crithidia

Summary

Summary: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.

Top Publications

  1. Gershwin L. Antinuclear antibodies in domestic animals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1050:364-70 pubmed
    ..To a lesser extent, the Crithidia luciliae test for antibodies to double-stranded DNA has been used...
  2. Riddell C, Sumner S, Adams S, Mallon E. Pathways to immunity: temporal dynamics of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) immune response against a trypanosomal gut parasite. Insect Mol Biol. 2011;20:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..that were up-regulated in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, during infection with the trypanosomatid parasite, Crithidia bombi...
  3. de Melo A, d Avila Levy C, Branquinha M, Vermelho A. Crithidia guilhermei: gelatin- and haemoglobin-degrading extracellular metalloproteinases. Exp Parasitol. 2002;102:150-6 pubmed
    The extracellular metalloproteinases of the insect trypanosomatid Crithidia guilhermei were characterized through the incorporation of different protein substrates (gelatin, casein, haemoglobin, and bovine serum albumin) into SDS-PAGE...
  4. D Ávila Levy C, Santos L, Marinho F, Matteoli F, Lopes A, Motta M, et al. Crithidia deanei: influence of parasite gp63 homologue on the interaction of endosymbiont-harboring and aposymbiotic strains with Aedes aegypti midgut. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:345-53 pubmed
    The present study demonstrates that the endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei influences the expression of surface gp63 molecules...
  5. Yurchenko V, Lukes J, Tesarová M, Jirku M, Maslov D. Morphological discordance of the new trypanosomatid species phylogenetically associated with the genus crithidia. Protist. 2008;159:99-114 pubmed
    ..affinity with the other members of this polyphyletic genus, the new species are most closely related to Crithidia species. Thus, the extremely long promastigotes of Leptomonas acus sp. n...
  6. Yamage M, Joshi M, Dwyer D. Episomally driven antisense mRNA abrogates the hyperinducible expression and function of a unique cell surface class I nuclease in the primitive trypanosomatid parasite, Crithidia luciliae. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:296-307 pubmed
    Here, we show that Crithidia luciliae, a primitive trypanosomatid, purine auxotroph, up-expressed its unique, bi-functional, surface membrane 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (Cl 3'NT/NU) activity by approximately 1000-fold in response to purine ..
  7. Wilfert L, Gadau J, Baer B, Schmid Hempel P. Natural variation in the genetic architecture of a host-parasite interaction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:1327-39 pubmed
    ..to study the genetic architecture of traits relevant for host-parasite interactions in the trypanosome parasite, Crithidia bombi and its host, Bombus terrestris...
  8. Tognazzo M, Schmid Hempel R, Schmid Hempel P. Probing mixed-genotype infections II: high multiplicity in natural infections of the trypanosomatid, Crithidia bombi, in its host, Bombus spp. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49137 pubmed publisher
    ..We here investigated mixed- genotype infections using the host, Bombus spp. and its trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi as our study case. The natural infections of C...
  9. Yourth C, Schmid Hempel P. Serial passage of the parasite Crithidia bombi within a colony of its host, Bombus terrestris, reduces success in unrelated hosts. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:655-9 pubmed
    In the wild, Bombus spp. bees may contract infections of the trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi from their nestmates or from others while foraging on contaminated flowers. We expected that as C...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Schmid Hempel P, Reber Funk C. The distribution of genotypes of the trypanosome parasite, Crithidia bombi, in populations of its host, Bombus terrestris. Parasitology. 2004;129:147-58 pubmed
    This study reports the distribution of parasite genotypes for the trypanosome Crithidia bombi across individual units (the colonies) in host populations of a social insect, the bumble bee Bombus terrestris...
  2. Ulrich Y, Sadd B, Schmid Hempel P. Strain filtering and transmission of a mixed infection in a social insect. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:354-62 pubmed publisher
  3. dos Passos Lemos A, Fonseca de Souza A, de Sá Pinheiro A, de Berrêdo Pinho M, Meyer Fernandes J. Ecto-phosphatase activity on the cell surface of Crithidia deanei. Z Naturforsch C. 2002;57:500-5 pubmed
    In the present work we have partially characterized an ecto-phosphatase activity in Crithidia deanei, using viable parasites. This enzyme hydrolyzed p-nitrophenylphosphate at a rate of 3.55 +/- 0.47 nmol Pi/h x 10(8) cells...
