mollusca

Summary

Summary: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.

Top Publications

  1. Scherholz M, Redl E, Wollesen T, Todt C, Wanninger A. Aplacophoran mollusks evolved from ancestors with polyplacophoran-like features. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2130-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Mollusca is an animal phylum with vast morphological diversity and includes worm-shaped aplacophorans, snails, bivalves, and the complex cephalopods...
  2. Cho S, Vallès Y, Giani V, Seaver E, Weisblat D. Evolutionary dynamics of the wnt gene family: a lophotrochozoan perspective. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1645-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons of the embryonic expression patterns of the duplicated wnt genes in Helobdella with their orthologs in Capitella reveal extensive regulatory diversification of the duplicated leech wnt genes...
  3. Sutton M, Briggs D, Siveter D, Siveter D, Sigwart J. A Silurian armoured aplacophoran and implications for molluscan phylogeny. Nature. 2012;490:94-7 pubmed publisher
    The Mollusca is one of the most diverse, important and well-studied invertebrate phyla; however, relationships among major molluscan taxa have long been a subject of controversy...
  4. Suzuki M, Kameda J, Sasaki T, Saruwatari K, Nagasawa H, Kogure T. Characterization of the multilayered shell of a limpet, Lottia kogamogai (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda), using SEM-EBSD and FIB-TEM techniques. J Struct Biol. 2010;171:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results for the microstructure of each layer should be considered in the discussion of the formation mechanism of the limpet shell structure...
  5. Mateos H, Lewandowski P, Su X. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone. Lipids. 2011;46:741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level...
  6. Tëmkin I. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea). BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:342 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. ..
  7. Mateos H, Lewandowski P, Su X. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement with flaxseed oil on tissue fatty acid composition and expression of desaturase and elongase genes. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Abalone were fed five different experimental diets in which FO (control diet) was serially replaced by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% FlaxO respectively...
  8. Kocot K, Cannon J, Todt C, Citarella M, Kohn A, Meyer A, et al. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature. 2011;477:452-6 pubmed publisher
    Evolutionary relationships among the eight major lineages of Mollusca have remained unresolved despite their diversity and importance...
  9. Vinther J, Sperling E, Briggs D, Peterson K. A molecular palaeobiological hypothesis for the origin of aplacophoran molluscs and their derivation from chiton-like ancestors. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:1259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The recovery of cephalopods as a sister group to aculiferans suggests that the plesiomorphic condition in molluscs might be a morphology similar to that found in monoplacophorans. ..

More Information

Publications68

  1. Jerardino A, Marean C. Shellfish gathering, marine paleoecology and modern human behavior: perspectives from cave PP13B, Pinnacle Point, South Africa. J Hum Evol. 2010;59:412-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible cognitive implications of shellfish gathering as a reflection of modern behavior are also suggested...
  2. Plazzi F, Passamonti M. Towards a molecular phylogeny of Mollusks: bivalves' early evolution as revealed by mitochondrial genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:641-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our analysis allowed to target many taxonomic questions of Bivalvia, and to obtain a complete time calibration of the tree depicting bivalves' earlier natural history main events, which mostly dated in the late Cambrian...
  3. Telford M, Budd G. Invertebrate evolution: bringing order to the molluscan chaos. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R964-6 pubmed publisher
    While the seven classes within the phylum Mollusca are clearly defined morphologically and molecularly, relationships between them have long been contentious...
  4. Nemoto M, Wang Q, Li D, Pan S, Matsunaga T, Kisailus D. Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca). Proteomics. 2012;12:2890-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process...
  5. Smith M. Mouthparts of the Burgess Shale fossils Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia: implications for the ancestral molluscan radula. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:4287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Odontogriphus omalus and Wiwaxia corrugata have been interpreted as stem-group members of either the Mollusca, the Annelida, or a group containing Mollusca + Annelida...
  6. Meyer A, Todt C, Mikkelsen N, Lieb B. Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:70 pubmed publisher
    ..The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body ..
  7. Plazzi F, Ribani A, Passamonti M. The complete mitochondrial genome of Solemya velum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and its relationships with conchifera. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:409 pubmed publisher
    ..i. extensive symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. Despite Opponobranchia are central in bivalve phylogeny, being considered the sister group of all Autobranchia, a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced yet...
  8. Hoffman J, Peck L, Linse K, Clarke A. Strong population genetic structure in a broadcast-spawning Antarctic marine invertebrate. J Hered. 2011;102:55-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding was analytically highly robust and implies the presence of significant oceanographic barriers to gene flow in a species long regarded as a classic example of a widely dispersing broadcast spawner...
  9. Zilhão J, Angelucci D, Badal García E, D ERRICO F, Daniel F, Dayet L, et al. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Iberian finds show that European Neandertals were no different from coeval Africans in this regard, countering genetic/cognitive explanations for the emergence of symbolism and strengthening demographic/social ones...
  10. Shimeld S, Boyle M, Brunet T, Luke G, Seaver E. Clustered Fox genes in lophotrochozoans and the evolution of the bilaterian Fox gene cluster. Dev Biol. 2010;340:234-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates conservation of genomic organisation and expression of these genes can be traced in all three bilaterian Superphyla. These data are evaluated against competing theories for the long-term maintenance of gene clusters...
  11. Sakurai A, Newcomb J, Lillvis J, Katz P. Different roles for homologous interneurons in species exhibiting similar rhythmic behaviors. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1036-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this, we examined the neuronal basis of a simple swimming behavior in two nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia), Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris...
  12. Smith S, Wilson N, Goetz F, Feehery C, Andrade S, Rouse G, et al. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature. 2011;480:364-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved...
  13. Puillandre N, Bouchet P, Boisselier Dubayle M, Brisset J, Buge B, Castelin M, et al. New taxonomy and old collections: integrating DNA barcoding into the collection curation process. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:396-402 pubmed publisher
  14. Stöger I, Schrödl M. Mitogenomics does not resolve deep molluscan relationships (yet?). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:376-92 pubmed publisher
    ..signal; adding trnG-trnE to the end of the ancestral cluster trnM-trnC-trnY-trnW-trnQ might be synapomorphic for Mollusca. Mitochondrial gene arrangement and other genome level features explored and reviewed herein thus failed as ..
  15. Pola M, Cervera J, Gosliner T. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;43:726-42 pubmed
    ..However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data...
  16. Cutignano A, Avila C, Domenech Coll A, d Ippolito G, Cimino G, Fontana A. First biosynthetic evidence on the phenyl-containing polyketides of the marine mollusc Scaphander lignarius. Org Lett. 2008;10:2963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..13C-13C NMR COSY has been used to establish the labeling positions due to incorporation of 13C2-acetate...
  17. