Summary: An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.

Top Publications

  1. Fairlamb A, Cerami A. Metabolism and functions of trypanothione in the Kinetoplastida. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1992;46:695-729 pubmed
  2. Gadelha C, Wickstead B, de Souza W, Gull K, Cunha e Silva N. Cryptic paraflagellar rod in endosymbiont-containing kinetoplastid protozoa. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:516-25 pubmed
    ..Moreover, although PFR proteins have been conserved in evolution, primary sequence differences contribute to particular PFR morphotypes characteristic of different kinetoplastid species...
  3. Isaksen T, Karlsbakk E, Repstad O, Nylund A. Molecular tools for the detection and identification of Ichthyobodo spp. (Kinetoplastida), important fish parasites. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our preliminary observations indicate a high Ichthyobodo spp. diversity...
  4. Steinhage D, Hedderich W, Skouras A, Scharsack J, Schuberth J, Leibold W, et al. In vitro cultivation of Trypanoplasma borreli (protozoa: kinetoplastida), a parasite from the blood of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Dis Aquat Organ. 2000;41:195-201 pubmed
    ..The established culture system allows the propagation of high numbers of fish-infective trypanoplasms, which are required to study parasite-host relationships in carp...
  5. Maslov D, Podlipaev S, Lukes J. Phylogeny of the kinetoplastida: taxonomic problems and insights into the evolution of parasitism. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2001;96:397-402 pubmed
    ..This analysis has shown that the morphological classification of kinetoplastids does not in general reflect their genetic affinities and needs a revision...
  6. Denninger V, Koopmann R, Muhammad K, Barth T, Bassarak B, Schönfeld C, et al. Kinetoplastida: model organisms for simple autophagic pathways?. Methods Enzymol. 2008;451:373-408 pubmed publisher
    Phylogenetic analyses based on defined proteins or different RNA species have revealed that the order kinetoplastida belongs to the early-branching eukaryotes and may thus contain organisms in which complex cellular events are easier to ..
  7. Gadelha C, Wickstead B, McKean P, Gull K. Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of trypanosomes. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2405-13 pubmed
    ..This demonstrated that orientation is independent of flagellum attachment and beating, but is influenced by constraints along its length and is entirely dependent on correct positioning at the basal plate...
  8. D Ávila Levy C, Volotão A, Araújo F, De Jesus J, Motta M, Vermelho A, et al. Bodo sp., a free-living flagellate, expresses divergent proteolytic activities from the closely related parasitic trypanosomatids. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2009;56:454-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a free-living flagellate of the Bodonidae family, order Kinetoplastida, which is considered ancestral to the trypanosomatids...
  9. Woo P. Cryptobia (Trypanoplasma) salmositica and salmonid cryptobiosis. J Fish Dis. 2003;26:627-46 pubmed
    ..This immuno-chemotherapeutic strategy has the advantage in that it will lower the drug dosage and hence side-effects of chemotherapy. It will probably reduce the accumulation of the drug in fish, an important consideration in food fish...

More Information


  1. Todal J, Karlsbakk E, Isaksen T, Plarre H, Urawa S, Mouton A, et al. Ichthyobodo necator (Kinetoplastida)--a complex of sibling species. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:9-16 pubmed
    ..The phylogenetic relationships of the Ichthyobodo isolates is described, and the implications of the molecular findings on past and future morphological studies of Ichthyobodo spp. are discussed...
  2. Isaksen T, Karlsbakk E, Nylund A. Ichthyobodo hippoglossi n. sp. (Kinetoplastea: Prokinetoplastida: Ichthyobodonidae fam. nov.), an ectoparasitic flagellate infecting farmed Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:207-17 pubmed
    ..sp. Its closest relative is Ichthyobodo sp. IV from another marine fish, the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. A family, Ichthyobodonidae fam. nov. in the order Prokinetoplastida Vickerman, 2004, is erected to encompass Ichthyobodo spp...
