giardia lamblia

Summary

Summary: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.

Top Publications

  1. Niño C, Prucca C, Chaparro J, Lujan H, Wasserman M. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis shows unusual proteolytic modifications and play important roles during encystation. Acta Trop. 2012;123:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, E1 over-expression greatly increased the encystation rate, indicating a relationship between E1 and Giardia differentiation. ..
  2. Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Beg M, Naz S, Khan R, Islam M, et al. Prevalences of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum infection in adults presenting with chronic diarrhoea. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104:505-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are both waterborne pathogens associated with diarrhoea in developing countries...
  3. Paredez A, Assaf Z, Sept D, Timofejeva L, Dawson S, Wang C, et al. An actin cytoskeleton with evolutionarily conserved functions in the absence of canonical actin-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the giActin cytoskeleton is a promising drug target for treating giardiasis, as we predict drugs that interfere with the Giardia actin cytoskeleton will not affect the mammalian host. ..
  4. Mudanyali O, Oztoprak C, Tseng D, Erlinger A, Ozcan A. Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy. Lab Chip. 2010;10:2419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and cost-effective lensfree holographic microscope to image and detect pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia and Cryptosporidium Parvum at low concentration levels. This compact lensless microscope (O. Mudanyali et al...
  5. Davids B, Gilbert M, Liu Q, Reiner D, Smith A, Lauwaet T, et al. An atypical proprotein convertase in Giardia lamblia differentiation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;175:169-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Excystation of G. muris cysts was also significantly reduced in the presence of AEBSF. These results support the idea that serine protease activity is essential for Giardia encystation and excystation. ..
  6. Stadelmann B, Merino M, Persson L, Svard S. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45325 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that citrulline especially should gain further attention in future treatment strategies. ..
  7. Prucca C, Rivero F, Lujan H. Regulation of antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2011;65:611-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation through the continuous exchange of approximately 200 variant-specific surface ..
  8. Saraiya A, Li W, Wang C. A microRNA derived from an apparent canonical biogenesis pathway regulates variant surface protein gene expression in Giardia lamblia. RNA. 2011;17:2152-64 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that a snoRNA-derived microRNA, miR2, in Giardia lamblia potentially regulates the expression of 22 variant surface protein (VSP) genes...
  9. Li W, Saraiya A, Wang C. Gene regulation in Giardia lambia involves a putative microRNA derived from a small nucleolar RNA. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1338 pubmed publisher
    Two core microRNA (miRNA) pathway proteins, Dicer and Argonaute, are found in Giardia lamblia, a deeply branching parasitic protozoan. There are, however, no apparent homologues of Drosha or Exportin5 in the genome...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Enr quez Flores S, Rodr guez Romero A, Hern ndez Alc ntara G, Oria Hern ndez J, Guti rrez Castrell n P, P rez Hern ndez G, et al. Determining the molecular mechanism of inactivation by chemical modification of triosephosphate isomerase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia: a study for antiparasitic drug design. Proteins. 2011;79:2711-24 pubmed publisher
    Giardiasis, the most prevalent intestinal parasitosis in humans, is caused by Giardia lamblia. Current drug therapies have adverse effects on the host, and resistant strains against these drugs have been reported, demonstrating an urgent ..
  2. Júlio C, Vilares A, Oleastro M, Ferreira I, Gomes S, Monteiro L, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: a case study in Portugal. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study intended to estimate G. duodenalis infection prevalence and identify possible associated risk factors in a healthy paediatric population living in the District of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon...
  3. Nageshan R, Roy N, Hehl A, Tatu U. Post-transcriptional repair of a split heat shock protein 90 gene by mRNA trans-splicing. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Giardia lamblia, a simple protozoan parasite of humans and animals, is an important cause of diarrheal disease with ..
  4. Escobedo A, Almirall P, Alfonso M, Avila I, Cimerman S, Salazar Y, et al. Caregiver perspectives for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of childhood giardiasis in Havana City, Cuba. A qualitative study. Acta Trop. 2011;119:99-106 pubmed publisher
    Although long considered a non-pathogenic protozoan, Giardia lamblia is now a well recognized cause of abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and failure-to-thrive in children...
