parasites

Summary

Summary: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.

Top Publications

  1. Gómez Díaz E, González Solís J. Trophic structure in a seabird host-parasite food web: insights from stable isotope analyses. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10454 pubmed publisher
    Ecological studies on food webs rarely include parasites, partly due to the complexity and dimensionality of host-parasite interaction networks...
  2. Prole D, Taylor C. Identification of intracellular and plasma membrane calcium channel homologues in pathogenic parasites. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26218 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomes of many pathogenic parasites have recently been sequenced, opening the way for rational design of targeted therapies...
  3. Gilman R, Nuismer S, Jhwueng D. Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens. Nature. 2012;483:328-30 pubmed publisher
    Almost all species are subject to continuous attack by parasites and pathogens...
  4. Zheng Y, Cai X, Bradley J. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection. RNA Biol. 2013;10:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, ..
  5. Sukhdeo M. Where are the parasites in food webs?. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:239 pubmed publisher
    ..At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not ..
  6. Francia M, Jordan C, Patel J, Sheiner L, Demerly J, Fellows J, et al. Cell division in Apicomplexan parasites is organized by a homolog of the striated rootlet fiber of algal flagella. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001444 pubmed publisher
    Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites that cause important human diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis...
  7. Lima D, Giacomini H, Takemoto R, Agostinho A, Bini L. Patterns of interactions of a large fish-parasite network in a tropical floodplain. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:905-13 pubmed publisher
    ..2.?We assembled information on fishes and their parasites living in a large floodplain of key ecological importance for freshwater ecosystems in the Paraná River basin ..
  8. Mbaya A, Udendeye U. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:709-14 pubmed
    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications...
  9. Webb S, Keeling M, Boots M. The role of spatial population structure on the evolution of parasites with acquired immunity and demography. J Theor Biol. 2013;324:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..within the host are harder to clear but result in higher virulence local interactions favor more virulent parasites and, depending on the nature of the disease interaction, can increase or decrease the chance of evolutionary ..

