leishmania major

Summary

Summary: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.

Top Publications

  1. Soudi S, Hosseini A, Hashemi S. Co-administration of rectal BCG and autoclaved Leishmania major induce protection in susceptible BALB/c mice. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:561-71 pubmed publisher
    We examined the protective effect of autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) vaccine in combination of either rectal or subcutaneous BCG on susceptible BALB/c mice...
  2. Ashok D, Schuster S, Ronet C, Rosa M, Mack V, Lavanchy C, et al. Cross-presenting dendritic cells are required for control of Leishmania major infection. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44:1422-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania major infection induces self-healing cutaneous lesions in C57BL/6 mice. Both IL-12 and IFN-? are essential for the control of infection...
  3. Goncalves R, Zhang X, Cohen H, Debrabant A, Mosser D. Platelet activation attracts a subpopulation of effector monocytes to sites of Leishmania major infection. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the mechanisms whereby leukocytes were recruited into lesions after Leishmania major infection of mice...
  4. Toumi A, Chlif S, Bettaieb J, Ben Alaya N, Boukthir A, Ahmadi Z, et al. Temporal dynamics and impact of climate factors on the incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Tunisia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1633 pubmed publisher
    Old world Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a vector-borne human disease caused by Leishmania major, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite transmitted by pool blood-feeding sand flies mainly to wild rodents, such as Psammomys obesus...
  5. Sádlová J, Price H, Smith B, Votýpka J, Volf P, Smith D. The stage-regulated HASPB and SHERP proteins are essential for differentiation of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major in its sand fly vector, Phlebotomus papatasi. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:1765-79 pubmed publisher
    The stage-regulated HASPB and SHERP proteins of Leishmania major are predominantly expressed in cultured metacyclic parasites that are competent for macrophage uptake and survival...
  6. Reinhard K, Huber M, Wostl C, Hellhund A, Toboldt A, Abass E, et al. c-Rel promotes type 1 and type 17 immune responses during Leishmania major infection. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1388-98 pubmed publisher
    ..whether these opposite functions of c-Rel influence the course of antiparasitic immune responses against Leishmania major, an accepted model for the impact of T-cell subsets on disease outcome...
  7. Okwor I, Kuriakose S, Uzonna J. Repeated inoculation of killed Leishmania major induces durable immune response that protects mice against virulent challenge. Vaccine. 2010;28:5451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..once or 5 times weekly) either alone or in combination with rIL-12 and challenged them with virulent Leishmania major parasites at different times after inoculation...
  8. Hugentobler F, Yam K, Gillard J, Mahbuba R, Olivier M, Cousineau B. Immunization against Leishmania major infection using LACK- and IL-12-expressing Lactococcus lactis induces delay in footpad swelling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30945 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice...
  9. Schnitzer J, Berzel S, Fajardo Moser M, Remer K, Moll H. Fragments of antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DC) and DC-derived exosomes induce protective immunity against Leishmania major. Vaccine. 2010;28:5785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..and adoptive transfer, dendritic cells (DC) are able to confer protection against the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. In the present study, we investigated whether viable DC are required for inducing protection...

More Information

Publications89

  1. Haouas N, Garrab S, Gorcii M, Khorchani H, Chargui N, Ravel C, et al. Development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for Leishmania major/Leishmania killicki/Leishmania infantum discrimination from clinical samples, application in a Tunisian focus. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;68:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the relatively low sensitivity, it is able to differentiate between 3 complexes responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis. ..
  2. Corware K, Rogers M, Teo I, Muller I, Shaunak S. An amphotericin B-based drug for treating experimental Leishmania major infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:749-50 pubmed publisher
    ..an amphotericin B-poly(methacrylic acid) drug (AmB-PMA) that had previously shown in-vitro activity against Leishmania major and L. donovani parasites. Efficacy was determined using L...