  4. Schmid Hempel R, Salathé R, Tognazzo M, Schmid Hempel P. Genetic exchange and emergence of novel strains in directly transmitted trypanosomatids. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We infected the natural host (Bombus terrestris) of the monoxenous parasite Crithidia bombi (Trypanosomatida) either with a single strain of the parasite or in mixed infections and tested for ..
  5. Motta M, Picchi G, Palmié Peixoto I, Rocha M, de Carvalho T, Morgado Diaz J, et al. The microtubule analog protein, FtsZ, in the endosymbiont of trypanosomatid protozoa. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2004;51:394-401 pubmed
    Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei are trypanosomatids that harbor an endosymbiotic bacterium in their cytoplasm...
  6. Popp M, Lattorff H. A quantitative in vitro cultivation technique to determine cell number and growth rates in strains of Crithidia bombi (Trypanosomatidae), a parasite of bumblebees. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:7-10 pubmed publisher
    The protozoan parasite Crithidia bombi and its host, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, are used as a model system for the study of the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions...
  7. Gadelha C, Wickstead B, de Souza W, Gull K, Cunha e Silva N. Cryptic paraflagellar rod in endosymbiont-containing kinetoplastid protozoa. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:516-25 pubmed
    ..Here we have identified a PFR1 gene in the endosymbiont-bearing trypanosome Crithidia deanei. This gene is expressed in C...
  8. Motta M, Catta Preta C, Schenkman S, de Azevedo Martins A, Miranda K, de Souza W, et al. The bacterium endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei undergoes coordinated division with the host cell nucleus. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12415 pubmed publisher
    ..In endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids, like Crithidia deanei, this process is more complex, as each daughter cell contains only a single symbiotic bacterium, ..
  9. Schmid Hempel R, Tognazzo M. Molecular divergence defines two distinct lineages of Crithidia bombi (Trypanosomatidae), parasites of bumblebees. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:337-45 pubmed publisher
    This study provides, for the first time, sequence data for the protozoan flagellates Crithidia bombi and Crithidia mellificae (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae)...
  10. Cavalcanti D, Thiry M, de Souza W, Motta M. The kinetoplast ultrastructural organization of endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids as revealed by deep-etching, cytochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:1177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetoplast structural organization of Bodo sp. was also analyzed, since this protozoan lacks the highly ordered kDNA-packaging characteristic of trypanosomatid and represents an evolutionary ancestral of the Trypanosomatidae family...
  11. Gotz G, Gañán S, Parodi A. Glucosylation of glycoproteins in Crithidia fasciculata. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1991;45:265-73 pubmed
    ..order to evaluate the molar proportion of N-linked oligosaccharides that are glucosylated in the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata (a microorganism transferring Man7GlcNAc2 in protein N-glycosylation) cells of the parasite were ..
  12. Conrad K, Ittenson A, Reinhold D, Fischer R, Roggenbuck D, Büttner T, et al. High sensitive detection of double-stranded DNA autoantibodies by a modified Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Of all anti-dsDNA antibody detection methods, the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) is thought to have the highest specificity for SLE...
  13. Salathé R, Tognazzo M, Schmid Hempel R, Schmid Hempel P. Probing mixed-genotype infections I: extraction and cloning of infections from hosts of the trypanosomatid Crithidia bombi. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49046 pubmed publisher
    We here present an efficient, precise and reliable method to isolate and cultivate healthy and viable single Crithidia bombi cells from bumblebee faeces using flow cytometry...
  14. Sadd B. Food-environment mediates the outcome of specific interactions between a bumblebee and its trypanosome parasite. Evolution. 2011;65:2995-3001 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions in the well-studied system of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi...
  15. Cordes N, Huang W, Strange J, Cameron S, Griswold T, Lozier J, et al. Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and prevalence of two known Bombus pathogens, the microsporidium Nosema bombi and trypanosomes in the genus Crithidia. Prevalence of Crithidia was ?10% for all host species examined but was recorded from 21% of surveyed sites...
  16. Barribeau S, Schmid Hempel P. Qualitatively different immune response of the bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, to infection by different genotypes of the trypanosome gut parasite, Crithidia bombi. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;20:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The common European bumblebee Bombus terrestris is infected by the highly prevalent trypanosome gut parasite, Crithidia bombi...
