trypanosomatina

Summary

Summary: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).

Top Publications

  1. Haile S, Papadopoulou B. Developmental regulation of gene expression in trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Several of these developments have greatly benefited from the recently completed genomic sequences and functional genomic studies...
  2. Motta M, Martins A, de Souza S, Catta Preta C, Silva R, Klein C, et al. Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60209 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution...
  3. Lustig Y, Vagima Y, Goldshmidt H, Erlanger A, Ozeri V, Vince J, et al. Down-regulation of the trypanosomatid signal recognition particle affects the biogenesis of polytopic membrane proteins but not of signal peptide-containing proteins. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1865-75 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that, as in bacteria but in contrast to mammalian cells, the trypanosome SRP is mostly essential for the biogenesis of membrane proteins...
  4. Morio F, Reynes J, Dollet M, Pratlong F, Dedet J, Ravel C. Isolation of a protozoan parasite genetically related to the insect trypanosomatid Herpetomonas samuelpessoai from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3845-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the first isolation of a flagellated protozoan genetically closely related to Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, which is usually a parasite of insects, from the blood of an HIV-infected patient...
  5. Liang X, Ochaion A, Xu Y, Liu Q, Michaeli S. Small nucleolar RNA clusters in trypanosomatid Leptomonas collosoma. Genome organization, expression studies, and the potential role of sequences present upstream from the first repeated cluster. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5100-9 pubmed
  6. Votypka J, Klepetková H, Jirku M, Kment P, Lukes J. Phylogenetic relationships of trypanosomatids parasitising true bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:489-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis presented significantly extends the known diversity of monoxenous insect trypanosomatids and will be instrumental in building a new taxonomy that reflects their true phylogenetic relationships...
  7. Masini d Avila Levy C, de Almeida Dias F, Nogueira de Melo A, Martins J, De Carvalho Santos Lopes A, Souza Dos Santos A, et al. Insights into the role of gp63-like proteins in lower trypanosomatids. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;254:149-56 pubmed
    ..aegypti gut wall. In addition, our results indicate for the first time that the gp63-like molecule binds to a polypeptide of 50 kDa on the A. aegypti gut epithelium extract...
  8. Fampa P, Corrêa da Silva M, Lima D, Oliveira S, Motta M, Saraiva E. Interaction of insect trypanosomatids with mosquitoes, sand fly and the respective insect cell lines. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1019-26 pubmed
    ..Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids were able to colonise Aedes aegypti guts after protozoa feeding...
  9. de Souza T, Graça de Souza V, Lancheros C, Monteiro Góes V, Krieger M, Goldenberg S, et al. Identification, molecular and functional characterization of calmodulin gene of Phytomonas serpens 15T that shares high similarity with its pathogenic counterparts Trypanosoma cruzi. Protein J. 2011;30:212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant protein recognized a polypeptide with an estimated size of 17 kDa in log-phase promastigote extracts. The recombinant CaMP retains its Ca²+-binding capacity...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Alves J, Voegtly L, Matveyev A, Lara A, da Silva F, Serrano M, et al. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23518 pubmed publisher
    ..Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae...
  2. Beverley S. Protozomics: trypanosomatid parasite genetics comes of age. Nat Rev Genet. 2003;4:11-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the efficacy of different genetic tools has steered research into different aspects of the biology of these parasites...
  3. Podlipaev S. The more insect trypanosomatids under study-the more diverse Trypanosomatidae appears. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:648-52 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the more insect trypanosomatids are involved in laboratory investigations--the more new clusters or/and new lineages are appearing on the tree...
  4. Corrêa da Silva M, Fampa P, Lessa L, Silva E, dos Santos Mallet J, Saraiva E, et al. Colonization of Aedes aegypti midgut by the endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatid Blastocrithidia culicis. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:384-91 pubmed
    ..By demonstrating B. culicis colonization in a bloodsucking insect, we suggest that vector transmission of monoxenous trypanosomatids to vertebrate host may occur in nature...