  3. Srivastava N, Sudan R, Saha B. CD40-modulated dual-specificity phosphatases MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 and MKP-3 reciprocally regulate Leishmania major infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:5863-72 pubmed publisher
    The macrophage-expressed CD40 regulates immune responses to Leishmania major infection by reciprocal signaling through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. CD40-induced IL-10 or IL-12 plays crucial roles in the promotion or protection from L...
  4. Calvo Álvarez E, Guerrero N, Alvarez Velilla R, Prada C, Requena J, Punzon C, et al. Appraisal of a Leishmania major strain stably expressing mCherry fluorescent protein for both in vitro and in vivo studies of potential drugs and vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1927 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious zoonotic disease. It is produced by a digenetic parasite, which resides in the phagolysosomal compartment of different mammalian macrophage populations...
  5. Kronenberg K, Brosch S, Butsch F, Tada Y, Shibagaki N, Udey M, et al. Vaccination with TAT-antigen fusion protein induces protective, CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity against Leishmania major. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2602-10 pubmed publisher
    ..with TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs or fusion proteins plus adjuvant in vivo significantly improved disease outcome in Leishmania major-infected mice and was superior to vaccination with DCs treated with LACK alone...
  6. Oppenheimer M, Valenciano A, Sobrado P. Isolation and characterization of functional Leishmania major virulence factor UDP-galactopyranose mutase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..it was shown that the flavin-dependent enzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a virulence factor in Leishmania major. UGM catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose...
  7. Faria M, Reis F, Azevedo Pereira R, Morrison L, Mottram J, Lima A. Leishmania inhibitor of serine peptidase 2 prevents TLR4 activation by neutrophil elastase promoting parasite survival in murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2011;186:411-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite that causes skin ulcerations in cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the mammalian host, the parasite resides in professional phagocytes and has evolved to avoid killing by macrophages. We identified L...
  8. Bousslimi N, Aoun K, Ben Abda I, Ben Alaya Bouafif N, Raouane M, Bouratbine A. Epidemiologic and clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Tunisia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:1034-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, lesions that emerged during February-May were mainly caused by L. tropica (83.3%; P < 0.01). Moreover, the delay before seeking medical advice was higher for L. tropica infections than for L. major infections (P < 0.05)...
  9. Madeira da Silva L, Beverley S. Expansion of the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase family and function in Leishmania shows that TOR3 is required for acidocalcisome biogenesis and animal infectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11965-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Database mining revealed three TOR kinases in the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania major, as defined by homology to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family and a signature ..
  10. Anderson J, Samake S, Jaramillo Gutierrez G, Sissoko I, Coulibaly C, Traoré B, et al. Seasonality and prevalence of Leishmania major infection in Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire from two neighboring villages in central Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1139 pubmed publisher
    Phlebotomus duboscqi is the principle vector of Leishmania major, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in West Africa and is the suspected vector in Mali...
  11. Dolai S, Pal S, Yadav R, Adak S. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in Leishmania through Ca2+-dependent and caspase-independent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:13638-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigate ER stress-induced apoptotic pathways in Leishmania major using tunicamycin as an ER stress inducer...
  12. Mina J, Mosely J, Ali H, Shams Eldin H, Schwarz R, Steel P, et al. A plate-based assay system for analyses and screening of the Leishmania major inositol phosphorylceramide synthase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..this end a fluorescent-based cell-free assay protocol in a 96-well plate format has been established for the Leishmania major IPC synthase...
  13. Rastrojo A, Carrasco Ramiro F, Martin D, Crespillo A, Reguera R, Aguado B, et al. The transcriptome of Leishmania major in the axenic promastigote stage: transcript annotation and relative expression levels by RNA-seq. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:223 pubmed publisher
    Although the genome sequence of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major was determined several years ago, the knowledge of its transcriptome was incomplete, both regarding the real number of genes and their primary structure...