  17. Morimoto T, Kojima Y, Yoshiyama M, Kimura K, Yang B, Peng G, et al. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites infecting Apis mellifera colonies in Japan. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2013;5:74-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we carried out a molecular survey for the presence of Crithidia mellificae and Apicystis bombi in the colonies of both non-native Apis mellifera and native Apis cerana japonica ..
  18. Ravoet J, Maharramov J, Meeus I, De Smet L, Wenseleers T, Smagghe G, et al. Comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium reveals Crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72443 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to Varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae in summer are also predictive markers of winter ..
  19. Launay D, Schmidt J, Lepers S, Mirault T, Lambert M, Kyndt X, et al. Comparison of the Farr radioimmunoassay, 3 commercial enzyme immunoassays and Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test for diagnosis and activity assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the performance of Farr, three commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
  20. Boulanger N, Ehret Sabatier L, Brun R, Zachary D, Bulet P, Imler J. Immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to infection with the flagellate parasite Crithidia spp. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:129-37 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the interaction of Drosophila melanogaster with the flagellate protozoan Crithidia spp. We show that a per os parasitic infection triggers the synthesis of several antimicrobial peptides...
  21. de Azevedo Martins A, Frossard M, de Souza W, Einicker Lamas M, Motta M. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in Crithidia deanei: the influence of the endosymbiont. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;275:229-36 pubmed
    ..was investigated in the establishment of the mutualistic relationship between the trypanosomatid protozoan Crithidia deanei and its symbiotic bacterium...
  22. D Ávila Levy C, Souza R, Gomes R, Vermelho A, Branquinha M. A novel extracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteinase from Crithidia deanei. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;420:1-8 pubmed
    An extracellular cysteine proteinase from an aposymbiotic strain of Crithidia deanei was purified 39-fold by a combination of anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies...
  23. D Ávila Levy C, Silva B, Hayashi E, Vermelho A, Alviano C, Saraiva E, et al. Influence of the endosymbiont of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei on the glycoconjugate expression and on Aedes aegypti interaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;252:279-86 pubmed
    Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei are trypanosomatid protozoa of insects that normally contain intracellular symbiotic bacteria. The protozoa can be rid of their endosymbionts by antibiotics, producing a cured cell line...
  24. Schlüns H, Sadd B, Schmid Hempel P, Crozier R. Infection with the trypanosome Crithidia bombi and expression of immune-related genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:705-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these is Crithidia bombi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a common gut parasite of bumblebees, Bombus spp. (Insecta: Apidae)...
  25. dos Passos Lemos A, de Sá Pinheiro A, de Berrêdo Pinho M, Fonseca de Souza L, Motta C, de Souza W, et al. Ectonucleotide diphosphohydrolase activity in Crithidia deanei. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:905-11 pubmed
    In this work we describe the ability of living Crithidia deanei to hydrolyze extracellular ATP. In intact cells at pH 7.2, a low level of ATP hydrolysis was observed in the absence of any divalent metal (0.41+/-0...
  26. Westermann S, Weber K. Identification of CfNek, a novel member of the NIMA family of cell cycle regulators, as a polypeptide copurifying with tubulin polyglutamylation activity in Crithidia. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:5003-12 pubmed
    ..54 kDa band as the major polypeptide copurifying with tubulin polyglutamylation activity from the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata...
  27. Runckel C, Flenniken M, Engel J, Ruby J, Ganem D, Andino R, et al. Temporal analysis of the honey bee microbiome reveals four novel viruses and seasonal prevalence of known viruses, Nosema, and Crithidia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20656 pubmed publisher
    ..We established seasonal incidence and abundance of known viruses, Nosema sp., Crithidia mellificae, and bacteria...
  28. Soda P, Onofri L, Iannello G. A decision support system for Crithidia luciliae image classification. Artif Intell Med. 2011;51:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The recommended method for its detection is the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) based on Crithidia Luciliae (CL) substrate...
  29. Antico A, Platzgummer S, Bassetti D, Bizzaro N, Tozzoli R, Villalta D. Diagnosing systemic lupus erythematosus: new-generation immunoassays for measurement of anti-dsDNA antibodies are an effective alternative to the Farr technique and the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test. Lupus. 2010;19:906-12 pubmed publisher
    ..EIAs) for anti-double-stranded-DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, in comparison with the Farr assay and the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT)...