  5. de Almeida Dias F, Souza Dos Santos A, Santos Lery L, Alves E Silva T, Oliveira M, Bisch P, et al. Evidence that a laminin-like insect protein mediates early events in the interaction of a Phytoparasite with its vector's salivary gland. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48170 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented in this investigation are important findings that will support further studies that aim at developing new approaches to prevent the transmission of Phytomonas species from insects to plants and vice-versa...
  6. Sturm N, Dollet M, Lukes J, Campbell D. Rational sub-division of plant trypanosomes (Phytomonas spp.) based on minicircle conserved region analysis. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:570-6 pubmed
    ..The remainder of the isolates fell into a heterogeneous cluster. At least eight different groups in the plant trypanosomatids were identified...
  7. De Souza W, Motta M. Endosymbiosis in protozoa of the Trypanosomatidae family. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;173:1-8 pubmed
    ..The results obtained show that endosymbiont-containing species of trypanosomatids constitute an excellent model to study basic processes on the endosymbiont-host cell relationship and the origin of new organelles...
  8. Palmié Peixoto I, Rocha M, Urbina J, de Souza W, Einicker Lamas M, Motta M. Effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;255:33-42 pubmed
  9. Santos A, D Ávila Levy C, Dias F, Ribeiro R, Pereira F, Elias C, et al. Phytomonas serpens: cysteine peptidase inhibitors interfere with growth, ultrastructure and host adhesion. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:47-56 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that cysteine peptidases participate in several biological processes in P. serpens including cell growth and interaction with the invertebrate vector...
  10. Votypka J, Maslov D, Yurchenko V, Jirku M, Kment P, Lun Z, et al. Probing into the diversity of trypanosomatid flagellates parasitizing insect hosts in South-West China reveals both endemism and global dispersal. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;54:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence, among the isolated strains, of a new Phytomonas species, which is the first documentation of this potentially pathogenic dixenous parasite of plants in China...
  11. Westenberger S, Sturm N, Yanega D, Podlipaev S, Zeledon R, Campbell D, et al. Trypanosomatid biodiversity in Costa Rica: genotyping of parasites from Heteroptera using the spliced leader RNA gene. Parasitology. 2004;129:537-47 pubmed
    ..This study reveals only a minor fraction of the trypanosomatid biodiversity, which is anticipated to be high...
  12. Breganó J, Picão R, Graça V, Menolli R, Itow Jankevicius S, Pinge Filho P, et al. Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi that are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;39:257-64 pubmed
    ..cruzi antigens and interfere with the development of T. cruzi infection...
  13. Motta M, Picchi G, Palmié Peixoto I, Rocha M, de Carvalho T, Morgado Diaz J, et al. The microtubule analog protein, FtsZ, in the endosymbiont of trypanosomatid protozoa. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2004;51:394-401 pubmed
    ..The sequences obtained from the endosymbionts from C. deanei and B. culicis were very similar, and were most closely related to bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas...
  14. Ariyanayagam M, Fairlamb A. Ovothiol and trypanothione as antioxidants in trypanosomatids. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;115:189-98 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, since ovothiol is absent in host macrophage, kidney and CHO cells, this metabolite may have other important functional roles in trypanosomatids that could be exploited as a chemotherapeutic target...
  15. McConville M, Mullin K, Ilgoutz S, Teasdale R. Secretory pathway of trypanosomatid parasites. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:122-54; table of contents pubmed
    ..They also reveal unusual or novel aspects of secretory transport and protein glycosylation that may be exploited in developing new antiparasite drugs...
  16. Opperdoes F, Michels P. Complex I of Trypanosomatidae: does it exist?. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:310-7 pubmed publisher
  17. Teixeira M, Borghesan T, Ferreira R, Santos M, Takata C, Campaner M, et al. Phylogenetic validation of the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas of trypanosomatids harboring bacterial endosymbionts with the description of new species of trypanosomatids and of proteobacterial symbionts. Protist. 2011;162:503-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The congruence of the phylogenetic trees of trypanosomatids and their symbionts support a co-divergent host-symbiont evolutionary history...
