leishmania donovani

Summary

Summary: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.

Top Publications

  1. Seblová V, Volfova V, Dvorák V, Pruzinova K, Votypka J, Kassahun A, et al. Phlebotomus orientalis sand flies from two geographically distant Ethiopian localities: biology, genetic analyses and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2187 pubmed publisher
    ..orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Here we report on life cycle parameters and susceptibility to L. donovani of two P...
  2. Hendrickx S, Inocêncio da Luz R, Bhandari V, Kuypers K, Shaw C, Lonchamp J, et al. Experimental induction of paromomycin resistance in antimony-resistant strains of L. donovani: outcome dependent on in vitro selection protocol. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1664 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have important relevance to resistance mechanism investigations and the likelihood of resistance development and detection in the field...
  3. Purkait B, Kumar A, Nandi N, Sardar A, Das S, Kumar S, et al. Mechanism of amphotericin B resistance in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it can be concluded that altered membrane composition, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and an upregulated thiol metabolic pathway have a role in conferring amphotericin B resistance in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.
  4. Kar R, Ansari M, Suryadevara P, Sahoo B, Sahoo G, Dikhit M, et al. Computational elucidation of structural basis for ligand binding with Leishmania donovani adenosine kinase. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:609289 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study describes development of robust homology model of Leishmania donovani adenosine kinase to forecast interaction phenomenon with inhibitory molecules using structure-based drug ..
  5. Elnaiem D, Hassan H, Osman O, Maingon R, Killick Kendrick R, Ward R. A possible role for Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini (Parrot, 1930) in transmission of Leishmania donovani. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:238 pubmed publisher
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L...
  6. Chowdhury S, Mukherjee T, Sengupta S, Chowdhury S, Mukhopadhyay S, Majumder H. Novel betulin derivatives as antileishmanial agents with mode of action targeting type IB DNA topoisomerase. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:694-703 pubmed publisher
    Toward developing antileishmanial agents with mode of action targeted to DNA topoisomerases of Leishmania donovani, we have synthesized a large number of derivatives of betulin...
  7. Kumar D, Singh R, Bhandari V, Kulshrestha A, Negi N, Salotra P. Biomarkers of antimony resistance: need for expression analysis of multiple genes to distinguish resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..and histones H1, H2A and H4) in antimony-resistant (n=10) and antimony-sensitive (n=4) clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani by quantitative real-time PCR, in comparison with a lab-generated resistant and a standard sensitive ..
  8. Mukherjee B, Mukhopadhyay R, Bannerjee B, Chowdhury S, Mukherjee S, Naskar K, et al. Antimony-resistant but not antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani up-regulates host IL-10 to overexpress multidrug-resistant protein 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E575-82 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanism of antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani (Sb(R)LD)-driven up-regulation of IL-10 and multidrug-resistant protein 1 (MDR1) in infected macrophages (Ms) has been investigated...
  9. van Griensven J, Diro E. Visceral leishmaniasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012;26:309-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides an up-to-date clinical review of VL focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and issues related to HIV coinfection. ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Sen S, Roy K, Mukherjee S, Mukhopadhyay R, Roy S. Restoration of IFN?R subunit assembly, IFN? signaling and parasite clearance in Leishmania donovani infected macrophages: role of membrane cholesterol. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002229 pubmed publisher
    ..protective cytokine, Kala-azar patients display high parasite load with downregulated IFN? signaling in Leishmania donovani (LD) infected macrophages (LD-MØs); the cause of such aberrant phenomenon is unknown...
  2. Zhang W, Chan K, Song Z, Matlashewski G. Expression of a Leishmaniadonovani nucleotide sugar transporter in Leishmaniamajor enhances survival in visceral organs. Exp Parasitol. 2011;129:337-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani and Leishmaniainfantum infections cause fatal visceral leishmaniasis, and Leishmaniamajor causes self healing cutaneous lesions...