More Information

Publications64

  1. Gretes M, Poole L, Karplus P. Peroxiredoxins in parasites. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;17:608-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous enzymes now thought to be central to such defenses and, as such, have potential value as drug targets and vaccine antigens...
  2. Dunne J, Lafferty K, Dobson A, Hechinger R, Kuris A, Martinez N, et al. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001579 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure...
  3. Kaushik M, Lamberton P, Webster J. The role of parasites and pathogens in influencing generalised anxiety and predation-related fear in the mammalian central nervous system. Horm Behav. 2012;62:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain parasites and pathogens which rely on predation for transmission appear able to manipulate these, often innate, traits to ..
  4. Croken M, Nardelli S, Kim K. Chromatin modifications, epigenetics, and how protozoan parasites regulate their lives. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:202-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite conserved features and specificity common to all eukaryotes, parasite enzymes involved in chromatin modification have unique functions that regulate unique aspects of parasite biology...
  5. Darani H, Yousefi M. Parasites and cancers: parasite antigens as possible targets for cancer immunotherapy. Future Oncol. 2012;8:1529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Anticancer activity of some parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Acantamoeba castellani and Plasmodium yoelii has ..
  6. Rodriguez A, Tarleton R. Transgenic parasites accelerate drug discovery. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:90-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of transgenic parasites expressing reporter genes facilitates the discovery of new drugs through high throughput screenings, but also by ..
  7. Tian L, Chen J, Wang T, Cheng G, Steinmann P, Wang F, et al. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:36 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals...
  8. Milner D, Pochet N, Krupka M, Williams C, Seydel K, Taylor T, et al. Transcriptional profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasites from patients with severe malaria identifies distinct low vs. high parasitemic clusters. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40739 pubmed publisher
    ..compared both groups of Malawi expression profiles with our previously acquired ex vivo expression profiles of parasites derived from infected patients with mild disease; a large collection of in vitro Plasmodium falciparum life ..
  9. Prole D, Marrion N. Identification of putative potassium channel homologues in pathogenic protozoa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32264 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomes of many protozoan parasites have recently been sequenced, allowing rational design of targeted therapies...
  10. Pocock M, Evans D, Memmott J. The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks. Science. 2012;335:973-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of information can be used in restoration management, because it identifies the plant taxa that can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity...
  11. Coutinho Silva R, Ojcius D. Role of extracellular nucleotides in the immune response against intracellular bacteria and protozoan parasites. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:1271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the role of extracellular nucleotides as sensors of intracellular bacteria and protozoan parasites, and discuss how these pathogens manipulate purinergic signaling to diminish the immune response against ..
  12. Adamo S. Parasites: evolution's neurobiologists. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:3-10 pubmed publisher
    For millions of years, parasites have altered the behaviour of their hosts...
  13. Carver S, Scorza A, Bevins S, Riley S, Crooks K, Vandewoude S, et al. Zoonotic parasites of bobcats around human landscapes. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3080-3 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed...
  14. Kutz S, Ducrocq J, Verocai G, Hoar B, Colwell D, Beckmen K, et al. Parasites in ungulates of Arctic North America and Greenland: a view of contemporary diversity, ecology, and impact in a world under change. Adv Parasitol. 2012;79:99-252 pubmed publisher
    b>Parasites play an important role in the structure and function of arctic ecosystems, systems that are currently experiencing an unprecedented rate of change due to various anthropogenic perturbations, including climate change...
  15. Startek M, Le Rouzic A, Capy P, Grzebelus D, Gambin A. Genomic parasites or symbionts? Modeling the effects of environmental pressure on transposition activity in asexual populations. Theor Popul Biol. 2013;90:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, long-term maintenance of transposition activity is unlikely. This could contribute to the significant variation in the transposable element copy number among closely related species. ..
  16. Bryan H, Darimont C, Hill J, Paquet P, Thompson R, Wagner B, et al. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago. Parasitology. 2012;139:781-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health...
  17. Wijayawardena B, Minchella D, DeWoody J. Hosts, parasites, and horizontal gene transfer. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:329-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we explore possible mechanisms of HGT between parasites and their hosts, as their intimate contact affords substantial opportunities for HGT...
  18. Pérez Rodríguez A, Fernández González S, de la Hera I, Pérez Tris J. Finding the appropriate variables to model the distribution of vector-borne parasites with different environmental preferences: climate is not enough. Glob Chang Biol. 2013;19:3245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied avian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon (which are viewed as potential emergent pathogens) in ..