  3. Jackson A, Quail M, Berriman M. Insights into the genome sequence of a free-living Kinetoplastid: Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida: Euglenozoa). BMC Genomics. 2008;9:594 pubmed publisher
    ..Various coding regions were sequenced to provide a preliminary insight into the bodonid genome sequence, relative to trypanosomatid sequences...
  4. Kunz S, Beavo J, D Angelo M, Flawia M, Francis S, Johner A, et al. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of the kinetoplastida: a unified nomenclature. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;145:133-5 pubmed
  5. Isaksen T, Karlsbakk E, Sundnes G, Nylund A. Patterns of Ichthyobodo necator sensu stricto infections on hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;88:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..caught in the lakes serving as a water supply to the hatchery were found infected with I. necator s.s., hence these are the likely sources of parasites entering the hatchery via the inlet water...
  6. Tan C, Jesudhasan P, Woo P. Towards a metalloprotease-DNA vaccine against piscine cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:265-75 pubmed
    ..All fish vaccinated with attenuated strain were protected when challenged with the pathogen; this positive control group confirmed that the two vaccines operate through different mechanisms...
  7. Woo P. Protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases. Parassitologia. 2007;49:185-91 pubmed
    ..The live Cryptobia vaccine protects salmonids from infections while the DNA-vaccine stimulates production of antibodies to neutralize the disease causing factor (metalloprotease) in cryptobiosis; hence infected fish recover more rapidly...
  8. Clayton C. Genetic manipulation of kinetoplastida. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:372-8 pubmed
    ..Here, Christine Clayton highlights the differences and similarities between the most commonly used model organisms, and assesses the relative advantages of different approaches and parasites for different types of investigation...
  9. Ardelli B, Woo P. The in vitro effects of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) on the piscine hemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica (Kinetoplastida, Bodonina). J Parasitol. 2001;87:194-202 pubmed
    ..e., lactate and pyruvate, after exposure to isometamidium. This suggests that some C. salmositica switched from aerobic respiration to glycolysis when the mitochondrion was damaged by isometamidium...
  10. Chin A, Glebe B, Woo P. Humoral response and susceptibility of five full-sib families of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., to the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:471-81 pubmed
    ..Antigenic stimulation leading to a stronger antibody response was shown with the vaccine strain and in the later stages of infection...
  11. Morgan G, Hall B, Denny P, Field M, Carrington M. The endocytic apparatus of the kinetoplastida. Part II: machinery and components of the system. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:540-6 pubmed
    ..In the second of two articles on kinetoplastida endocytosis, the endocytic system in Trypanosoma brucei is considered as a model, and the molecules that ..
  12. Simpson A, Lukes J, Roger A. The evolutionary history of kinetoplastids and their kinetoplasts. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:2071-83 pubmed
    ..Further understanding of the evolution of kinetoplast structure and RNA editing is hampered by a paucity of data from basal (i.e., clade 1) bodonids...
  13. Mehta M, Woo P. Acquired cell-mediated protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:956-62 pubmed
    ..Complement-fixing antibodies (immune lysis test) were detected in infected fish at 5 weeks post-infection but were not detected in vaccinated fish unless they were challenged with the pathogen, in which case the titre rose rapidly...
  14. Simpson A, Gill E, Callahan H, Litaker R, Roger A. Early evolution within kinetoplastids (euglenozoa), and the late emergence of trypanosomatids. Protist. 2004;155:407-22 pubmed
    ..These protein trees with improved taxon sampling provide the best evidence to date for a 'late' emergence of trypanosomatids, contradicting recent SSUrRNA-based proposals for a relatively early divergence of this group...
  15. Santana D, Lukes J, Sturm N, Campbell D. Two sequence classes of kinetoplastid 5S ribosomal RNA gene revealed among bodonid spliced leader RNA gene arrays. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;204:233-7 pubmed
    ..helicis. Two sequence classes of 5S rRNA were evident from analysis of the bodonid genes. The two classes of 5S rRNA genes were found in other Kinetoplastids independent of co-localization with the spliced leader RNA gene...