  14. Sansom F, Tang L, Ralton J, Saunders E, Naderer T, McConville M. Leishmania major methionine sulfoxide reductase A is required for resistance to oxidative stress and efficient replication in macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56064 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Leishmania MsrA contributes to the anti-oxidative defences of these parasites, but that complementary oxidative defence mechansims are up-regulated in lesion amastigotes. ..
  15. Wu W, Huang L, Mendez S. A live Leishmania major vaccine containing CpG motifs induces the de novo generation of Th17 cells in C57BL/6 mice. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We have reported that vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with live Leishmania major plus CpG DNA (Lm/CpG) prevents lesion development and provides long-term immunity...
  16. Nateghi Rostami M, Keshavarz H, Edalat R, Sarrafnejad A, Shahrestani T, Mahboudi F, et al. CD8+ T cells as a source of IFN-? production in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e845 pubmed publisher
    ..major is mediated not only through the expansion of antigen-specific IFN-? producing CD4(+) Th1 cells, but also through IFN-? producing CD8(+) T cells. ..
  17. Karam M, Merckbawi R, El Kouba J, Bazzi S, Bodman Smith K. In Leishmania major-induced inflammation, interleukin-13 reduces hyperalgesia, down-regulates IL-1? and up-regulates IL-6 in an IL-4 independent mechanism. Exp Parasitol. 2013;134:200-5 pubmed publisher
    Infection with high dose Leishmania major induces a sustained hyperalgesia in BALB/c mice while low dose induces a short lived hyperalgesia both accompanied with the upregulation of IL-1? and IL-6...
  18. Carrión J. Mechanisms of immunity to Leishmania major infection in mice: the contribution of DNA vaccines coding for two novel sets of histones (H2A-H2B or H3-H4). Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL), whereas vaccination with pcDNA3H3H4 resulted in partial resistance to Leishmania major challenge associated with the development of mixed T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2-type response and a reduction in ..
  19. Dickmanns A, Damerow S, Neumann P, Schulz E, Lamerz A, Routier F, et al. Structural basis for the broad substrate range of the UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Leishmania major. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:461-78 pubmed publisher
    ..pyrophosphorylase, which catalyzes the formation of UDP-Glc from substrates UTP and glucose-1-phosphate, Leishmania major and plants express a UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP) that exhibits broad substrate specificity in vitro...
  20. Marciano D, Santana M, Mantilla B, Silber A, Marino Buslje C, Nowicki C. Biochemical characterization of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine desulfhydrase from Leishmania major. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;173:170-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, our results provide the first insight into the biochemical properties of Leishmania major serine acetyltransferase (SAT), which is likely involved in the two routes for de novo synthesis of cysteine ..
  21. Zalila H, Gonzalez I, El Fadili A, Delgado M, Desponds C, Schaff C, et al. Processing of metacaspase into a cytoplasmic catalytic domain mediating cell death in Leishmania major. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:222-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The human protozoan parasite Leishmania major expresses a single metacaspase (LmjMCA) harbouring a central domain with the catalytic dyad histidine and ..
  22. Elizondo G, Rodriguez Sosa M, Estrada Muñiz E, Gonzalez F, Vega L. Deletion of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor enhances the inflammatory response to Leishmania major infection. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:1220-9 pubmed
    ..addressed the role of this transcription factor, in the absent of exogenous ligand, on the immune response to Leishmania major infection...
  23. Ong H, Sienkiewicz N, Wyllie S, Fairlamb A. Dissecting the metabolic roles of pteridine reductase 1 in Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish that PTR1 has an essential and dual role in pterin metabolism in African trypanosomes and underline its potential as a drug target...
  24. Doroud D, Zahedifard F, Vatanara A, Najafabadi A, Taslimi Y, Vahabpour R, et al. Delivery of a cocktail DNA vaccine encoding cysteine proteinases type I, II and III with solid lipid nanoparticles potentiate protective immunity against Leishmania major infection. J Control Release. 2011;153:154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The nanomedical feature of this novel formulation can be applied for wide-spread use in genetic vaccination against leishmaniasis, which is currently managed only through relatively ineffectual therapeutic regimens...