  19. Sakai C, Tomitsuka E, Esumi H, Harada S, Kita K. Mitochondrial fumarate reductase as a target of chemotherapy: from parasites to cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..complex II (rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase) plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult parasites inhabiting hosts. The enzymes in these parasite-specific pathways are potential target for chemotherapy...
  20. Pillai A, Addo R, Sharma P, Nguitragool W, Srinivasan P, Desai S. Malaria parasites tolerate a broad range of ionic environments and do not require host cation remodelling. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:20-34 pubmed publisher
    Malaria parasites grow within erythrocytes, but are also free in host plasma between cycles of asexual replication...
  21. Clemente J, Ursell L, Parfrey L, Knight R. The impact of the gut microbiota on human health: an integrative view. Cell. 2012;148:1258-70 pubmed publisher
  22. Ord R, Rodriguez M, Yamasaki T, Takeo S, Tsuboi T, Lobo C. Targeting sialic acid dependent and independent pathways of invasion in Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30251 pubmed publisher
    ..of malaria is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical asexual replication of parasites in a patient's red blood cells...
  23. Deatherage B, Cookson B. Membrane vesicle release in bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea: a conserved yet underappreciated aspect of microbial life. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1948-57 pubmed publisher
    ..vesicles (MVs) from the cell surface is conserved across microbial life, in bacteria, archaea, fungi, and parasites. MV production occurs not only in vitro but also in vivo during infection, underscoring the influence of these ..
  24. Hino A, Hirai M, Tanaka T, Watanabe Y, Matsuoka H, Kita K. Critical roles of the mitochondrial complex II in oocyst formation of rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. J Biochem. 2012;152:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the role of TCA metabolism and ETC in malaria parasites, we deleted the gene for flavoprotein (Fp) subunit, Pbsdha, one of four components of complex II, a catalytic ..
  25. Roy N, Nageshan R, Ranade S, Tatu U. Heat shock protein 90 from neglected protozoan parasites. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:707-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly studies on Hsp90 from protozoan parasites promise to reveal important new paradigms in Hsp90 biology while exploring its potential as an anti-infective ..
  26. Eickel N, Kaiser G, Prado M, Burda P, Roelli M, Stanway R, et al. Features of autophagic cell death in Plasmodium liver-stage parasites. Autophagy. 2013;9:568-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we suggest that all three types of cell death occur in Plasmodium liver-stage parasites. Whereas typical molecular markers for apoptosis and necrosis have not been found in the genome of Plasmodium ..
  27. Krauth Siegel R, Leroux A. Low-molecular-mass antioxidants in parasites. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;17:583-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Parasitic organisms show a remarkable diversity with respect to the nature and functions of their main low-molecular-mass antioxidants and many of them developed pathways that do not have a counterpart in their mammalian hosts...
  28. Chang H, Park D, Galinsky K, Schaffner S, Ndiaye D, Ndir O, et al. Genomic sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites from Senegal reveals the demographic history of the population. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3427-39 pubmed publisher
  29. Gaunt M, Carr A. A survey of intestinal parasites in dogs from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Can Vet J. 2011;52:497-500 pubmed
    ..were analyzed by centrifuged flotation in Sheather's solution to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Fecal flotation was positive in 4.4% of samples...
  30. Chaisson K, Hallem E. Chemosensory behaviors of parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:427-36 pubmed publisher
    Many multicellular parasites seek out hosts by following trails of host-emitted chemicals. Host seeking is a characteristic of endoparasites such as parasitic worms as well as of ectoparasites such as mosquitoes and ticks...
  31. Lafferty K. Biodiversity loss decreases parasite diversity: theory and patterns. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:2814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Life cycle complexity, low generality of parasites and sensitivity of hosts reduced the robustness of parasite species to the loss of free-living species diversity...
  32. Kafsack B, Rovira Graells N, Clark T, Bancells C, Crowley V, Campino S, et al. A transcriptional switch underlies commitment to sexual development in malaria parasites. Nature. 2014;507:248-52 pubmed publisher
    The life cycles of many parasites involve transitions between disparate host species, requiring these parasites to go through multiple developmental stages adapted to each of these specialized niches...
  33. Manzano Román R, Siles Lucas M. MicroRNAs in parasitic diseases: potential for diagnosis and targeting. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;186:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both parasites specific miRNA sequences and the phenomenon of the alteration of host miRNA levels after parasite infection are ..
  34. Bleuler Martinez S, Schmieder S, Aebi M, Kunzler M. Biotin-binding proteins in the defense of mushrooms against predators and parasites. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:8485-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show high toxicity of tamavidins toward nematodes, insects, and amoebae. As these organisms represent important phyla of fungal predators and parasites, we propose that BBPs are part of the chemical defense system of fungi.
  35. Guilhem R, Simkova A, Morand S, Gourbière S. Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:2936-46 pubmed
    ..empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite ..