  3. Vanaerschot M, De Doncker S, Rijal S, Maes L, Dujardin J, Decuypere S. Antimonial resistance in Leishmania donovani is associated with increased in vivo parasite burden. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23120 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  4. Wyllie S, Patterson S, Fairlamb A. Assessing the essentiality of Leishmania donovani nitroreductase and its role in nitro drug activation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical development for visceral leishmaniasis, here we assess the essentiality of the nitroreductase in Leishmania donovani and the effect of modulating nitroreductase levels on susceptibility to fexinidazole...
  5. Gautam S, Kumar R, Maurya R, Nylen S, Ansari N, Rai M, et al. IL-10 neutralization promotes parasite clearance in splenic aspirate cells from patients with visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct support for targeting IL-10 as an approach to therapy in human VL. ..
  6. Singh N, Chikara S, Sundar S. SOLiD™ sequencing of genomes of clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani from India confirm leptomonas co-infection and raise some key questions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55738 pubmed publisher
    ..Leishmania sp. and L. seymouri, in terms of genomic sequence and organization. A more extensive perception of the phenomenon of co-infection needs to be addressed from molecular pathogenesis and eco-epidemiological standpoint. ..
  7. Roy A, BoseDasgupta S, Ganguly A, Jaisankar P, Majumder H. Topoisomerase I gene mutations at F270 in the large subunit and N184 in the small subunit contribute to the resistance mechanism of the unicellular parasite Leishmania donovani towards 3,3'-diindolylmethane. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2589-98 pubmed publisher
    3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a novel poison targeting Leishmania donovani topoisomerase I (LdTOP1LS), induces programmed cell death in Leishmania parasites...
  8. Khanal B, Rijal S, Ostyn B, Picado A, Gidwani K, Menten J, et al. Serological markers for leishmania donovani infection in Nepal: Agreement between direct agglutination test and rK39 ELISA. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:1390-4 pubmed
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent. The actual incidence and role of asymptomatic infections in the region are not wellknown...
  9. McCall L, Matlashewski G. Involvement of the Leishmania donovani virulence factor A2 in protection against heat and oxidative stress. Exp Parasitol. 2012;132:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The Leishmania donovani A2 family of proteins has been shown to be essential for survival in mammalian visceral organs...
  10. Stanley A, de Labastida Rivera F, Haque A, Sheel M, Zhou Y, Amante F, et al. Critical roles for LIGHT and its receptors in generating T cell-mediated immunity during Leishmania donovani infection. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002279 pubmed publisher
    ..parasite growth in mice with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. LIGHT-HVEM signalling is essential for early dendritic cell IL-12/IL-23p40 production, and the generation ..
  11. Rai S, Bhaskar -, Goel S, Nath Dwivedi U, Sundar S, Goyal N. Role of efflux pumps and intracellular thiols in natural antimony resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74862 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani field isolates by analyzing the functionality of efflux pump(s) and expression profiles of known genes involved in transport and thiol based redox metabolism...
  12. Pérez Pertejo Y, Alvarez Velilla R, Estrada C, Balaña Fouce R, Reguera R. Leishmania donovani: proteasome-mediated down-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase. Parasitology. 2011;138:1082-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that a MAT-overexpressing strain of Leishmania donovani controls AdoMet production, keeping the intracellular AdoMet concentration at levels that are compatible ..
  13. Ouakad M, Vanaerschot M, Rijal S, Sundar S, Speybroeck N, Kestens L, et al. Increased metacyclogenesis of antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani clinical lines. Parasitology. 2011;138:1392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiation process essential for infectivity) as a major contributor to the fitness of Leishmania donovani, we tested its relationship with pentavalent antimony (SbV) resistance in clinical lines...
  14. Lafuse W, Story R, Mahylis J, Gupta G, Varikuti S, Steinkamp H, et al. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59509 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease...
  15. Moore J, Beattie L, Dalton J, Owens B, Maroof A, Coles M, et al. B cell: T cell interactions occur within hepatic granulomas during experimental visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34143 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic resistance to Leishmania donovani infection in mice is associated with the development of granulomas, in which a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid populations accumulate...