  18. Myler P. Searching the Tritryp genomes for drug targets. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;625:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This vast amount of information now makes possible several new approaches for target identification and ushers in a post-genomic era for trypanosomatid drug discovery...
  19. Cavalcanti D, Thiry M, de Souza W, Motta M. The kinetoplast ultrastructural organization of endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids as revealed by deep-etching, cytochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:1177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetoplast structural organization of Bodo sp. was also analyzed, since this protozoan lacks the highly ordered kDNA-packaging characteristic of trypanosomatid and represents an evolutionary ancestral of the Trypanosomatidae family...
  20. Yurchenko V, Lukes J, Jirku M, Zeledon R, Maslov D. Leptomonas costaricensis sp. n. (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae), a member of the novel phylogenetic group of insect trypanosomatids closely related to the genus Leishmania. Parasitology. 2006;133:537-46 pubmed
    ..This tree topology supports the hypothesis that the initial transition to dixenous parasitism in this group pre-dated the continental split and that afterwards the Neotropical and the Old World groups evolved largely independently...
  21. Ebbert M, Burkholder J, Marlowe J. Trypanosomatid prevalence and host habitat choice in woodland Drosophila. J Invertebr Pathol. 2001;77:27-32 pubmed
    ..Prevalence was highest in the most abundant species, members of the subgenus Sophophora, species using decaying fruit as breeding sites, and those able to use more than one type of substrate for oviposition...
  22. Yurchenko V, Lukes J, Jirku M, Maslov D. Selective recovery of the cultivation-prone components from mixed trypanosomatid infections: a case of several novel species isolated from Neotropical Heteroptera. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:893-909 pubmed publisher
    ..The properties of the new organisms, including their morphology and ultrastructure, as well as their phylogenetic affinities within the family, were investigated and used to describe five novel species...
  23. Vickers T, Fairlamb A. Trypanothione S-transferase activity in a trypanosomatid ribosomal elongation factor 1B. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27246-56 pubmed
    ..Two eEF1Bgamma genes were cloned from C. fasciculata, but recombinant C. fasciculata eEF1Bgamma had no S-transferase activity, suggesting that eEF1Bgamma is unstable in the absence of the other subunits...
  24. Elias C, Pereira F, Dias F, Silva T, Lopes A, D Ávila Levy C, et al. Cysteine peptidases in the tomato trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens: influence of growth conditions, similarities with cruzipain and secretion to the extracellular environment. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The 40kDa peptidase was also detected in the cell-free culture supernatant, in an active form, which suggests secretion of this peptidase to the extracellular environment...
  25. Dominguez M, Moreno I, Lopez Trascasa M, Toraño A. Complement interaction with trypanosomatid promastigotes in normal human serum. J Exp Med. 2002;195:451-9 pubmed
    ..5 min of serum contact. These data indicate that successful Leishmania infection in man must immediately follow promastigote transmission, and that Leishmania evasion strategies are shaped by the selective pressure exerted by complement...
  26. Pinge Filho P, Peron J, de Moura T, Menolli R, Graça V, Estevao D, et al. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi provided by oral immunization with Phytomonas serpens: role of nitric oxide. Immunol Lett. 2005;96:283-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection...
  27. Votypka J, Klepetková H, Yurchenko V, Horak A, Lukes J, Maslov D. Cosmopolitan distribution of a trypanosomatid Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. Protist. 2012;163:616-31 pubmed publisher
    ..sp. with an overlapping host range has been described. Moreover, 10 typing units of trypanosomatids found in the pyrrhocorid hosts demonstrate the extent of variability of trypanosomatids occurring in one host family...
  28. Maslov D, Votypka J, Yurchenko V, Lukes J. Diversity and phylogeny of insect trypanosomatids: all that is hidden shall be revealed. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Although more than 100 typing units have been discovered recently, these appear to represent a small segment of trypanosomatid biodiversity, which still remains to be uncovered...