  5. Touz M, Rivero M, Miras S, Bonifacino J. Lysosomal protein trafficking in Giardia lamblia: common and distinct features. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012;4:1898-909 pubmed
    ..Since Giardia is an early-branching protist, the study of this parasite may lead to a clearer understanding of the minimal machinery required for protein transport in eukaryotic cells. ..
  6. Jenikova G, Hruz P, Andersson M, Tejman Yarden N, Ferreira P, Andersen Y, et al. ?1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model. Vaccine. 2011;29:9529-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available...
  7. Al Mohammed H. Genotypes of Giardia intestinalis clinical isolates of gastrointestinal symptomatic and asymptomatic Saudi children. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, PCR with HRM in one-step closed-tube methods is able to genotype G. intestinalis IGS rDNA without using the sequencing methods or the electrophoresis...
  8. Adam R, Nigam A, Seshadri V, Martens C, Farneth G, Morrison H, et al. The Giardia lamblia vsp gene repertoire: characteristics, genomic organization, and evolution. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:424 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia trophozoites colonize the intestines of susceptible mammals and cause diarrhea, which can be prolonged despite an intestinal immune response...
  9. Swanson S, Phares C, Mamo B, Smith K, Cetron M, Stauffer W. Albendazole therapy and enteric parasites in United States-bound refugees. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1498-507 pubmed publisher
  10. Ankarklev J, Svard S, Lebbad M. Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates?..
  11. Woessner D, Dawson S. The Giardia median body protein is a ventral disc protein that is critical for maintaining a domed disc conformation during attachment. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:292-301 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first ventral disc protein whose depletion directly alters ventral disc structure, confirming that the domed ventral disc conformation is important for robust attachment. ..
  12. Smith A, Lauwaet T, Davids B, Gillin F. Giardia lamblia Nek1 and Nek2 kinases affect mitosis and excystation. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Giardia lamblia genome encodes 198 Neks, of which 56 are predicted to be active...
  13. Busatti H, Alves R, Santana Anjos K, Gil F, Cury M, Vannier Santos M, et al. Effects of metronidazole analogues on Giardia lamblia: experimental infection and cell organization. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of metronidazole (MTZ) and its analogues (MTZ-Ms, MTZ-Br, MTZ-N(3), and MTZ-I) on the trophozoites of Giardia lamblia. Now we evaluated the activity of some giardicidal MTZ analogues in experimental infections in gerbils and ..
  14. Feng J, Sun J, Xin D, Wen J. Comparative analysis of the 5S rRNA and its associated proteins reveals unique primitive rather than parasitic features in Giardia lamblia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36878 pubmed publisher
    ..Eukaryotic 5S rRNA and its associated proteins (5S rRNA system) have become very well understood. Giardia lamblia was thought by some researchers to be the most primitive extant eukaryote while others considered it a highly ..
  15. Bonhomme J, Le Goff L, Lemée V, Gargala G, Ballet J, Favennec L. Limitations of tpi and bg genes sub-genotyping for characterization of human Giardia duodenalis isolates. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:327-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Present data underline the need for improvements in the standardization of G. duodenalis multilocus genotyping approach for further molecular epidemiologic studies of giardiasis...
  16. Jedelský P, Dolezal P, Rada P, Pyrih J, Smid O, Hrdy I, et al. The minimal proteome in the reduced mitochondrion of the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17285 pubmed publisher
    ..The small proteome of the Giardia mitosome reflects the reduction in mitochondrial metabolism, which is limited to the FeS cluster assembly pathway, and a simplicity in the protein import pathway required for organelle biogenesis. ..
  17. Castillo Romero A, Davids B, Lauwaet T, Gillin F. Importance of enolase in Giardia lamblia differentiation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;184:122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of enolase, a glycolytic enzyme, in Giardia differentiation. The sequence of Giardia lamblia enolase (gEno) is most similar to enolases in Homo sapiens and Leishmania mexicana, and shows the conserved ..
  18. Tejman Yarden N, Millman M, Lauwaet T, Davids B, Gillin F, Dunn L, et al. Impaired parasite attachment as fitness cost of metronidazole resistance in Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:4643-51 pubmed publisher
    Infections with the diarrheagenic protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia are most commonly treated with metronidazole (Mz)...
  19. Laishram S, Kang G, Ajjampur S. Giardiasis: a review on assemblage distribution and epidemiology in India. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2012;31:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the global distribution of giardial assemblage, zoonotic transmission and the association of assemblage with disease have been discussed, followed by epidemiology of giardiasis in India. ..