  16. Ghosh J, Bose M, Roy S, Bhattacharyya S. Leishmania donovani targets Dicer1 to downregulate miR-122, lower serum cholesterol, and facilitate murine liver infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:277-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) where the parasite infects and resides inside liver and spleen tissue macrophages...
  17. Tiwary P, Kumar D, Singh R, Rai M, Sundar S. Prevalence of sand flies and Leishmania donovani infection in a natural population of female Phlebotomus argentipes in Bihar State, India. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..a vector-borne disease, and in the Indian subcontinent the female Phlebotomus argentipes is the vector for Leishmania donovani. However, data on the extent of sand fly infection rates in natural settings using molecular methods have ..
  18. Mukhopadhyay R, Mukherjee S, Mukherjee B, Naskar K, Mondal D, Decuypere S, et al. Characterisation of antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani isolates: biochemical and biophysical studies and interaction with host cells. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1311-21 pubmed publisher
    Recent clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani from the hyperendemic zone of Bihar were characterised in vitro in terms of their sensitivity towards sodium stibogluconate in a macrophage culture system...
  19. Subba Raju B, Gurumurthy S, Kuhls K, Bhandari V, Schnonian G, Salotra P. Genetic typing reveals monomorphism between antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani isolates from visceral leishmaniasis or post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases in India. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1559-68 pubmed
    ..hurdle to the treatment and control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar (KA), caused by Leishmania donovani. In India, over 60% of KA patients are unresponsive to the first-line drug sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)...
  20. Ukil A, Kar S, Srivastav S, Ghosh K, Das P. Curative effect of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis depends on phosphatase-dependent modulation of cellular MAP kinases. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29062 pubmed publisher
    ..Curative effect of GRA may, therefore, be associated with restoration of proper cellular kinase/phosphatase balance, rather than modulation of either kinases or phosphatases. ..
  21. Gouzelou E, Haralambous C, Amro A, Mentis A, Pratlong F, Dedet J, et al. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1507 pubmed publisher
    New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum) situated 150 km north of Cyprus...
  22. Chowdhury S, Mukherjee T, Mukhopadhyay R, Mukherjee B, Sengupta S, Chattopadhyay S, et al. The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:1126-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings can be exploited to develop niranthin as a new drug candidate against drug-resistant leishmaniasis. ..
  23. Murray H, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Raman V, Reed S, Ma X. Regulatory actions of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 in Leishmania donovani infection in the liver. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2318-26 pubmed publisher
    In livers of susceptible but self-curing C57BL/6 mice, intracellular Leishmania donovani infection enhanced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 gene expression...
  24. Srivastav S, Kar S, Chande A, Mukhopadhyaya R, Das P. Leishmania donovani exploits host deubiquitinating enzyme A20, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, to subvert host immune response. J Immunol. 2012;189:924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we showed that Leishmania donovani modulates the TLR2-mediated pathway in macrophages through inhibition of the IKK-NF-?B cascade and ..
  25. Imbert L, Ramos R, Libong D, Abreu S, Loiseau P, Chaminade P. Identification of phospholipid species affected by miltefosine action in Leishmania donovani cultures using LC-ELSD, LC-ESI/MS, and multivariate data analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402:1169-82 pubmed publisher
    ..the present work proposes a complete lipidomic study focused on membrane phospholipids of clones of Leishmania donovani non-treated (NT), treated (T) and resistant (R) to miltefosine...
  26. Mutiso J, Macharia J, Barasa M, Taracha E, Bourdichon A, Gicheru M. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial efficacy of a combination therapy of diminazene and artesunate against Leishmania donovani in BALB/c mice. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2011;53:129-32 pubmed
    ..and in vivo activity of diminazene (Dim), artesunate (Art) and combination of Dim and Art (Dim-Art) against Leishmania donovani was compared to reference drug; amphotericin B. IC50 of Dim-Art was found to be 2.28 ± 0...
  27. Chrobak M, Förster S, Meisel S, Pfefferkorn R, Förster F, Clos J. Leishmania donovani HslV does not interact stably with HslU proteins. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..replacements of all three HslV/HslU gene homologues and found one of those, HslV, to be essential for Leishmania donovani viability...