  29. Maslov D, Westenberger S, Xu X, Campbell D, Sturm N. Discovery and barcoding by analysis of spliced leader RNA gene sequences of new isolates of Trypanosomatidae from Heteroptera in Costa Rica and Ecuador. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:57-65 pubmed
    ..Investigations of trypanosomatid diversity, host-specificity, and biogeography have become feasible using the approach described herein...
  30. Podlipaev S. Insect trypanosomatids: the need to know more. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2000;95:517-22 pubmed
    ..The remaining genera that comprise parasites associated with insects have been largely neglected except for two or three containing popular isolates. This publication reviews current knowledge of trypanosomatids from insects...
  31. Simpson A, Stevens J, Lukes J. The evolution and diversity of kinetoplastid flagellates. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:168-74 pubmed
    ..The framework of relationships is becoming robust enough for real comparative approaches to be used to understand kinetoplastid biology...
  32. Alves J, Serrano M, Maia da Silva F, Voegtly L, Matveyev A, Teixeira M, et al. Genome evolution and phylogenomic analysis of Candidatus Kinetoplastibacterium, the betaproteobacterial endosymbionts of Strigomonas and Angomonas. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:338-50 pubmed publisher
  33. Nascimento M, Garcia M, da Silva K, Pinto da Silva L, Atella G, Motta M, et al. Interaction of the monoxenic trypanosomatid Blastocrithidia culicis with the Aedes aegypti salivary gland. Acta Trop. 2010;113:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that salivary gland invasion could be part of the B. culicis life cycle in A. aegypti, raising the possibility that B. culicis can be transmitted by these mosquitoes...
  34. Nogueira de Melo A, D Ávila Levy C, Dias F, Armada J, Silva H, Lopes A, et al. Peptidases and gp63-like proteins in Herpetomonas megaseliae: possible involvement in the adhesion to the invertebrate host. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:415-22 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results corroborate the ubiquitous existence of gp63 homologues in insect trypanosomatids and the potential adhesion of these molecules to invertebrate host tissues...
  35. Liu L, Ben Shlomo H, Xu Y, Stern M, Goncharov I, Zhang Y, et al. The trypanosomatid signal recognition particle consists of two RNA molecules, a 7SL RNA homologue and a novel tRNA-like molecule. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18271-80 pubmed
    ..The discovery of sRNA-85 raises the intriguing possibility that sRNA-85 functional homologues may exist in other lower eukaryotes and eubacteria that lack the Alu domain...
  36. Jackson A. The evolution of amastin surface glycoproteins in trypanosomatid parasites. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:33-45 pubmed publisher
  37. D Ávila Levy C, Silva B, Hayashi E, Vermelho A, Alviano C, Saraiva E, et al. Influence of the endosymbiont of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia deanei on the glycoconjugate expression and on Aedes aegypti interaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;252:279-86 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest a possible involvement of sialomolecules and mannose-rich glycoconjugates in the interaction between insect trypanosomatids and the invertebrate host...
  38. Jaffe C, Dwyer D. Extracellular release of the surface metalloprotease, gp63, from Leishmania and insect trypanosomatids. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:229-37 pubmed
  39. Huang J, Backofen R, Voß B. Abstract folding space analysis based on helices. RNA. 2012;18:2135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAHeliCes, together with HiPath and HiTed, are available for download at http://www.cyanolab.de/software/RNAHeliCes.htm. ..
  40. Rigden D, Herman M, Gillies S, Michels P. Implications of a genomic search for autophagy-related genes in trypanosomatids. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:972-4 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with taxon-specific addition of components to a core autophagy machinery during evolution. ..
  41. Field H, Field M. Leptomonas seymouri, Trypanosoma brucei: a method for isolating trypanosomatid nuclear factors which bind T. brucei single-stranded g-rich telomere sequence. Exp Parasitol. 1996;83:155-8 pubmed
    ..brucei telomere-binding factor TBT-1. The affinity of LST-2 and TBT-1 for DNA under high salt conditions is characteristic of telomere proteins. ..
