generally conserved KTIM motif...
  74. Alvarez Rueda N, Biron M, Le Pape P. Infectivity of Leishmania mexicana is associated with differential expression of protein kinase C-like triggered during a cell-cell contact. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7581 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest for the first time a direct link between PKC expression level and infectivity, and provide evidence that PKC-like plays a critical role in attachment and in the internalization steps involved in the invasion process...
  75. Bryson K, Millington O, Mokgethi T, McGachy H, Brombacher F, Alexander J. BALB/c mice deficient in CD4 T cell IL-4R? expression control Leishmania mexicana Load although female but not male mice develop a healer phenotype. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e930 pubmed publisher
    Immunologically intact BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania mexicana develop non-healing progressively growing lesions associated with a biased Th2 response while similarly infected IL-4R?-deficient mice fail to develop lesions and ..
  76. Al Salabi M, de Koning H. Purine nucleobase transport in amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana: involvement in allopurinol uptake. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3682-9 pubmed
    ..Uptake of [3H]hypoxanthine by Leishmania mexicana amastigotes was mediated by a single high-affinity transporter, LmexNBT1, with a Km of 1.6 +/- 0...
  77. Castanys Muñoz E, Brown E, Coombs G, Mottram J. Leishmania mexicana metacaspase is a negative regulator of amastigote proliferation in mammalian cells. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e385 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here the creation of a MCA gene-deletion mutant (?mca) in the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana, which has allowed us to dissect the role of the parasite's single MCA gene in cell growth and cell death...
  78. Telleria E, Sant Anna M, Ortigão Farias J, Pitaluga A, Dillon V, Bates P, et al. Caspar-like gene depletion reduces Leishmania infection in sand fly host Lutzomyia longipalpis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12985-93 pubmed publisher
    ..expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L...
  79. Nowicki M, Kuaprasert B, McNae I, Morgan H, Harding M, Michels P, et al. Crystal structures of Leishmania mexicana phosphoglycerate mutase suggest a one-metal mechanism and a new enzyme subclass. J Mol Biol. 2009;394:535-43 pubmed publisher
    The structures of Leishmania mexicana cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (Lm iPGAM) crystallised with the substrate 3-phosphoglycerate at high and low cobalt concentrations have been solved at 2.00- and 1.90-A resolutions...
  80. Smith B, Picken N, Westrop G, Bromek K, Mottram J, Coombs G. The structure of Leishmania mexicana ICP provides evidence for convergent evolution of cysteine peptidase inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5821-8 pubmed
    ..Recent data suggest that Leishmania mexicana ICP plays an important role in host-parasite interactions. We have now solved the structure of ICP from L...
  81. Rosado Vallado M, Mut Martín M, García Miss M, Dumonteil E. Aluminium phosphate potentiates the efficacy of DNA vaccines against Leishmania mexicana. Vaccine. 2005;23:5372-9 pubmed
    ..Aluminium phosphate may thus be an effective, low cost and safe adjuvant for DNA vaccines, and the vaccine formulation described here may be an excellent candidate for further vaccine development against Leishmania...