  28. Lambertz U, Silverman J, Nandan D, McMaster W, Clos J, Foster L, et al. Secreted virulence factors and immune evasion in visceral leishmaniasis. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:887-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to representing a novel mechanism for trafficking of virulence factors across membranes, recent findings indicate that leishmania exosomes may have potential as vaccine candidates...
  29. Huda M, Rudra S, Ghosh D, Bhaskar K, Chowdhury R, Dash A, et al. Low prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection among the blood donors in kala-azar endemic areas of Bangladesh. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:62 pubmed publisher
    ..No information is available about the prevalence of Leishmania infection among blood donors in Bangladesh; therefore we aimed to investigate this question...
  30. Singh N, Bajpai S, Kumar V, Gour J, Singh R. Identification and functional characterization of Leishmania donovani secretory peroxidase: delineating its role in NRAMP1 regulation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53442 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we identified a secretory Leishmania donovani peroxidase (Prx) that showed peroxidoxin like peroxidase activity and significantly reduced H(2)O(2), O(2)...
  31. Yurdakul P, Dalton J, Beattie L, Brown N, Erguven S, Maroof A, et al. Compartment-specific remodeling of splenic micro-architecture during experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized compartment-dependent selectivity to the process of splenic vascular remodeling during experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, attributable to Ly6C(+) inflammatory monocytes...
  32. Bhandari V, Kulshrestha A, Deep D, Stark O, Prajapati V, Ramesh V, et al. Drug susceptibility in Leishmania isolates following miltefosine treatment in cases of visceral leishmaniasis and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1657 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance of MIL susceptibility in natural populations of Leishmania donovani is vital to preserve it and support the VL elimination program.
  33. Santos Oliveira J, Da Cruz A, Pires L, Cupolillo E, Kuhls K, Giacoia Gripp C, et al. Atypical lesions as a sign of cutaneous dissemination of visceral leishmaniasis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient simultaneously infected by two viscerotropic Leishmania species. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such atypical cases indicate that this disease can be undiagnosed in clinical settings...
  34. Biyani N, Singh A, Mandal S, Chawla B, Madhubala R. Differential expression of proteins in antimony-susceptible and -resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;179:91-9 pubmed publisher
    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Resistance to pentavalent antimonials (SbV), the mainstay therapy for leishmaniasis is now a major concern, due to emergence of drug ..
  35. Biyani N, Mandal S, Seth C, Saint M, Natarajan K, Ghosh I, et al. Characterization of Leishmania donovani aquaporins shows presence of subcellular aquaporins similar to tonoplast intrinsic proteins of plants. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24820 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, resides in the macrophages of the mammalian host. The aquaporin family of proteins form important components of the parasite-host interface...
  36. Pratlong F, Lami P, Ravel C, Balard Y, Dereure J, Serres G, et al. Geographical distribution and epidemiological features of Old World Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani foci, based on the isoenzyme analysis of 2277 strains. Parasitology. 2013;140:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..archibaldi (3 zymodemes, 46 strains) and L. infantum (37 zymodemes, 2,062 strains). The taxonomic position of these isoenzymatic groups is discussed in view of contradictory results obtained from recent molecular studies...
  37. Kumari N, Goyal N. Cloning, characterization and sub-cellular localization of gamma subunit of T-complex protein-1 (chaperonin) from Leishmania donovani. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;429:70-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report for the first time cloning, characterization and expression of the TCP1? of Leishmania donovani (LdTCP1?), the causative agent of Indian Kala-azar...
  38. Ashutosh -, Garg M, Sundar S, Duncan R, Nakhasi H, Goyal N. Downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 of Leishmania donovani field isolates is associated with antimony resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified a gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) for the kinetoplast protozoan Leishmania donovani (LdMAPK1) that was consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates...
  39. Maroof A, Brown N, Smith B, Hodgkinson M, Maxwell A, Losch F, et al. Therapeutic vaccination with recombinant adenovirus reduces splenic parasite burden in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In nonvaccinated Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice, HASPB- and KMP11-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were undetectable, although IgG1 ..