  42. Alves Ferreira M, Dutra P, Lopes A, Ferreira Pereira A, Scofano H, Meyer Fernandes J. Magnesium-dependent ecto-ATP diphosphohydrolase activity in Herpetomonas muscarum muscarum. Curr Microbiol. 2003;47:265-71 pubmed
    ..This enzyme is able to hydrolysis ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP, but not GTP, GDP, CTP, or CDP. ADP inhibited the enzymatic activity in a concentration dependent manner, reaching 70% inhibition. ..
  43. Ginger M, McFadden G, Michels P. Rewiring and regulation of cross-compartmentalized metabolism in protists. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2010;365:831-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, the example of trypanosomatid glycolysis illustrates nicely how mathematical modelling and systems biology can be used to uncover or understand novel modes of pathway regulation. ..
  44. Sousa Silva M, Ferreira A, Gomes R, Tomás A, Ponces Freire A, Cordeiro C. The glyoxalase pathway in protozoan parasites. Int J Med Microbiol. 2012;302:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also search for genes encoding glyoxalase I and II in Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia. ..
  45. Bringaud F, Barrett M, Zilberstein D. Multiple roles of proline transport and metabolism in trypanosomatids. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2012;17:349-74 pubmed
    ..cruzi. This review focuses on recent progress in understanding the different aspects of proline metabolism in trypanosomatids, with a particular interest on the insect forms. ..
  46. Catta Preta C, Nascimento M, Garcia M, Saraiva E, Motta M, Meyer Fernandes J. The presence of a symbiotic bacterium in Strigomonas culicis is related to differential ecto-phosphatase activity and influences the mosquito-protozoa interaction. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the symbiont influences the host protozoan ecto-phosphatase activity and indicate a possible role of this enzyme during mosquito tissue colonization by S. culicis. ..
  47. Votypka J, Suková E, Kraeva N, Ishemgulova A, Duží I, Lukes J, et al. Diversity of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) parasitizing fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and description of a new genus Blechomonas gen. n. Protist. 2013;164:763-81 pubmed publisher
  48. Tielens A, van Hellemond J. Surprising variety in energy metabolism within Trypanosomatidae. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:482-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide an overview of the metabolic capacities in the energy metabolism of distinct trypanosomatids, and suggest that these can be divided into four different metabolic categories of increasing complexity. ..
  49. Barratt J, Harkness J, Marriott D, Ellis J, Stark D. Importance of nonenteric protozoan infections in immunocompromised people. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:795-836 pubmed publisher
    ..The nonenteric microsporidia, some trypanosomatids, Toxoplasma spp., Neospora spp., some free-living amoebae, Plasmodium spp., and Babesia spp. are discussed...
  50. Noyes H. Implications of a Neotropical origin of the genus Leishmania. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1998;93:657-61 pubmed
  51. Gull K. The cytoskeleton of trypanosomatid parasites. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1999;53:629-55 pubmed
  52. D Avila Levy C, Araujo F, Vermelho A, Soares R, Santos A, Branquinha M. Proteolytic expression in Blastocrithidia culicis: influence of the endosymbiont and similarities with virulence factors of pathogenic trypanosomatids. Parasitology. 2005;130:413-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, the anti-gp63 reacted with the 50 kDa protein. The identification of protein homologues in trypanosomatids with distinct life-cycles may help to determine the importance of proteinases in trypanosomatids. ..
  53. Golding G, Tsao N, Pearlman R. Evidence for intron capture: an unusual path for the evolution of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7506-9 pubmed
    ..Via this path a truly unique sequence can be incorporated into an existing protein, leading in time to the evolution of a new, functionally distinct protein...
  54. Marín C, Alberge B, Dollet M, Pages M, Bastien P. First complete chromosomal organization of a protozoan plant parasite (Phytomonas spp.). Genomics. 2008;91:88-93 pubmed
    ..The definition of the complete molecular karyotype of Phytomonas represents an essential primary step toward sequencing the genome of this parasite of economical importance...