  25. Sterkers Y, Lachaud L, Crobu L, Bastien P, Pages M. FISH analysis reveals aneuploidy and continual generation of chromosomal mosaicism in Leishmania major. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of this additional unique feature of Leishmania for its biology and genetics, in particular as a novel genetic mechanism to generate phenotypic variability from genomic plasticity...
  26. Peichoto M, Tavares F, Dekrey G, Mackessy S. A comparative study of the effects of venoms from five rear-fanged snake species on the growth of Leishmania major: identification of a protein with inhibitory activity against the parasite. Toxicon. 2011;58:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..snakes Hypsiglena torquata texana (HttV) and Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda (TblV), on the growth of Leishmania major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  27. Ben Hadj Ahmed S, Kaabi B, Chelbi I, Cherni S, Derbali M, Laouini D, et al. Colonization of Phlebotomus papatasi changes the effect of pre-immunization with saliva from lack of protection towards protection against experimental challenge with Leishmania major and saliva. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:126 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to note that these studies were performed using long-term colonized Phlebotomus papatasi. The effect of sand flies colonization on the outcome of Leishmania infection is reported...
  28. Carrión J, Folgueira C, Soto M, Fresno M, Requena J. Leishmania infantum HSP70-II null mutant as candidate vaccine against leishmaniasis: a preliminary evaluation. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:150 pubmed publisher
    ..Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and no effective vaccine exists. The use of live attenuated vaccines is emerging as a promising vaccination strategy...
  29. Xu X, Oliveira F, Chang B, Collin N, Gomes R, Teixeira C, et al. Structure and function of a "yellow" protein from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis that confers protective immunity against Leishmania major infection. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32383-93 pubmed publisher
    ..longiplapis salivary proteins and demonstrated that LJM11 confers protective immunity against Leishmania major infection...
  30. Zhang O, Xu W, Balakrishna Pillai A, Zhang K. Developmentally regulated sphingolipid degradation in Leishmania major. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31059 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results indicate that SL degradation by Leishmania is critical for parasites to establish and sustain infection in the mammalian host...
  31. Horjales S, Schmidt Arras D, Limardo R, Leclercq O, Obal G, Prina E, et al. The crystal structure of the MAP kinase LmaMPK10 from Leishmania major reveals parasite-specific features and regulatory mechanisms. Structure. 2012;20:1649-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We have now determined the crystal structure of Leishmania major LmaMPK10, a stage-specifically activated MAPK, both alone and in complex with SB203580...
  32. Tolouei S, Hejazi S, Ghaedi K, Khamesipour A, Hasheminia S. TLR2 and TLR4 in cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Scand J Immunol. 2013;78:478-84 pubmed publisher
    ..with healing form of lesion and compared with that of patients with non-healing form of lesion caused by Leishmania major. Gene expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood-derived macrophages, before and after stimulation with ..
  33. Hamarsheh O. Distribution of Leishmania major zymodemes in relation to populations of Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:9 pubmed publisher
    Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World...
  34. Lye L, Kang S, Nosanchuk J, Casadevall A, Beverley S. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;175:58-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels...
  35. Hugentobler F, Di Roberto R, Gillard J, Cousineau B. Oral immunization using live Lactococcus lactis co-expressing LACK and IL-12 protects BALB/c mice against Leishmania major infection. Vaccine. 2012;30:5726-32 pubmed publisher
    ..secreting both LACK and IL-12 was the only regimen that partially protected BALB/c mice against subsequent Leishmania major challenge...
  36. Oliveira C, Manzoni de Almeida D, Mello P, Natale C, Santiago H, Miranda L, et al. Characterization of chronic cutaneous lesions from TNF-receptor-1-deficient mice infected by Leishmania major. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:865708 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania major-infected TNF receptor 1 deficient (TNFR1 KO) mice resolve parasitism but fail to resolve lesions, while wild-type mice completely heal...