  20. Muñoz Cruz S, Gómez García A, Millán Ibarra J, Giono Cerezo S, Yepez Mulia L. Giardia lamblia: interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mast cells induced through an Ig-independent pathway. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:298-303 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia is a common cause of both acute and chronic diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. It has been shown that mast cells, IL-6 and TNF-alpha are substantially involved in the early control of G. lamblia infection in mice...
  21. Adamska M, Leońska Duniec A, Maciejewska A, Sawczuk M, Skotarczak B. Comparison of efficiency of various DNA extraction methods from cysts of Giardia intestinalis measured by PCR and TaqMan real time PCR. Parasite. 2010;17:299-305 pubmed
    ..intestinalis DNA are equally important, and materially influence on the final effect and this version of method seems to be very useful for the sensitive detection of DNA of G. intestinalis...
  22. Mitra S, Cui J, Robbins P, Samuelson J. A deeply divergent phosphoglucomutase (PGM) of Giardia lamblia has both PGM and phosphomannomutase activities. Glycobiology. 2010;20:1233-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia, which is an important parasitic cause of diarrhea, uses activated forms of glucose to make glycogen and activated forms of mannose to make glycophosphosphoinositol anchors...
  23. Lujan H. Mechanisms of adaptation in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. Essays Biochem. 2011;51:177-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia, a parasite of humans, is a major source of waterborne diarrhoeal disease...
  24. Wegayehu T, Adamu H, Petros B. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:419 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle, and to assess the potential risk of zoonotic transmission...
  25. Li W, Saraiya A, Wang C. Experimental verification of the identity of variant-specific surface proteins in Giardia lamblia trophozoites. MBio. 2013;4:e00321-13 pubmed publisher
    The cell membrane of a Giardia lamblia trophozoite is covered with a single species of variant-specific surface protein (VSP) that is replaced by another VSP every 6 to 13 generations of cell growth, possibly for an evasion of host ..
  26. Zhang W, Shen Y, Wang R, Liu A, Ling H, Li Y, et al. Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31262 pubmed publisher
  27. Cooper M, Sterling C, Gilman R, Cama V, Ortega Y, Adam R. Molecular analysis of household transmission of Giardia lamblia in a region of high endemicity in Peru. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1713-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia is ubiquitous in multiple communities of nonindustrialized nations. Genotypes A1, A2, and B (Nash groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) are found in humans, whereas genotypes C and D are typically found in dogs...
  28. Ringqvist E, Avesson L, Söderbom F, Svard S. Transcriptional changes in Giardia during host-parasite interactions. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there are extensive gene expression changes in Giardia trophozoites and IECs during host-parasite interactions which can be important for establishment of infection and the induction of giardiasis...
  29. Elsafi S, Al Maqati T, Hussein M, Adam A, Hassan M, Al Zahrani E. Comparison of microscopy, rapid immunoassay, and molecular techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:1641-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are recognized as the most common protozoan infections in Saudi Arabia. Microscopic examination of stool samples, either direct or concentrated, for the recovery of G...
  30. Rafferty S, Luu B, March R, Yee J. Giardia lamblia encodes a functional flavohemoglobin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:347-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic protist that infects the small intestine of mammals...
  31. Lee H, Hyung S, Lee N, Yong T, Han S, Park S. Excretory-secretory products of Giardia lamblia induce interleukin-8 production in human colonic cells via activation of p38, ERK1/2, NF-?B and AP-1. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:183-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G...
  32. Li W, Saraiya A, Wang C. The profile of snoRNA-derived microRNAs that regulate expression of variant surface proteins in Giardia lamblia. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1455-73 pubmed publisher
    ..we analysed all the known small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in the deeply branching protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia for potential microRNAs (miRNAs) that might be derived from them...
  33. Souza V, Sales I, Peixoto D, Costa V, Rizzo J, Silva A, et al. Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2012;88:233-8 pubmed publisher
    There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders...
  34. Banik S, Renner Viveros P, Seeber F, Klotz C, Ignatius R, Aebischer T. Giardia duodenalis arginine deiminase modulates the phenotype and cytokine secretion of human dendritic cells by depletion of arginine and formation of ammonia. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that a better understanding of the role of arginine-depleting pathogen enzymes for immune evasion will have to take enzyme class and reaction products into consideration...