  30. Manson J, Otterstatter M, Thomson J. Consumption of a nectar alkaloid reduces pathogen load in bumble bees. Oecologia. 2010;162:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..plant Gelsemium sempervirens, could reduce pathogen loads in bumble bees infected with the gut protozoan Crithidia bombi...
  31. Schwarz R, Evans J. Single and mixed-species trypanosome and microsporidia infections elicit distinct, ephemeral cellular and humoral immune responses in honey bees. Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;40:300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..eukaryotic endoparasites by establishing single and mixed-species infections using the long-associated parasite Crithidia mellificae and the emergent parasite Nosema ceranae...
  32. Gegear R, Otterstatter M, Thomson J. Bumble-bee foragers infected by a gut parasite have an impaired ability to utilize floral information. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:1073-8 pubmed
    ..We found that natural and experimental infection by a protozoan parasite (Crithidia bombi, which lives exclusively within the gut tract), impaired the ability of foragers to learn the colour of ..
  33. Salathé R, Schmid Hempel P. The genotypic structure of a multi-host bumblebee parasite suggests a role for ecological niche overlap. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22054 pubmed publisher
    ..We here analyze the natural genotypic distribution of Crithidia bombi, a trypanosomatid parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp...
  34. Page A, Lagnado J. Ultrastructural analysis of Phytomonas species from Euphorbia pinea reveals trans-cytoplasmic filaments 10 nm in diameter. Parasitol Res. 2000;86:843-50 pubmed
    ..cross-reactivity of these filaments are described, and their relationship to filamentous bundles previously reported in stationary-phase cultures of Crithidia fasciculata and to intermediate filaments of animal cells is discussed.
  35. Whitehorn P, Tinsley M, Brown M, Darvill B, Goulson D. Genetic diversity, parasite prevalence and immunity in wild bumblebees. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:1195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that prevalence of the gut parasite Crithidia bombi was higher in populations with lower genetic diversity...
  36. Howard M, Lee M, Hsieh T, Griffith J. Drosophila topoisomerase II-DNA interactions are affected by DNA structure. J Mol Biol. 1991;217:53-62 pubmed
    ..The probability of finding topoisomerase II positioned at or near the bent SV40 terminus and Crithidia fasciculata kDNA was two- and threefold higher, respectively, than along the unbent pBR325 DNA into which the ..
  37. Matteoli F, D Ávila Levy C, Santos L, Barbosa G, Holandino C, Branquinha M, et al. Roles of the endosymbiont and leishmanolysin-like molecules expressed by Crithidia deanei in the interaction with mammalian fibroblasts. Exp Parasitol. 2009;121:246-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Crithidia deanei is an insect trypanosomatid that harbors a bacterial endosymbiont in its cytoplasm. In this work, we have demonstrated the influence of the endosymbiont on the interaction of C...
  38. Riddell C, Adams S, Schmid Hempel P, Mallon E. Differential expression of immune defences is associated with specific host-parasite interactions in insects. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7621 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of putative bumblebee homologues of antimicrobial peptides in response to infection by their gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi, we demonstrate that expression differences are associated with the specific interactions.
  39. Satoh M, Behney K, Mizutani A, Richards H, Hutson A, Reeves W. Titration emulation: a computer-assisted technique that simplifies the quantification of anti-dsDNA antibodies using the Crithidia luciliae assay. Lupus. 2001;10:632-6 pubmed
    ..anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA antibodies in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using the Crithidia luciliae assay method were compared by conventional titration vs the titration emulation method (ImageTiter) to ..
  40. Xu G, Palmer Young E, Skyrm K, Daly T, Sylvia M, Averill A, et al. Triplex real-time PCR for detection of Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim in honey bees. Parasitol Res. 2018;117:623-628 pubmed publisher
    Currently, light microscopic examination of cell morphology cannot discriminate Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim with 100% certainty...
  41. Deshwal S, Mallon E. Antimicrobial peptides play a functional role in bumblebee anti-trypanosome defense. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;42:240-3 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these is disease. The bumblebee and its gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi are one of the fundamental models of ecological immunology...
  42. Batistoti M, Cavazzana M, Serrano M, Ogatta S, Baccan G, Jankevicius J, et al. Genetic variability of trypanosomatids isolated from phytophagous hemiptera defined by morphological, biochemical, and molecular taxonomic markers. J Parasitol. 2001;87:1335-41 pubmed
    ..and biochemical and molecular markers and reveal the genetic diversity of the isolates, which were assigned to Crithidia, Phytomonas, and Leptomonas; we found genetic polymorphism within all these genera, thus indicating high genetic ..