  40. Rijal S, Ostyn B, Uranw S, Rai K, Bhattarai N, Dorlo T, et al. Increasing failure of miltefosine in the treatment of Kala-azar in Nepal and the potential role of parasite drug resistance, reinfection, or noncompliance. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1530-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the paucity of anti-VL drugs and the looming threat of resistance, there is an obvious need for close monitoring of clinical efficacy of MIL...
  41. Downing T, Imamura H, Decuypere S, Clark T, Coombs G, Cotton J, et al. Whole genome sequencing of multiple Leishmania donovani clinical isolates provides insights into population structure and mechanisms of drug resistance. Genome Res. 2011;21:2143-56 pubmed publisher
    ..fatal disease endemic to large parts of Asia and Africa, primarily caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Here, we report a high-quality reference genome sequence for a strain of L...
  42. Sardar A, Kumar S, Kumar A, Purkait B, Das S, Sen A, et al. Proteome changes associated with Leishmania donovani promastigote adaptation to oxidative and nitrosative stresses. J Proteomics. 2013;81:185-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations shed light on how Leishmania promastigotes counter ROS and RNS effects during the initial stage of infection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications...
  43. Tiwananthagorn S, Iwabuchi K, Ato M, Sakurai T, Kato H, Katakura K. Involvement of CD4? Foxp3? regulatory T cells in persistence of Leishmania donovani in the liver of alymphoplastic aly/aly mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1798 pubmed publisher
    ..VL) is a chronic and fatal disease in humans and dogs caused by the intracellular protozoan parasites, Leishmania donovani and L. infantum (L. chagasi)...
  44. Kumar S, Kumar D, Chakravarty J, Rai M, Sundar S. Identification and characterization of a novel Leishmania donovani antigen for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an urgent need to develop a better antigen. In this study we separated crude soluble antigens of Leishmania donovani by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and hybridized with pool sera from pre- and ..
  45. Owens B, Beattie L, Moore J, Brown N, Mann J, Dalton J, et al. IL-10-producing Th1 cells and disease progression are regulated by distinct CD11c? cell populations during visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002827 pubmed publisher
    IL-10 is a critical regulatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani and clinical and experimental data indicate that disease progression is associated with expanded numbers of CD4? ..
  46. Raj I, Kumar S, Gourinath S. The narrow active-site cleft of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase from Leishmania donovani allows complex formation with serine acetyltransferases with a range of C-terminal sequences. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012;68:909-19 pubmed publisher
    ..which in turn maintain intracellular redox homeostasis and defend against oxidative stress in the pathogen Leishmania donovani. Here, the identification, sequencing, characterization and crystal structure at 1...
  47. Boitz J, Strasser R, Hartman C, Jardim A, Ullman B. Adenine aminohydrolase from Leishmania donovani: unique enzyme in parasite purine metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7626-39 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leishmania donovani AAH is 38 and 23% identical to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAH and human adenosine deaminase enzymes, ..
  48. Verma S, Mehta A, Shaha C. CYP5122A1, a novel cytochrome P450 is essential for survival of Leishmania donovani. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25273 pubmed publisher
    ..One such opportunistic pathogen Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, which is an important public health problem due to significant ..
  49. Prada C, Alvarez Velilla R, Díaz González R, Prieto C, Pérez Pertejo Y, Balaña Fouce R, et al. A pentapeptide signature motif plays a pivotal role in Leishmania DNA topoisomerase IB activity and camptothecin sensitivity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:2062-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani - the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis - has several evolutionary characteristics that make the disease difficult to combat...
  50. Kushawaha P, Gupta R, Tripathi C, Khare P, JAISWAL A, Sundar S, et al. Leishmania donovani triose phosphate isomerase: a potential vaccine target against visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45766 pubmed publisher
    ..Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), a glycolytic enzyme, identified through proteomics from a fraction of Leishmania donovani soluble antigen ranging from 89.9-97.1 kDa, was assessed for its potential as a suitable vaccine candidate...