  37. Ojo K, Arakaki T, Napuli A, Inampudi K, Keyloun K, Zhang L, et al. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;176:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences between human GSK-3? (HsGSK-3?) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found...
  38. Pereira W, Ribeiro Gomes F, Guillermo L, Vellozo N, Montalvão F, DosReis G, et al. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells help protective immunity to Leishmania major infection despite suppressed T cell responses. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;90:1191-7 pubmed publisher
    Th1/Th2 cytokines play a key role in immune responses to Leishmania major by controlling macrophage activation for NO production and parasite killing...
  39. Mohammadpour G, Marzony E, Farahmand M. Evaluation of the anti-Leishmania major activity of Satureja bakhtiarica essential oil in vitro. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:133-6 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the chemical composition and the anti-Leishmania major activity of the essential oils obtained from Satureja bakhtiarica were evaluated in vitro...
  40. Coutinho Abreu I, Sharma N, Robles Murguia M, Ramalho Ortigao M. Targeting the midgut secreted PpChit1 reduces Leishmania major development in its natural vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e901 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we predicted that silencing of sand fly chitinase will lead to reduction or elimination of Leishmania within the gut of the sand fly vector...
  41. Bolhassani A, Gholami E, Zahedifard F, Moradin N, Parsi P, Doustdari F, et al. Leishmania major: Protective capacity of DNA vaccine using amastin fused to HSV-1 VP22 and EGFP in BALB/c mice model. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..strategy using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) VP22 protein is employed to enhance DNA vaccine potency of Leishmania major amastin antigen in BALB/c mice model...
  42. Perteguer M, G mez Puertas P, Ca avate C, Dagger F, G rate T, Valdivieso E. Ddi1-like protein from Leishmania major is an active aspartyl proteinase. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2013;18:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a 49-kDa protein from Leishmania major, which exhibited significant deduced amino acid sequence homology with the annotated Leishmania sp...
  43. Nakaya M, Hamano S, Kawasumi M, Yoshida H, Yoshimura A, Kobayashi T. Aberrant IL-4 production by SOCS3-over-expressing T cells during infection with Leishmania major exacerbates disease manifestations. Int Immunol. 2011;23:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..that the absence of SOCS3 in T cells results in exacerbation of disease progression after infection by Leishmania major due to skewing of the T(h)3 cell phenotype accompanied by hyper-production of IL-10 and transforming growth ..
  44. Mahmoudzadeh Niknam H, Khalili G, Abrishami F, Najafy A, Khaze V. The route of Leishmania tropica infection determines disease outcome and protection against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Korean J Parasitol. 2013;51:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed that the route of infection in BALB/c model of L. tropica infection is an important variable and should be considered in developing an appropriate experimental model for L. tropica infections...
  45. Coutinho Abreu I, Sharma N, Robles Murguia M, Ramalho Ortigao M. Characterization of Phlebotomus papatasi peritrophins, and the role of PpPer1 in Leishmania major survival in its natural vector. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2132 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PpPer1 is a component for the P. papatasi PM and likely involved in the PM role as barrier against Le. major infection...
  46. Kautz Neu K, Kostka S, Dinges S, Iwakura Y, Udey M, von Stebut E. IL-1 signalling is dispensable for protective immunity in Leishmania-resistant mice. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:76-8 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6 mice are believed to be a good surrogate model for human, self limited cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Leishmania major-infected IL-1?/?(-/-) mice were resistant to experimental CL comparable to controls...
  47. Bordbar A, Parvizi P. High density of Leishmania major and rarity of other mammals' Leishmania in zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, Iran. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19:355-363 pubmed publisher
    Only Leishmania major is well known as a causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran. Our objective was to find Leishmania parasites circulating in reservoir hosts, sand flies and human simultaneously.