  35. Kamikawa R, Inagaki Y, Tokoro M, Roger A, Hashimoto T. Split introns in the genome of Giardia intestinalis are excised by spliceosome-mediated trans-splicing. Curr Biol. 2011;21:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These split introns have properties that distinguish them from other trans-splicing systems known within eukaryotes, suggesting that Giardia independently evolved a unique system to splice split introns...
  36. Biswas S, Buhrman G, Gagnon K, Mattos C, Brown B, Maxwell E. Comparative analysis of the 15.5kD box C/D snoRNP core protein in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia reveals unique structural and functional features. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2907-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The Giardia 15...
  37. Veenemans J, Mank T, Ottenhof M, Baidjoe A, Mbugi E, Demir A, et al. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis Is lost with multi-nutrient supplementation: a study in Tanzanian children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1158 pubmed publisher
  38. Mokrzycka M, Kolasa A, Kosierkiewicz A, Wiszniewska B. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2010;48:191-6 pubmed publisher
    The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid...
  39. Berrilli F, D Alfonso R, Giangaspero A, Marangi M, Brandonisio O, Kaboré Y, et al. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..parvum. The results provide further evidence about the role of free-ranging domestic animals living closely with humans in the environmental dissemination and potential transmission of these anthropozoonotic pathogens to humans...
  40. Ferrell M, Abendroth J, Zhang Y, Sankaran B, Edwards T, Staker B, et al. Structure of aldose reductase from Giardia lamblia. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:1113-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia is an anaerobic aerotolerant eukaryotic parasite of the intestines...
  41. Solaymani Mohammadi S, Singer S. Giardia duodenalis: the double-edged sword of immune responses in giardiasis. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of ..
  42. Rivero M, Miras S, Quiroga R, Ropolo A, Touz M. Giardia lamblia low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is involved in selective lipoprotein endocytosis and parasite replication. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1204-19 pubmed publisher
    As Giardia lamblia is unable to synthesize cholesterol de novo, this steroid might be obtained from the host's intestinal milieu by endocytosis of lipoproteins...
  43. Muhsen K, Levine M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Giardia lamblia and endemic pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 4:S271-93 pubmed publisher
    ..meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection...
  44. Boontanom P, Mungthin M, Tan ariya P, Naaglor T, Leelayoova S. Epidemiology of giardiasis and genotypic characterization of Giardia duodenalis in preschool children of a rural community, central Thailand. Trop Biomed. 2011;28:32-9 pubmed
    ..duodenalis between cats and preschool children. Unfortunately, in this study, we did not determine G. duodenalis infection in cats, so further studies in cats should be performed to confirm this postulation...
  45. Tejman Yarden N, Miyamoto Y, Leitsch D, Santini J, Debnath A, Gut J, et al. A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2029-35 pubmed publisher
    ..a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment...
  46. Manning G, Reiner D, Lauwaet T, Dacre M, SMITH A, Zhai Y, et al. The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R66 pubmed publisher
    The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest.
  47. Siripattanapipong S, Leelayoova S, Mungthin M, Thompson R, Boontanom P, Saksirisamphant W, et al. Determination of discriminatory power of genetic markers used for genotyping Giardia duodenalis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:764-71 pubmed
    ..duodenalis than using any single locus...
  48. Birkeland S, Preheim S, Davids B, Cipriano M, Palm D, Reiner D, et al. Transcriptome analyses of the Giardia lamblia life cycle. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;174:62-5 pubmed publisher
    We quantified mRNA abundance from 10 stages in the Giardia lamblia life cycle in vitro using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). 163 abundant transcripts were expressed constitutively...
  49. Lalle M, Camerini S, Cecchetti S, Sayadi A, Crescenzi M, Pozio E. Interaction network of the 14-3-3 protein in the ancient protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:2666-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The relevance of g14-3-3 interactions in G. duodenalis biology was discussed...
  50. González Díaz H, Prado Prado F, Sobarzo Sanchez E, Haddad M, Maurel Chevalley S, Valentin A, et al. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum. J Theor Biol. 2011;276:229-49 pubmed publisher
    ..MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery.
  51. Escobedo A, Almirall P, Robertson L, Franco R, Hanevik K, Mørch K, et al. Giardiasis: the ever-present threat of a neglected disease. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010;10:329-48 pubmed
    ..A number of future research priorities are also presented...