  16. Koslowsky D, Reifur L, Yu L, Chen W. Evidence for U-tail stabilization of gRNA/mRNA interactions in kinetoplastid RNA editing. RNA Biol. 2004;1:28-34 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results suggest that the efficiency of gRNA/mRNA interaction is highly dependent on thermodynamic parameters determined by the local sequences and their adopted structures surrounding the anchor-binding site...
  17. Gadelha C, LeBowitz J, Manning J, Seebeck T, Gull K. Relationships between the major kinetoplastid paraflagellar rod proteins: a consolidating nomenclature. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;136:113-5 pubmed
  18. Hughes A, Piontkivska H. Phylogeny of Trypanosomatidae and Bodonidae (Kinetoplastida) based on 18S rRNA: evidence for paraphyly of Trypanosoma and six other genera. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:644-52 pubmed
    Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences from the families Trypanosomatidae and Bodonidae (Eugelenozoa: Kinetoplastida) was conducted using a variety of methods...
  19. Stoeck T, Schwarz M, Boenigk J, Schweikert M, von der Heyden S, Behnke A. Cellular identity of an 18S rRNA gene sequence clade within the class Kinetoplastea: the novel genus Actuariola gen. nov. (Neobodonida) with description of the type species Actuariola framvarensis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:2623-35 pubmed
    ..nov., is proposed. Here, we characterize its type species, Actuariola framvarensis sp. nov., and provide an in situ tool to access the organism in nature and study its ecology...
  20. Vaidyanathan R. Leishmania parasites (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) reversibly inhibit visceral muscle contractions in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. J Invertebr Pathol. 2004;87:123-8 pubmed
    ..Inhibiting host gut contractions protects Leishmania parasites from being excreted after blood meal and peritrophic matrix digestion, allowing development and transmission of infective forms...
  21. Werbovetz K, Sackett D, Delfín D, Bhattacharya G, Salem M, Obrzut T, et al. Selective antimicrotubule activity of N1-phenyl-3,5-dinitro-N4,N4-di-n-propylsulfanilamide (GB-II-5) against kinetoplastid parasites. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:1325-33 pubmed
    ..Given the potency and selectivity of this agent against kinetoplastid tubulin, GB-II-5 emerges as an exciting new antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial lead compound...
  22. de Souza W, Attias M, Rodrigues J. Particularities of mitochondrial structure in parasitic protists (Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Flagellates of the order Kinetoplastida include the genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma causative agents of human leishmaniasis and (depending on the ..
  23. Callahan H, Litaker R, Noga E. Molecular taxonomy of the suborder Bodonina (Order Kinetoplastida), including the important fish parasite, Ichthyobodo necator. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2002;49:119-28 pubmed
    ..The phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the order Kinetoplastida as a monophyletic assemblage consisting of at least two major lineages. One lineage consisted exclusively of L...
  24. Poynton S, Whitaker B, Heinrich A. A novel trypanoplasm-like flagellate Jarrellia atramenti n. g., n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae) and ciliates from the blowhole of a stranded pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (Physeteridae): morphology, life cycle and potential pathogenicity. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;44:191-201 pubmed
    ..A novel trypanoplasm-like bodonid kinetoplastid biflagellate (Order Kinetoplastida) was commonly encountered in the blowhole mucus, but never in the blood...
  25. Hannaert V, Opperdoes F, Michels P. Comparison and evolutionary analysis of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from different Kinetoplastida. J Mol Evol. 1998;47:728-38 pubmed
    In this work, we present the sequences and a comparison of the glycosomal GAPDHs from a number of Kinetoplastida. The complete gene sequences have been determined for some species (Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, ..
  26. Bahmanrokh M, Woo PTK -. Relations between histopathology and parasitaemias in Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with Cryptobia salmositica, a pathogenic haemoflagellate. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;46:41-5 pubmed
    ..These occurred during the recovery phase of the disease and were associated with significant reduction in blood parasitaemia...