  51. Ghosh J, Das S, Guha R, Ghosh D, Naskar K, Das A, et al. Hyperlipidemia offers protection against Leishmania donovani infection: role of membrane cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2560-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani (LD), the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), extracts membrane cholesterol from macrophages and disrupts lipid rafts, leading to their inability to stimulate T cells...
  52. Abass E, Bollig N, Reinhard K, Camara B, Mansour D, Visekruna A, et al. rKLO8, a novel Leishmania donovani - derived recombinant immunodominant protein for sensitive detection of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2322 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to improve diagnosis of VL in East Africa by testing a new antigen from an autochthonous L. donovani strain in Sudan...
  53. Singh O, Gidwani K, Kumar R, Nylen S, Jones S, Boelaert M, et al. Reassessment of immune correlates in human visceral leishmaniasis as defined by cytokine release in whole blood. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The cellular responses of the EHCs were correlated with their serological antibody titers against Leishmania donovani and Phlebotomus argentipes saliva...
  54. McCall L, Zhang W, Ranasinghe S, Matlashewski G. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 2013;31:1420-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa...
  55. Bhattacharyya T, Boelaert M, Miles M. Comparison of visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic antigens in African and Asian Leishmania donovani reveals extensive diversity and region-specific polymorphisms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2057 pubmed publisher
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with Leishmania donovani complex, remains a major public health problem in endemic regions of South Asia, East Africa, and Brazil. If untreated, symptomatic VL is usually fatal...
  56. Daifalla N, Bayih A, Gedamu L. Immunogenicity of Leishmania donovani iron superoxide dismutase B1 and peroxidoxin 4 in BALB/c mice: the contribution of Toll-like receptor agonists as adjuvant. Exp Parasitol. 2011;129:292-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we assessed the immune response of two Leishmania donovani recombinant proteins: iron superoxide dismutase B1 (SODB1) and peroxidoxin 4 (Pxn4) in BALB/c mice...
  57. Messaritakis I, Christodoulou V, Mazeris A, Koutala E, Vlahou A, Papadogiorgaki S, et al. Drug resistance in natural isolates of Leishmania donovani s.l. promastigotes is dependent of Pgp170 expression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65467 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the phenomenon is a complex one and other factors and proteins are involved in which the HSP-70 group proteins, detected in the "resistant" isolates, may play a significant role...
  58. Siqueira Neto J, Moon S, Jang J, Yang G, Lee C, Moon H, et al. An image-based high-content screening assay for compounds targeting intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes in human macrophages. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1671 pubmed publisher
    ..These data corroborate the idea that the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite is the most appropriate to be used in primary screening assay for Leishmania...
  59. Chawla B, Kumar R, Tyagi N, Subramanian G, Srinivasan N, Park M, et al. A unique modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A shows the presence of the complete hypusine pathway in Leishmania donovani. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33138 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L...
  60. Gannavaram S, Connelly P, Daniels M, Duncan R, Salotra P, Nakhasi H. Deletion of mitochondrial associated ubiquitin fold modifier protein Ufm1 in Leishmania donovani results in loss of ?-oxidation of fatty acids and blocks cell division in the amastigote stage. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:187-98 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we described the existence of the ubiquitin fold modifier 1 (Ufm1) and its conjugation pathway in Leishmania donovani. We demonstrated the conjugation of Ufm1 to proteins such as mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) that ..
  61. Srivastav S, Basu Ball W, Gupta P, Giri J, Ukil A, Das P. Leishmania donovani prevents oxidative burst-mediated apoptosis of host macrophages through selective induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:1092-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We tried to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this by using H2O2 for induction of apoptosis. Leishmania donovani-infected macrophages were much more resistant to H2O2-mediated apoptosis compared with control...
  62. Kulshrestha A, Bhandari V, Mukhopadhyay R, Ramesh V, Sundar S, Maes L, et al. Validation of a simple resazurin-based promastigote assay for the routine monitoring of miltefosine susceptibility in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:825-8 pubmed publisher
    ..validated a simple resazurin-based fluorimetric assay using promastigotes to track natural MIL tolerance in Leishmania donovani parasites from VL cases (n = 17) against standard amastigote assay, in two different labs in India...