  52. Williams C, Elmendorf H. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:586 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact ..
  53. Su L, Pan Y, Huang Y, Cho C, Chen C, Huang S, et al. A novel E2F-like protein involved in transcriptional activation of cyst wall protein genes in Giardia lamblia. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34101-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia differentiates into resistant walled cysts for survival outside the host and transmission. During encystation, synthesis of cyst wall proteins is coordinately induced...
  54. Spycher C, Herman E, Morf L, Qi W, Rehrauer H, Aquino Fournier C, et al. An ER-directed transcriptional response to unfolded protein stress in the absence of conserved sensor-transducer proteins in Giardia lamblia. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:754-71 pubmed publisher
    The protozoan Giardia lamblia has a minimized organelle repertoire, and most strikingly lacks a classical stacked Golgi apparatus...
  55. Cho C, Su L, Huang Y, Pan Y, Sun C. Regulation of a Myb transcription factor by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in Giardia lamblia. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3733-50 pubmed publisher
    The protozoan Giardia lamblia parasitizes the human small intestine to cause diseases. It undergoes differentiation into infectious cysts by responding to intestinal stimulation...
  56. Mastronicola D, Testa F, Forte E, Bordi E, Pucillo L, Sarti P, et al. Flavohemoglobin and nitric oxide detoxification in the human protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:654-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The NO-donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and DETA-NONOate mimicked the effect of nitrite on flavoHb expression. We propose that physiologically flavoHb contributes to NO detoxification in G. intestinalis...
  57. Manna D, Dutta P, Achari B, Lohia A. A novel galacto-glycerolipid from Oxalis corniculata kills Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:4825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..GGL was also found to be equally effective in killing another protist pathogen, Giardia lamblia, that causes diarrhea in humans...
  58. Anuar T, Al Mekhlafi H, Ghani M, Osman E, Yasin A, Nordin A, et al. Giardiasis among different tribes of Orang Asli in Malaysia: highlighting the presence of other family members infected with Giardia intestinalis as a main risk factor. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:871-80 pubmed publisher
  59. Schwartz C, Heumann J, Dawson S, Hoenger A. A detailed, hierarchical study of Giardia lamblia's ventral disc reveals novel microtubule-associated protein complexes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43783 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia is a flagellated, unicellular parasite of mammals infecting over one billion people worldwide...
  60. Ropolo A, Touz M. A lesson in survival, by Giardia lamblia. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010;10:2019-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we analyze the survival mechanisms used by the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia during infection...
  61. Roy S, Hudson A, Joseph J, Yee J, Russell A. Numerous fragmented spliceosomal introns, AT-AC splicing, and an unusual dynein gene expression pathway in Giardia lamblia. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The protistan intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia exhibits one of the most reduced eukaryotic genomes known, with short intergenic regions and only four known ..
  62. Nillius D, Muller J, Muller N. Nitroreductase (GlNR1) increases susceptibility of Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli to nitro drugs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:1029-35 pubmed publisher
    The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia causes the intestinal disease giardiasis, which may lead to acute and chronic diarrhoea in humans and various animal species...
  63. Faso C, Hehl A. Membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis in Giardia lamblia: use it or lose it. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:471-80 pubmed publisher
  64. Zheng G, Zhang X, Yang Y, Zeng S, Wei J, Wang Y, et al. An integrated microfludic device for culturing and screening of Giardia lamblia. Exp Parasitol. 2014;137:1-7 pubmed publisher
    In vitro culturing of trophozoites was important for research of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia), especially in discovery of anti-Giardia agents...
  65. Hagen K, Hirakawa M, House S, Schwartz C, Pham J, Cipriano M, et al. Novel structural components of the ventral disc and lateral crest in Giardia intestinalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1442 pubmed publisher
  66. Chen X, Penny D, Collins L. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:550 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis...
  67. Soliman R, Fuentes I, Rubio J. Identification of a novel Assemblage B subgenotype and a zoonotic Assemblage C in human isolates of Giardia intestinalis in Egypt. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:507-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results shed light on the possibility that G. intestinalis can infect humans through a zoonotic route and open the door to wider investigations using different genetic loci to genotype Giardia isolates...