  27. von der Heyden S, Cavalier Smith T. Culturing and environmental DNA sequencing uncover hidden kinetoplastid biodiversity and a major marine clade within ancestrally freshwater Neobodo designis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:2605-21 pubmed
    ..The non-overlap between environmental DNA sequences and those from cultures suggests that there are hundreds, possibly thousands, of different rRNA gene sequences of free-living bodonids globally...
  28. Simpson A, Stevens J, Lukes J. The evolution and diversity of kinetoplastid flagellates. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:168-74 pubmed
    ..The framework of relationships is becoming robust enough for real comparative approaches to be used to understand kinetoplastid biology...
  29. Scharsack J, Steinhagen D, Kleczka C, Schmidt J, Körting W, Michael R, et al. Head kidney neutrophils of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) are functionally modulated by the haemoflagellateTrypanoplasma borreli. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;14:389-403 pubmed
  30. Madina B, Kumar V, Metz R, Mooers B, Bundschuh R, Cruz Reyes J. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition. RNA. 2014;20:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. ..
  31. Srinivasan R, Kumar N, Jambulingam P. Detection of natural infection of Leishmania donovani (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a forest ecosystem in the Western Ghats, India, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 2016;156:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..argentipes in the transmission of CL in this region. This is the first finding of natural infection of P. argentipes with L. donovani (causing CL) from India. ..
  32. Davy C, Crispo E, Woo P. Use of a live vaccine to modulate Cryptobia salmositica infections in Salmo salar. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:45-8 pubmed
    ..salmositica had lower peak parasitaemias and higher antibody titres than infected fish given the vaccine 7 d post-infection or those infected fish that were not given the vaccine. ..
  33. Stolte E, Chadzinska M, Przybylska D, Flik G, Savelkoul H, Verburg van Kemenade B. The immune response differentially regulates Hsp70 and glucocorticoid receptor expression in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;27:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentially regulated expression of Hsp70 and of glucocorticoid receptor variants with different cortisol sensitivities, underlines their physiological importance in a balanced immune response. ..
  34. Specht S, Liedgens L, Duarte M, Stiegler A, Wirth U, Eberhardt M, et al. A single-cysteine mutant and chimeras of essential Leishmania Erv can complement the loss of Erv1 but not of Mia40 in yeast. Redox Biol. 2018;15:363-374 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the presence and position of the C-terminal arm and the kinetoplastida-specific second (KISS) domain of LtErv did not interfere with its functionality in the yeast system, whereas a ..
  35. Badjatia N, Nguyen T, Lee J, G nzl A. Trypanosoma brucei harbours a divergent XPB helicase paralogue that is specialized in nucleotide excision repair and conserved among kinetoplastid organisms. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:1293-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, several other protists possess highly divergent XPB paralogues suggesting that XPBs specialized in transcription or NER exist beyond the Kinetoplastida.
  36. Foth B, Goedecke M, Soldati D. New insights into myosin evolution and classification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3681-6 pubmed
    ..Regarding the apicomplexan "myosome," we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. ..
  37. Saeij J, Verburg van Kemenade L, van Muiswinkel W, Wiegertjes G. Daily handling stress reduces resistance of carp to Trypanoplasma borreli: in vitro modulatory effects of cortisol on leukocyte function and apoptosis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2003;27:233-45 pubmed
    ..However, no differences in NO production were observed in stressed versus non-stressed infected carp. ..
  38. Jönsson K. On the disparate terminological use of the concept cryptobiosis. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:175-6 pubmed
  39. Reynolds D, Hofmeister B, Cliffe L, Alabady M, Siegel T, Schmitz R, et al. Histone H3 Variant Regulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination and Dual Strand Transcription of siRNA Loci in Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005758 pubmed publisher a chromatin modification of thymine in the nuclear DNA of flagellated protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida. In Trypanosoma brucei, J is enriched, along with histone H3 variant (H3...