  63. Wilson Z, Gilroy C, Boitz J, Ullman B, Yates P. Genetic dissection of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage in Leishmania donovani. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12759-70 pubmed publisher
    ..contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in ..
  64. Srivastava P, Gidwani K, Picado A, Van der Auwera G, Tiwary P, Ostyn B, et al. Molecular and serological markers of Leishmania donovani infection in healthy individuals from endemic areas of Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2013;18:548-54 pubmed publisher
    Recent epidemiological reports indicate that asymptomatic human infections with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or Kala-azar (KA), occur frequently in India. We explored markers of infection.
  65. Kushawaha P, Gupta R, Sundar S, Sahasrabuddhe A, Dube A. Elongation factor-2, a Th1 stimulatory protein of Leishmania donovani, generates strong IFN-? and IL-12 response in cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and protects hamsters against Leishmania challenge. J Immunol. 2011;187:6417-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report the cloning and expression of Leishmania donovani elongation factor-2 protein (LelF-2) and its immunogenicity in PBMCs of cured/exposed Leishmania-infected ..
  66. Abbasi I, Aramin S, Hailu A, Shiferaw W, Kassahun A, Belay S, et al. Evaluation of PCR procedures for detecting and quantifying Leishmania donovani DNA in large numbers of dried human blood samples from a visceral leishmaniasis focus in Northern Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:153 pubmed publisher
    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani parasites which affects almost half a million persons annually. Most of these are from the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil...
  67. Kushawaha P, Gupta R, Tripathi C, Sundar S, Dube A. Evaluation of Leishmania donovani protein disulfide isomerase as a potential immunogenic protein/vaccine candidate against visceral Leishmaniasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35670 pubmed publisher
    ..identified, through proteomics, as a Th1 stimulatory protein in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani (LdPDI)...
  68. Zackay A, Nasereddin A, Takele Y, Tadesse D, Hailu W, Hurissa Z, et al. Polymorphism in the HASPB repeat region of East African Leishmania donovani strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2031 pubmed publisher
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Parasites in disparate regions are transmitted by different vectors, and cluster in distinctive genotypes...
  69. Daifalla N, Bayih A, Gedamu L. Leishmania donovani recombinant iron superoxide dismutase B1 protein in the presence of TLR-based adjuvants induces partial protection of BALB/c mice against Leishmania major infection. Exp Parasitol. 2012;131:317-24 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of recombinant Leishmania donovani iron superoxide dismutase B1 (SODB1) against Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Mice were challenged with L...
  70. Gupta R, Kushawaha P, Samant M, Jaiswal A, Baharia R, Dube A. Treatment of Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters with miltefosine: analysis of cytokine mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lymphoproliferation, nitrite production and antibody responses. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:440-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the type of immunological responses generated in miltefosine-treated Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters, which simulate the clinical situation of human kala-azar.
  71. Boitz J, Ullman B. Adenine and adenosine salvage in Leishmania donovani. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;190:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani and demonstrate that all of the pathways can function under appropriate conditions of genetic or pharmacologic perturbation. ..
  72. Verma S, Avishek K, Sharma V, Negi N, Ramesh V, Salotra P. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75:390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..L.) infantum, L. (L.) tropica, and L. (L.) major. This is the first comprehensive clinical study demonstrating the applicability of the LAMP assay for a rapid and reliable molecular diagnosis of VL and PKDL...
  73. Sadlova J, Dvorák V, Seblová V, Warburg A, Votypka J, Volf P. Sergentomyia schwetzi is not a competent vector for Leishmania donovani and other Leishmania species pathogenic to humans. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:186 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the susceptibility of colonized Sergentomyia schwetzi to Leishmania donovani and two other Leishmania species pathogenic to humans: L. infantum and L. major.