  36. Baldursson S, Karanis P. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010. Water Res. 2011;45:6603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In those countries that are likely affected most a lack of surveillance systems is noticeable. However, countries that established surveillance systems did not establish an international standardization of reporting systems...
  37. Evison S, Roberts K, Laurenson L, Pietravalle S, Hui J, Biesmeijer J, et al. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30641 pubmed publisher
    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the ..
  38. Sheng Y, Hasnain S, Png C, McGuckin M, Linden S. Techniques for assessment of interactions of mucins with microbes and parasites in vitro and in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;842:297-312 pubmed publisher
    Most mammalian pathogens and parasites infect their hosts via the mucosal surfaces...
  39. Marcellino C, Gut J, Lim K, Singh R, McKerrow J, Sakanari J. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1494 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi...
  40. Velavan T, Ojurongbe O. Regulatory T cells and parasites. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:520940 pubmed publisher
    Human host encounters a wide array of parasites; however, the crucial aspect is the failure of the host immune system to clear these parasites despite antigen recognition...
  41. Simkova A, Navrátilová P, Dávidová M, Ondračková M, Sinama M, Chappaz R, et al. Does invasive Chondrostoma nasus shift the parasite community structure of endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma in sympatric zones?. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:200 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we investigated whether P. toxostoma x C. nasus hybrids are less parasitized then parental species...
  42. Onichandran S, Kumar T, Lim Y, Sawangjaroen N, Andiappan H, Salibay C, et al. Waterborne parasites and physico-chemical assessment of selected lakes in Malaysia. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:4185-91 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and waterborne parasites in selected recreational lakes from Malaysia...
  43. Anderson T, Sukhdeo M. Host centrality in food web networks determines parasite diversity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26798 pubmed publisher
    b>Parasites significantly alter topological metrics describing food web structure, yet few studies have explored the relationship between food web topology and parasite diversity...
  44. Soeiro M, Werbovetz K, Boykin D, Wilson W, Wang M, Hemphill A. Novel amidines and analogues as promising agents against intracellular parasites: a systematic review. Parasitology. 2013;140:929-51 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis, pharmacological profile, mechanistic and biological effects upon a range of intracellular protozoan parasites. The bulk of these data may contribute to the future design and structure optimization of new aromatic ..
  45. Kishore S, Stiller J, Deitsch K. Horizontal gene transfer of epigenetic machinery and evolution of parasitism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexans. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:37 pubmed publisher
    ..How these abilities were acquired remains an outstanding question in protistan biology...
  46. Becker S, Vogt J, Knopp S, Panning M, Warhurst D, Polman K, et al. Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:37 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide an overview of pathogens causing digestive disorders in the tropics and evaluate available reference tests...
  47. Adenusi A, Adewoga T. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23...
  48. Price H, Hodgkinson M, Curwen R, MacLean L, Brannigan J, Carrington M, et al. The orthologue of Sjögren's syndrome nuclear autoantigen 1 (SSNA1) in Trypanosoma brucei is an immunogenic self-assembling molecule. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31842 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei has little effect on parasite growth or morphology, indicating either a degree of functional redundancy or a function in an alternative stage of the parasite life cycle. ..
  49. Maure F, Brodeur J, Hughes D, Thomas F. How much energy should manipulative parasites leave to their hosts to ensure altered behaviours?. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:43-6 pubmed publisher
    Although host manipulation is likely to be costly for parasites, we still have a poor understanding of the energetic aspects underlying this strategy...
  50. Viljoen H, Bennett N, Ueckermann E, Lutermann H. The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27003 pubmed publisher
    The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites...
  51. Duneau D, Ebert D. Host sexual dimorphism and parasite adaptation. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001271 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we make the case for how properties of the parasites themselves can also matter...
  52. Ferrer E, García Navas V, Sanz J, Ortego J. Molecular characterization of avian malaria parasites in three Mediterranean blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:2137-42 pubmed publisher
    We genetically analysed malaria parasites (Protozoa) in three Mediterranean blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations from central Spain...
  53. Akinyi S, Hayden T, Gamboa D, Torres K, Bendezu J, Abdallah J, et al. Multiple genetic origins of histidine-rich protein 2 gene deletion in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from Peru. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2797 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that pfhrp2-deleted parasites in Peru derived from a single genetic event...
  54. Jones E, White A, Boots M. The evolutionary implications of conflict between parasites with different transmission modes. Evolution. 2010;64:2408-16 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the processes that shape the evolution of parasites is a key challenge for evolutionary biology...
  55. Saunders E, De Souza D, Naderer T, Sernee M, Ralton J, Doyle M, et al. Central carbon metabolism of Leishmania parasites. Parasitology. 2010;137:1303-13 pubmed publisher
    Leishmania spp. are sandfly-transmitted protozoa parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in humans...