  40. Luis L, Serrano M, Hidalgo M, Mendoza León A. Comparative analyses of the ?-tubulin gene and molecular modeling reveal molecular insight into the colchicine resistance in kinetoplastids organisms. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:843748 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that kinetoplastid organisms show resistance to colchicine due to amino acids substitutions that generate structural changes in the putative colchicine-binding domain, which prevent colchicine access. ..
  41. Troedsson C, Lee R, Walters T, Stokes V, Brinkley K, Naegele V, et al. Detection and discovery of crustacean parasites in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by using 18S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of this parasite group in a decapod crab and of this organism exhibiting a presumably parasitic life history. ..
  42. Kumagai A, Ito H, Sasaki R. Detection of the kinetoplastid Azumiobodo hoyamushi, the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome, in wild ascidians Halocynthia roretzi. Dis Aquat Organ. 2013;106:267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The flagellates were detected in these individuals, which were diagnosed with soft tunic syndrome. Our results suggest that soft tunic syndrome affects the wild population of ascidians in Japan. ..
  43. Woo P. Cryptobiosis and its control in North American fishes. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:566-74 pubmed
    ..Also, transgenic pathogen-tolerant animals may be an alternate strategy against other pathogens where the disease mechanism is similar to cryptobiosis. ..
  44. Koreny L, Sobotka R, Kovárová J, Gnipová A, Flegontov P, Horváth A, et al. Aerobic kinetoplastid flagellate Phytomonas does not require heme for viability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..serpens grown in the absence of heme. In conclusion, P. serpens is a flagellate with unique metabolic adaptations that allow it to bypass all requirements for heme. ..
  45. Gray M. Diversity and evolution of mitochondrial RNA editing systems. IUBMB Life. 2003;55:227-33 pubmed
    ..The derived nature of RNA editing raises intriguing questions about how and why RNA editing systems arise, and how they become fixed as additional, essential steps in genetic information transfer. ..
  46. Field M, Ali B, Field H. GTPases in protozoan parasites: tools for cell biology and chemotherapy. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:365-71 pubmed
  47. Mbang Nguema O, Mawili Mboumba D, Chouaibou M, Mavoungou J, M Batchi B, Bouyou Akotet M. High Frequency of (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Type Among (Diptera: Glossinidae) in a Historic Trypanosoma Foci in North-Eastern Gabon: Preliminary Study. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:945-948 pubmed
    ..The simultaneous occurrence of Trypanosoma and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that the reservoirs of African animal trypanosomiasis should be carefully monitored in this area. ..
  48. Mitchell A, Darwish A, Fuller A. Comparison of tank treatments with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for sunshine bass with ichthyobodosis. J Aquat Anim Health. 2008;20:202-6 pubmed publisher
    ..necator) and maintaining a high fish survival (87.5%) by 5 d posttreatment. The findings in this study clearly demonstrate that CuSO4 is a viable treatment for ichthyobodosis in tanks. ..
  49. Ersfeld K. Genomes and genome projects of protozoan parasites. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2003;5:61-74 pubmed
    ..Here, I will review the current status of protozoan parasite genome projects, present findings obtained as a result of the availability of genomic data and discuss the potential impact of genome information on disease control. ..
  50. Ayo B, Txakartegi A, Baña Z, Artolozaga I, Iriberri J. Chemosensory response of marine flagellate towards L- and D- dissolved free amino acids generated during heavy grazing on bacteria. Int Microbiol. 2010;13:151-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that glycine generated by protists actively grazing in bacterially enriched patches functions as an infochemical, signaling to foraging protists the presence of available prey in the aquatic environment. ..
  51. Scharsack J, Steinhagen D, Kleczka C, Schmidt J, Körting W, Michael R, et al. The haemoflagellate Trypanoplasma borreli induces the production of nitric oxide, which is associated with modulation of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte functions. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;14:207-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, in carp, T. borreli seems to induce high amounts of NO in vivo which are apparently not harmful for the parasite but which may interfere with co-ordinated interactions of activated cells aiming at the defence of the parasite. ..