  48. Wabwoba B, Anjili C, Ngeiywa M, Ngure P, Kigondu E, Ingonga J, et al. Experimental chemotherapy with Allium sativum (Liliaceae) methanolic extract in rodents infected with Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010;47:160-7 pubmed
    ..The present study was undertaken to establish whether methanolic extract of Allium sativum Linn has antileishmanial activity in comparison to standard drugs...
  49. Pal S, Dolai S, Yadav R, Adak S. Ascorbate peroxidase from Leishmania major controls the virulence of infective stage of promastigotes by regulating oxidative stress. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11271 pubmed publisher
    ..Ascorbate peroxidase from Leishmania major (LmAPX) has been shown to be central to the redox defense system of Leishmania...
  50. Williams R, Smith T, Cull B, Mottram J, Coombs G. ATG5 is essential for ATG8-dependent autophagy and mitochondrial homeostasis in Leishmania major. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002695 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall result of this is reduced virulence. ..
  51. Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Akhavan A, Taheri A, Barikbin B, Soheila Nassiri S. Unusual presentation of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: case reports of four Iranian patients. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct smears of ulcers were positive for Leishmania parasite. The parasite was isolated from the active lesions and identified as Leishmania major (L. major) using PCR-RFLP assay and sequencing analysis.
  52. Auderset F, Schuster S, Coutaz M, Koch U, Desgranges F, Merck E, et al. Redundant Notch1 and Notch2 signaling is necessary for IFN? secretion by T helper 1 cells during infection with Leishmania major. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002560 pubmed publisher
    ..T cell-specific gene ablation of N1, N2 or both (N1N2(?CD4Cre)) were infected with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. N1N2(?CD4Cre) mice, on the C57BL/6 L...
  53. Lynn M, Kindrachuk J, Marr A, Jenssen H, Pante N, Elliott M, et al. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth: role of leishmanolysin in parasite survival. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1141 pubmed publisher
    ..of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28) and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28), as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages.
  54. Barthelmann J, Nietsch J, Blessenohl M, Laskay T, van Zandbergen G, Westermann J, et al. The protective Th1 response in mice is induced in the T-cell zone only three weeks after infection with Leishmania major and not during early T-cell activation. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2012;201:25-35 pubmed publisher
    ..of lymph nodes of resistant (Th1) C57BL/6 mice and susceptible (Th2) BALB/c mice during an infection with Leishmania major in vivo, we show that the early T-cell response does not differ between C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice...
  55. Manzano J, Carvalho L, Pérez Victoria J, Castanys S, Gamarro F. Increased glycolytic ATP synthesis is associated with tafenoquine resistance in Leishmania major. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1045-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, a TFQ-resistant Leishmania major promastigote line (R4) was selected...
  56. Boudrissa A, Cherif K, Kherrachi I, Benbetka S, Bouiba L, Boubidi S, et al. [Spread of Leishmania major to the north of Algeria]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2012;105:30-5 pubmed publisher
    Since a long time, Leishmania major and L. infantum foci in Algeria were geographically separated by the mountains of the Tell Atlas which represent a natural barrier...
  57. Ghawar W, Toumi A, Snoussi M, Chlif S, Zaatour A, Boukthir A, et al. Leishmania major infection among Psammomys obesus and Meriones shawi: reservoirs of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sidi Bouzid(central Tunisia). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tunisia, to evaluate the role of Psammomys obesus (n=472) and Meriones shawi (n=167) as reservoir hosts for Leishmania major infection. Prevalence of L...
  58. Safaiyan S, Bolhassani A, Nylen S, Akuffo H, Rafati S. Contribution of human neutrophils in the development of protective immune response during in vitro Leishmania major infection. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:609-20 pubmed publisher
    Stimulation of neutrophils may potentiate immunity to Leishmania major. CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) has immune stimulatory effects and has been suggested as adjuvants and therapeutics to potentiate efficacy of vaccines and ..