  43. Jaffe C, Dwyer D. Extracellular release of the surface metalloprotease, gp63, from Leishmania and insect trypanosomatids. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:229-37 pubmed
    ..mexicana, L. major, as well as the insect trypanosomatids, Crithidia luciliae and Leptomonas seymouri...
  44. Gillespie S, Adler L. Indirect effects on mutualisms: parasitism of bumble bees and pollination service to plants. Ecology. 2013;94:454-64 pubmed
    ..We tested whether variation in parasitism rates by Nosema bombi, Crithidia bombi, and conopid flies correlated with reproduction of greenhouse-raised plants placed in the field...
  45. Palmer Young E, Calhoun A, Mirzayeva A, Sadd B. Effects of the floral phytochemical eugenol on parasite evolution and bumble bee infection and preference. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2074 pubmed publisher
    ..In the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, strains vary in phytochemical resistance, and resistance increases under in vitro selection, implying ..
  46. Hormann W, Hahn M, Gerlach S, Hochstrate N, Affeldt K, Giesen J, et al. Performance analysis of automated evaluation of Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence tests in a routine setting - strengths and weaknesses. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2017;56:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess anti-dsDNA antibodies, the Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) is one of the assays considered to be the best choice...
  47. Palmer Young E, Sadd B, Adler L. Evolution of resistance to single and combined floral phytochemicals by a bumble bee parasite. J Evol Biol. 2017;30:300-312 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over 6 weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure...
  48. Buzzulini F, Rigon A, Soda P, Onofri L, Infantino M, Arcarese L, et al. The classification of Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) using a novel automated system. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R71 pubmed publisher
    ..This system, validated in a clinical routine fashion, provides recognition accuracy equal to 100%. The data obtained show that automation is a viable alternative for Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test analysis.
  49. Krumme D, Budde H, Hecht H, Menge U, Ohlenschläger O, Ross A, et al. NMR studies of the interaction of tryparedoxin with redox-inactive substrate homologues. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14720-8 pubmed
    ..The structure of (15)N,(13)C-doubly-labeled, C-terminally-His-tagged tryparedoxin 1 from Crithidia fasciculata (Cf TXN1) was elucidated by three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy...
  50. Martinkovic F, Marinculic A. Antibodies against Leishmania cross-react with Crithidia luciliae: indirect immunofluorescence and Dot-ELISA study in dogs. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:378-80 pubmed
    ..Because of its pathogenicity and difficulty to grow in vitro, we used Leishmania infantum as primary and Crithidia luciliae as secondary source of antigen...
  51. Oza S, Tetaud E, Ariyanayagam M, Warnon S, Fairlamb A. A single enzyme catalyses formation of Trypanothione from glutathione and spermidine in Trypanosoma cruzi. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35853-61 pubmed
    ..In Crithidia fasciculata, trypanothione is synthesized from GSH and spermidine via the intermediate glutathionylspermidine in ..
  52. Atta A, Pereira M, Santiago M, Sousa Atta M. Anti-dsDNA antibodies in Brazilian patients of mainly African descent with systemic lupus erythematosus: lack of association with lupus nephritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28:693-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1 WHO units/mL), nine presenting renal disease. The following profile of dsDNA antibodies was demonstrated in Crithidia luciliae test: IgA (seven out of 36; 19.4%), IgG (22 out of 36, 66.1%); IgM (nine out of 36, 25...
  53. Catarino L, Serrano M, Cavazzana M, Almeida M, Kaneshina E, Campaner M, et al. Classification of trypanosomatids from fruits and seeds using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers revealed several genera among fruit isolates. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;201:65-72 pubmed
    ..The high diversity among the isolates permitted the classification of the new flagellates into the genera Crithidia and Leptomonas as well as Phytomonas...
  54. Meeus I, de Graaf D, Jans K, Smagghe G. Multiplex PCR detection of slowly-evolving trypanosomatids and neogregarines in bumblebees using broad-range primers. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:107-15 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to design universal markers for different protozoan parasites of Bombus spp. based on the phylogenetic position of two important bumblebee parasites Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi.
  55. Kissinger C, Cameron S, Thorp R, White B, Solter L. Survey of bumble bee (Bombus) pathogens and parasites in Illinois and selected areas of northern California and southern Oregon. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our observations, most parasites and pathogens appear to be widespread generalists among bumble bee species, but susceptibility to some natural enemies appeared to vary...