  52. Peacock C. The practical implications of comparative kinetoplastid genomics. SEB Exp Biol Ser. 2007;58:25-45 pubmed
  53. Speijer D. Is kinetoplastid pan-editing the result of an evolutionary balancing act?. IUBMB Life. 2006;58:91-6 pubmed
    ..This advantage can be found in the gene fragmentation that is inherent in pan-editing which gives protection against loss of temporarily non expressed mitochondrial genes during periods of intense intraspecies competition...
  54. Horváth A, Nebohacova M, Lukes J, Maslov D. Unusual polypeptide synthesis in the kinetoplast-mitochondria from Leishmania tarentolae. Identification of individual de novo translation products. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7222-30 pubmed
    ..This work represents the first unequivocal identification of the polypeptide synthesis in kinetoplasts...
  55. Simpson L, Emeson R. RNA editing. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1996;19:27-52 pubmed
  56. Gualdrón López M, Brennand A, Hannaert V, Quiñones W, Cáceres A, Bringaud F, et al. When, how and why glycolysis became compartmentalised in the Kinetoplastea. A new look at an ancient organelle. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:1-20 pubmed publisher
  57. Kramer S. Developmental regulation of gene expression in the absence of transcriptional control: the case of kinetoplastids. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;181:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This review explores how kinetoplastids change gene expression by looking at life-cycle stage specific changes in chromatin, mRNA processing, mRNA stability, mRNA translation, protein stability and protein modifications...
  58. Reifur L, Yu L, Cruz Reyes J, Vanhartesvelt M, Koslowsky D. The impact of mRNA structure on guide RNA targeting in kinetoplastid RNA editing. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12235 pubmed publisher
    ..This will allow the more efficient identification and characterization of transcript specific RNA editing accessory proteins...
  59. Maslov D, Avila H, Lake J, Simpson L. Evolution of RNA editing in kinetoplastid protozoa. Nature. 1994;368:345-8 pubmed
  60. Uboldi A, Lueder F, Walsh P, Spurck T, McFadden G, Curtis J, et al. A mitochondrial protein affects cell morphology, mitochondrial segregation and virulence in Leishmania. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1499-514 pubmed
    ..Our data show that a number of mitochondrial proteins are unique to kinetoplastids and some, like MIX, play a central role in mitochondrial segregation and cell division, as well as virulence...
  61. Mallon E, Schmid Hempel P. Behavioural interactions, kin and disease susceptibility in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. J Evol Biol. 2004;17:829-33 pubmed
    ..This cannot be explained by either of the a priori alternatives so we propose two further testable hypotheses to explain our results...
  62. Chin A, Guo F, Bernier N, Woo P. Effect of Cryptobia salmositica-induced anorexia on feeding behavior and immune response in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:17-26 pubmed
    ..001) but not at 5 degrees C (p = 0.98). Fish on an anorexic diet (0.93% b.w.) responded well at 10 degrees C to a live C. salmositica vaccine; this could partly be due to constant antigenic stimulation by the live vaccine...
  63. Fleming J, Dawson A, Hunter W. Crystal structure of Leishmania major ADP-ribosylation factor-like 1 and a classification of related GTPase family members in this Kinetoplastid. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;174:141-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a paucity of structural data on this family of proteins in the Kinetoplastida, despite studies implicating them in key events related to vesicular transport and regulation of microtubule-..
  64. Sturm N, Martinez L, Thomas S. Kinetoplastid genomics: the thin end of the wedge. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Discussion, we will provide an overview of kinetoplastid genomics studies with emphasis on studies advanced through genomic data, and a preview of what may come in the near future...