  59. Inbar E, Akopyants N, Charmoy M, Romano A, Lawyer P, Elnaiem D, et al. The mating competence of geographically diverse Leishmania major strains in their natural and unnatural sand fly vectors. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003672 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide an important perspective on the prevalence of genetic exchange in natural populations of L. major and a guide for experimental studies to understand the biology of mating...
  60. Mukhopadhyay R, Mandal G, Atluri V, Figarella K, Uzcategui N, Zhou Y, et al. The role of alanine 163 in solute permeability of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;175:83-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1 allows adventitious passage of antimonite, an activated form of the drug Pentostam, which is used as the first line treatment for leishmaniasis...
  61. Mandal G, Sharma M, Kruse M, Sander Juelch C, Munro L, Wang Y, et al. Modulation of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin activity by a mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:1204-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin (LmjAQP1) adventitiously facilitates the uptake of antimonite [Sb(III)], an active form of Pentostam® or Glucantime®, which are the first line of defence against all forms of leishmaniasis...
  62. Lamour S, Choi B, Keun H, Muller I, Saric J. Metabolic characterization of Leishmania major infection in activated and nonactivated macrophages. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4211-22 pubmed publisher
    ..and intra- and extracellular metabolome of activated and nonactivated macrophages, in presence and absence of Leishmania major. A metabolic profiling approach was applied combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with multi- and univariate data ..
  63. Voak A, Gobalakrishnapillai V, Seifert K, Balczo E, Hu L, Hall B, et al. An essential type I nitroreductase from Leishmania major can be used to activate leishmanicidal prodrugs. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the causative agent of leishmaniasis, Leishmania major, expresses an FMN-containing nitroreductase (LmNTR) that metabolizes a wide range of substrates, and based on ..
  64. Ambit A, Woods K, Cull B, Coombs G, Mottram J. Morphological events during the cell cycle of Leishmania major. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1429-38 pubmed publisher
    The morphological events involved in the Leishmania major promastigote cell cycle have been investigated in order to provide a detailed description of the chronological processes by which the parasite replicates its set of single-copy ..
  65. Ahmed S, Kaabi B, Chelbi I, Derbali M, Cherni S, Laouini D, et al. Lack of protection of pre-immunization with saliva of long-term colonized Phlebotomus papatasi against experimental challenge with Leishmania major and saliva of wild-caught P. papatasi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:512-4 pubmed publisher
    Immunity to saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi protects against Leishmania major infection as determined by co-inoculation of parasites with salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) of this vector...
  66. Kobets T, Badalova J, Grekov I, Havelková H, Svobodova M, Lipoldová M. Leishmania parasite detection and quantification using PCR-ELISA. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:1074-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This method might also be suitable for detecting and quantifying other pathogens, especially for detecting small differences in pathogen numbers...
  67. Doroud D, Zahedifard F, Vatanara A, Taslimi Y, Vahabpour R, Torkashvand F, et al. C-terminal domain deletion enhances the protective activity of cpa/cpb loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1236 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, undefined effect of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) as an adjuvant in enhancing the immune response toward leishmanial antigens led us to refocus our vaccine development projects...
  68. Hemsworth G, Moroz O, Fogg M, Scott B, Bosch Navarrete C, Gonzalez Pacanowska D, et al. The crystal structure of the Leishmania major deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase in complex with nucleotide analogues, dUMP, and deoxyuridine. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present crystal structures of the Leishmania major dUTPase in complex with substrate analogues, the product dUMP and a substrate fragment, and of the homologous ..
  69. Mahmoudzadeh Niknam H, Kiaei S, Iravani D. Protective immunity against Leishmania major induced by Leishmania tropica infection of BALB/c mice. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..tropica infection induces partial protective immunity against subsequent challenge infection with Leishmania major in BALB/c mice...