  56. Sadd B, Schmid Hempel P. A distinct infection cost associated with trans-generational priming of antibacterial immunity in bumble-bees. Biol Lett. 2009;5:798-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of costs associated with trans-generational immune-priming will shape the evolution of this trait depending on the ecological setting...
  57. Otterstatter M, Thomson J. Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2771 pubmed publisher
    ..bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus...
  58. Ravoet J, Schwarz R, Descamps T, Yañez O, Tozkar C, Martín Hernández R, et al. Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim. J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;130:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After the description of Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee ..
  59. Galvez Rojas R, Frossard M, Machado Motta M, Silber A. L-Proline uptake in Crithidia deanei is influenced by its endosymbiont bacterium. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;283:15-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Crithidia deanei, a monoxenic trypanosomatid, presents an endosymbiotic bacterium in its cytoplasm...
  60. Otterstatter M, Thomson J. Contact networks and transmission of an intestinal pathogen in bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) colonies. Oecologia. 2007;154:411-21 pubmed
    ..We show for the first time that contact network structure determines the spread of a contagious pathogen (Crithidia bombi) in social insect colonies...
  61. Isenberg D, Maddison P. Detection of antibodies to double stranded DNA and extractable nuclear antigen. J Clin Pathol. 1987;40:1374-81 pubmed
  62. Baqui M, de Moraes N, Milder R, Pudles J. A giant phosphoprotein localized at the spongiome region of Crithidia luciliae thermophila. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2000;47:532-7 pubmed
    ..protein with an apparent molecular mass of 2,300-kDa was identified in the Triton X-100 soluble fraction of Crithidia luciliae thermophila...
  63. Popp M, Erler S, Lattorff H. Seasonal variability of prevalence and occurrence of multiple infections shape the population structure of Crithidia bombi, an intestinal parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). Microbiologyopen. 2012;1:362-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Seasonal fluctuations in prevalence and the occurrence of multiple infections of the gut parasite Crithidia bombi were analyzed in repeatedly sampled populations of two common bumblebee (Bombus spp.) species...
  64. Nogueira de Melo A, Giovanni De Simone S, Branquinha M, Vermelho A. Crithidia guilhermei: purification and partial characterization of a 62-kDa extracellular metalloproteinase. Exp Parasitol. 2001;97:1-8 pubmed
    An extracellular metalloproteinase from Crithidia guilhermei, a monoxenic trypanosomatid of insects, was purified 11-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on a Shinpack Diol-150 column, and anion-exchange chromatography ..
  65. Fouks B, Lattorff H. Social scent marks do not improve avoidance of parasites in foraging bumblebees. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions, we tested the use of scent marks derived from other foragers in choosing between a contaminated (by Crithidia bombi) and an uncontaminated flower...
  66. Koch H, Cisarovsky G, Schmid Hempel P. Ecological effects on gut bacterial communities in wild bumblebee colonies. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:1202-1210 pubmed publisher
    ..of diversity and composition of the microbiota for (i) natural infections with the microbial parasites Crithidia bombi and Nosema bombi, (ii) bumblebee worker size, (iii) colony identity, and (iv) colony age. 4...
  67. Mallon E, Loosli R, Schmid Hempel P. Specific versus nonspecific immune defense in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. Evolution. 2003;57:1444-7 pubmed
    ..Using the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its gut trypanosomal parasite Crithidia bombi we found that the host's specific response profile toward different strains correlates negatively with its ..
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    ..Thus, network autoimmunity to the domain of p53 that recognizes damaged DNA can be a pathogenic feature in SLE in genetically susceptible strains of mice...
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    ..The procedures described provide a useful means for obtaining radiolabeled GDP-D-arabinopyranoside to study synthesis of D-arabinopyranoside-containing glycoconjugates...
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    ..b>Crithidia bombi is a gut trypanosome parasite of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris and here we use it as a model system to ..
  71. Skarlato S, Bobyleva N. [Study of DNA-containing structures in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the Crithidia flagellates using the Miller method]. Tsitologiia. 2002;44:411-21 pubmed
    ..chromosomes made of chromatin, and the tightly packed kinetoplast DNA (kpDNA) of a single mitochondrion of Crithidia (Kinetoplastidea, Trypanosomatida) flagellates were studied on the Miller-type spread preparations by electron ..