  65. Wu D, George T, Hurh E, Werbovetz K, Dalton J. Pre-systemic metabolism prevents in vivo antikinetoplastid activity of N1,N4-substituted 3,5-dinitro sulfanilamide, GB-II-150. Life Sci. 2006;79:1081-93 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that GB-II-150 undergoes rapid and extensive first-pass metabolism, precluding the attainment of effective systemic drug concentrations and explaining the lack of in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of this compound...
  66. Alsarraf M, Bednarska M, Mohallal E, Mierzejewska E, Behnke Borowczyk J, Zalat S, et al. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in the haemoparasite community of spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) in four montane wadis in the St. Katherine Protectorate, Sinai, Egypt. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:195 pubmed publisher
  67. Cross M, Kieft R, Sabatini R, Wilm M, de Kort M, van der Marel G, et al. The modified base J is the target for a novel DNA-binding protein in kinetoplastid protozoans. EMBO J. 1999;18:6573-81 pubmed publisher
    DNA from Kinetoplastida contains the unusual modified base beta-D-glucosyl(hydroxymethyl)uracil, called J...
  68. Gaziova I, Lukes J. Mitochondrial and nuclear localization of topoisomerase II in the flagellate Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida), a species with non-catenated kinetoplast DNA. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10900-7 pubmed
    We have studied topoisomerase II (topo II) in the cells of Bodo saltans, a free-living bodonid (Kinetoplastida). Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the entire topo II gene, which is a single-copy gene, confirmed that B...
  69. Portman N, Gull K. The paraflagellar rod of kinetoplastid parasites: from structure to components and function. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:135-48 pubmed publisher
  70. Woo P. Immunological and therapeutic strategies against salmonid cryptobiosis. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:341783 pubmed publisher
    ..On challenge, DNA-vaccinated fish have lower parasitaemias, delayed peak parasitaemias and faster recoveries. Isometamidium chloride is therapeutic against the pathogen and its effectiveness is increased after conjugation to antibodies...
  71. Bochdansky A, Huang L. Re-evaluation of the EUK516 probe for the domain eukarya results in a suitable probe for the detection of kinetoplastids, an important group of parasitic and free-living flagellates. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..probes, EUK1209 and EUK516, are not consistent with one branch of the eukaryotic phylogenetic tree, the Kinetoplastida, which has undergone rapid evolution of their small subunit rRNA gene...
  72. Anderson B, Wong I, Baugh L, Ramasamy G, Myler P, Beverley S. Kinetoplastid-specific histone variant functions are conserved in Leishmania major. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;191:53-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic tests show a conservation of histone variant phenotypes between L. major and T. brucei, unlike the diversity of phenotypes associated with genetic manipulation of the DNA base J modification. ..
  73. Ruszczyk A, Forlenza M, Joerink M, Ribeiro C, Jurecka P, Wiegertjes G. Trypanoplasma borreli cysteine proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:1348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..T. borreli is a member of the Parabodonida, sharing a common ancestor with the other Kinetoplastida. We demonstrate the presence of a cysteine proteinase expressed by T. borreli...
  74. Scharsack J, Steinhagen D, Körting W, Wagner B, Leibold W, Schuberth H. Some immune parameters in carp cyprinus Carpio susceptible and resistant to the haemoflagellate Trypanoplasma borreli. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;60:41-8 pubmed
    ..Whether this is decisive for a T. borreli-specific and successful immune response is discussed...
  75. HAJDUK S, Ochsenreiter T. RNA editing in kinetoplastids. RNA Biol. 2010;7:229-36 pubmed
    ..Editosomes are diverse in both RNA and protein composition and undergoe structural remodeling during the maturation. The compositional and structural diversity of editosomes further underscores the complexity of the RNA editing process...
  76. Moreira D, López García P, Vickerman K. An updated view of kinetoplastid phylogeny using environmental sequences and a closer outgroup: proposal for a new classification of the class Kinetoplastea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:1861-75 pubmed
    ..The classification of the species formerly included in the genus Bodo is also revised, with the amendment of this genus and the genus Parabodo and the creation of a new genus, Neobodo...