  70. Schamber Reis B, Petritus P, Caetano B, Martinez E, Okuda K, Golenbock D, et al. UNC93B1 and nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors mediate host resistance to infection with Leishmania major. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..that UNC93B1 mutant mice, in the C57BL/6 (resistant) genetic background, are highly susceptible to Leishmania major infection...
  71. Colpitts S, Scott P. The early generation of a heterogeneous CD4+ T cell response to Leishmania major. J Immunol. 2010;185:2416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..component of both the primary and secondary immune response against the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Our laboratory has previously shown that CD62L(high) IL-7R(high) central memory T (T(CM)) cells mediate ..
  72. Larson E, Kim J, Zucker F, Kelley A, Mueller N, Napuli A, et al. Structure of Leishmania major methionyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with intermediate products methionyladenylate and pyrophosphate. Biochimie. 2011;93:570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..shortcomings of available drugs, we have undertaken the crystal structure determination of a key enzyme from Leishmania major in hopes of creating a platform for the rational design of new therapeutics...
  73. Munday J, McLuskey K, Brown E, Coombs G, Mottram J. Oligopeptidase B deficient mutants of Leishmania major. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;175:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..major OPB. This suggested that the residues involved in the S1 and S2 subsites of OPB2 are identical to OPB and hence the substrate specificity would be similar. Consequently there may be redundancy between the two enzymes...
  74. Seyed N, Zahedifard F, Safaiyan S, Gholami E, Doustdari F, Azadmanesh K, et al. In silico analysis of six known Leishmania major antigens and in vitro evaluation of specific epitopes eliciting HLA-A2 restricted CD8 T cell response. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1295 pubmed publisher
    ..The first step toward a peptide vaccine is epitope mapping of different proteins according to the most frequent HLA types in a population...
  75. Schroeder J, Brown N, Kaye P, Aebischer T. Single dose novel Salmonella vaccine enhances resistance against visceralizing L. major and L. donovani infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1406 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani in susceptible BALB/c mice. The results show that Salmonella are valid vaccine carriers for inducing resistance against visceral leishmaniasis but that their use may not be suitable for all antigens...
  76. Schroeder J, McGachy H, Woods S, Plevin R, Alexander J. T cell hypo-responsiveness against Leishmania major in MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) 2 deficient C57BL/6 mice does not alter the healer disease phenotype. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2064 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, in the absence of any switch in the T(H)1/T(H)2 balance in MKP-2(-/-) mice, no significant change in disease phenotype was observed...
  77. Dobson D, Kamhawi S, Lawyer P, Turco S, Beverley S, Sacks D. Leishmania major survival in selective Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly vector requires a specific SCG-encoded lipophosphoglycan galactosylation pattern. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001185 pubmed publisher
  78. Schurigt U, Schad C, Glowa C, Baum U, Thomale K, Schnitzer J, et al. Aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate-based cysteine cathepsin inhibitors induce cell death in Leishmania major associated with accumulation of debris in autophagy-related lysosome-like vacuoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:5028-41 pubmed publisher
    ..compound 13b) and Boc-(R)-Leu-(S)-Pro-(S,S)-Azi(OBn)(2) (compound 13e), reduced the growth and viability of Leishmania major and the infection rate of macrophages while not showing cytotoxicity against host cells...
  79. Darrah P, Hegde S, Patel D, Lindsay R, Chen L, Roederer M, et al. IL-10 production differentially influences the magnitude, quality, and protective capacity of Th1 responses depending on the vaccine platform. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..on the magnitude, quality, and protective capacity of CD4(+) T cell responses in the mouse model of Leishmania major infection...
  80. Carvalho L, Petritus P, Trochtenberg A, Zaph C, Hill D, Artis D, et al. Lymph node hypertrophy following Leishmania major infection is dependent on TLR9. J Immunol. 2012;188:1394-401 pubmed publisher
    Control of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major is dependent on establishing a robust T cell response...