  74. Li L, Li J, Jin H, Shang L, Li B, Wei F, et al. Detection of Leishmania donovani infection using magnetic beads-based serum peptide profiling by MALDI-TOF MS in mice model. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1287-90 pubmed publisher
    ..1%, sensitivity of 92.4%, and specificity of 97.1%, respectively. The results of the present study suggested that the serum peptide profiling by MALDI-TOF MS is a novel potential tool for the clinical diagnosis of leishmaniasis...
  75. Schroeder J, Brown N, Kaye P, Aebischer T. Single dose novel Salmonella vaccine enhances resistance against visceralizing L. major and L. donovani infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1406 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani in susceptible BALB/c mice. The results show that Salmonella are valid vaccine carriers for inducing resistance against visceral leishmaniasis but that their use may not be suitable for all antigens...
  76. Ghosh J, Guha R, Das S, Roy S. Liposomal cholesterol delivery activates the macrophage innate immune arm to facilitate intracellular Leishmania donovani killing. Infect Immun. 2014;82:607-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by infecting the monocyte/macrophage lineage and residing inside specialized structures known as parasitophorous vacuoles...
  77. Fernandes A, Coelho E, Machado Coelho G, Grimaldi G, Gazzinelli R. Making an anti-amastigote vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: rational, update and perspectives. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012;15:476-85 pubmed
    ..We are currently identifying novel amastigote specific immunogenic proteins that could be aggregated to A2 to further improve the level of vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity and protection against visceral leishmaniasis...
  78. Vaish M, Bhatia A, Reed S, Chakravarty J, Sundar S. Evaluation of rK28 antigen for serodiagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis in India. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:81-5 pubmed publisher
    ..85-0.96) and 96.59% (95% CI 0.90-0.98), respectively. Our results show that rK39 and rK28 antigens have similar sensitivity and specificity and rK28 can also be used as a serodiagnostic tool in the endemic population of Bihar...
  79. Srivastava A, Singh N, Mishra M, Kumar V, Gour J, Bajpai S, et al. Identification of TLR inducing Th1-responsive Leishmania donovani amastigote-specific antigens. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;359:359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These antigens also induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation and Th1 cytokine production. This study concludes that these antigens induce innate immune response as well as have prophylactic efficacy...
  80. Singh A, Mukhopadhyay C, Biswas S, Singh V, Mukhopadhyay C. Intracellular pathogen Leishmania donovani activates hypoxia inducible factor-1 by dual mechanism for survival advantage within macrophage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38489 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leishmania donovani (LD), a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of fatal visceral leishmaniasis resides in macrophages ..
  81. Vanaerschot M, Decuypere S, Downing T, Imamura H, Stark O, De Doncker S, et al. Genetic markers for SSG resistance in Leishmania donovani and SSG treatment failure in visceral leishmaniasis patients of the Indian subcontinent. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:752-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding allows the development of rapid assays to monitor the emergence and spread of clinically relevant SSG-resistant Leishmania parasites...
  82. Chawla B, Jhingran A, Panigrahi A, Stuart K, Madhubala R. Paromomycin affects translation and vesicle-mediated trafficking as revealed by proteomics of paromomycin -susceptible -resistant Leishmania donovani. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26660 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. Increasing resistance towards antimonial drugs poses a great challenge in chemotherapy of VL...
  83. Sundar S, Chakravarty J. Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of VL is challenging. The duration of treatment is long, and drugs are toxic thereby needing monitoring and hospitalization...
  84. Srivastava A, Sweat J, Azizan A, Vesely B, Kyle D. Real-time PCR to quantify Leishmania donovani in hamsters. J Parasitol. 2013;99:145-50 pubmed publisher
    Visceral leishmaniasis, a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum , currently affects 12 million individuals in 88 countries...
  85. Dey R, Dagur P, Selvapandiyan A, McCoy J, Salotra P, Duncan R, et al. Live attenuated Leishmania donovani p27 gene knockout parasites are nonpathogenic and elicit long-term protective immunity in BALB/c mice. J Immunol. 2013;190:2138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..the amastigote-specific protein p27 (Ldp27) is a component of an active cytochrome c oxidase complex in Leishmania donovani and that upon deletion of its gene the parasite had reduced virulence in vivo...