  68. House S, Richter D, Pham J, Dawson S. Giardia flagellar motility is not directly required to maintain attachment to surfaces. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002167 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs affecting flagellar motility may result in lower levels of attachment by indirectly limiting the number of parasites that can position the ventral disc properly against a surface and against peristaltic flow...
  69. Yichoy M, Duarte T, De Chatterjee A, Mendez T, Aguilera K, Roy D, et al. Lipid metabolism in Giardia: a post-genomic perspective. Parasitology. 2011;138:267-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite, infects a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans...
  70. Humen M, Perez P, Liévin Le Moal V. Lipid raft-dependent adhesion of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites to a cultured human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayer leads to cytoskeleton-dependent functional injuries. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1683-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that whereas the occludin rearrangement induced by G. intestinalis was related to apical F-actin disorganization, the delocalization of claudin-1 was not...
  71. Gomez Munoz M, Cámara Badenes C, Martínez Herrero M, Dea Ayuela M, Pérez Gracia M, Fernandez Barredo S, et al. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in lambs from Spain reveals a high heterogeneity. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:836-42 pubmed publisher
    ..duodenalis from sheep were found. Multilocus genotyping resulted in 63 patterns from the 71 samples sequenced at the four loci. This high variability among isolates possibly reflects the high frequency of mixed infections...
  72. Dreesen L, Rinaldi M, Chiers K, Li R, Geurden T, van den Broeck W, et al. Microarray analysis of the intestinal host response in Giardia duodenalis assemblage E infected calves. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40985 pubmed publisher
  73. Nkrumah B, Nguah S. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:163 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana...
  74. Adam R, Dahlstrom E, Martens C, Bruno D, Barbian K, Ricklefs S, et al. Genome sequencing of Giardia lamblia genotypes A2 and B isolates (DH and GS) and comparative analysis with the genomes of genotypes A1 and E (WB and Pig). Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:2498-511 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardia lamblia (syn G. intestinalis, G. duodenalis) is the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite of humans worldwide and is a frequent cause of endemic and epidemic diarrhea. G...
  75. Shukla G, Sidhu R. Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic in malnourished Giardia lamblia-infected mice: a biochemical and histopathological study. Can J Microbiol. 2011;57:127-35 pubmed publisher
    The study describes the in vivo activity of Lactobacillus casei in malnourished Giardia lamblia-infected BALB/c mice...
  76. Jerlström Hultqvist J, Franzén O, Ankarklev J, Xu F, Nohynkova E, Andersson J, et al. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:543 pubmed publisher
    ..To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig...
  77. Gourguechon S, Cande W. Rapid tagging and integration of genes in Giardia intestinalis. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using these vectors, cyclin B and aurora kinase were tagged, expressed, and localized...
  78. Dawson S, House S. Imaging and analysis of the microtubule cytoskeleton in giardia. Methods Cell Biol. 2010;97:307-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Fundamental areas of giardial cytoskeletal biology remain to be explored and knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of cytoskeletal functioning is needed to better understand Giardia's unique biology and pathogenesis...
  79. Feng X, Cao L, Wang F, Zhang X, Lu S. [Inhibition of pyruvate kinase mRNA expression in Giardia lamblia by specific hammerhead ribozyme]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2010;28:257-60 pubmed
    To inhibit the expression of pyruvate kinase (PK) mRNA in Giardia lamblia by specific hammerhead ribozyme.
  80. Bénéré E, Van Assche T, Cos P, Maes L. Variation in growth and drug susceptibility among Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, B and E in axenic in vitro culture and in the gerbil model. Parasitology. 2011;138:1354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the gerbil, no markedly different drug susceptibilities were observed. In conclusion, the Giardia assemblage subtype can be associated with differences in growth characteristics rather than in drug susceptibility...
  81. Perry D, Morrison H, Adam R. Optical map of the genotype A1 WB C6 Giardia lamblia genome isolate. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;180:112-4 pubmed publisher
    The Giardia lamblia genome consists of 12 Mb divided among 5 chromosomes ranging in size from approximately 1 to 4 Mb...
  82. Solaymani Mohammadi S, Singer S. Host immunity and pathogen strain contribute to intestinal disaccharidase impairment following gut infection. J Immunol. 2011;187:3769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..They also demonstrate that differences in pathogen strain can also determine the outcome of infection and further our understanding of the clinical variation seen in human giardiasis...