  55. Chaves C, Soares D, da Silva R, Saraiva E. Characterization of the species- and stage-specificity of two monoclonal antibodies against Leishmania amazonensis. Exp Parasitol. 2003;103:152-9 pubmed
    ..We found that both MAbs were highly selective for L. amazonensis: 3A1-La recognized only promastigotes and LuCa-D5 labeled amastigote and promastigote stages of this species. These MAbs might be useful for Leishmania typing...
  56. Baqui M, Milder R, Mortara R, Pudles J. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation and subcellular localization of trypanosomatid cytoskeletal giant proteins. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2000;47:25-37 pubmed
    ..In addition, there is also evidence that Ps 3500 and Ls 2500, in contrast to Lt 1200, seem to be autophosphorylating serine and threonine protein kinases, suggesting that they might play regulatory roles in the cytoskeletal organization...
  57. Urakawa T, Verloo D, Moens L, Buscher P, Majiwa P. Trypanosoma evansi: cloning and expression in Spodoptera frugiperda [correction of fugiperda] insect cells of the diagnostic antigen RoTat1.2. Exp Parasitol. 2001;99:181-9 pubmed
    ..With the recombinant RoTat1.2 at hand, it is now possible to investigate the extent to which epitopes on this VSG are conserved among different T. evansi isolates...
  58. Genois M, Paquet E, Laffitte M, Maity R, Rodrigue A, Ouellette M, et al. DNA repair pathways in trypanosomatids: from DNA repair to drug resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2014;78:40-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus present a comprehensive view of DNA repair processes in trypanosomatids at the crossroads of DNA repair and drug resistance...
  59. Gurski K, Ebbert M. Host age, but not host location within a stream, is correlated with the prevalence of gut parasites in water striders. J Parasitol. 2003;89:529-34 pubmed
  60. Poinar G, Poinar R. Evidence of vector-borne disease of Early Cretaceous reptiles. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:281-4 pubmed
    ..The significance of this find is discussed, especially regarding the high possibility that Cretaceous dinosaurs were infected by trypanosomatids...
  61. Turrens J, McCord J. The iron-containing superoxide dismutases of trypanosomatidae. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40:193-5 pubmed
  62. Barreto de Souza V, Xavier Medeiros T, Machado Motta M, Bou Habib D, Saraiva E. HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 Tat protein permit the survival and replication of a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid in macrophages through TGF-beta1 production. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:642-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Machado C, Ayala F. Nucleotide sequences provide evidence of genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7396-401 pubmed
    ..We estimate that the major extant lineages of T. cruzi have diverged during the Miocene or early Pliocene (3-16 million years ago)...
  64. Moreira D, López García P, Vickerman K. An updated view of kinetoplastid phylogeny using environmental sequences and a closer outgroup: proposal for a new classification of the class Kinetoplastea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:1861-75 pubmed
    ..The classification of the species formerly included in the genus Bodo is also revised, with the amendment of this genus and the genus Parabodo and the creation of a new genus, Neobodo...
  65. Viola L, Almeida R, Ferreira R, Campaner M, Takata C, Rodrigues A, et al. Evolutionary history of trypanosomes from South American caiman (Caiman yacare) and African crocodiles inferred by phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes. Parasitology. 2009;136:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts...
  66. Herman M, Gillies S, Michels P, Rigden D. Autophagy and related processes in trypanosomatids: insights from genomic and bioinformatic analyses. Autophagy. 2006;2:107-18 pubmed
    ..A bioinformatics analysis of the trypanosomatidal proteins was carried out, highlighting the paucity of information available regarding their structures and enabling prioritization of targets for future structural biology work...
  67. Gannavaram S, Vedvyas C, Debrabant A. Conservation of the pro-apoptotic nuclease activity of endonuclease G in unicellular trypanosomatid parasites. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:99-109 pubmed publisher
  68. de Souza W. Special organelles of some pathogenic protozoa. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:1013-25 pubmed
    ..the acidocalcisomes, recently described in several protozoa, and (4). structures and organelles participating in the endocytic pathway in trypanosomatids...
  69. Szoor B. Trypanosomatid protein phosphatases. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;173:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this review is to give an up to date scope of the research, which has been carried out on trypanosomatid protein phosphatases...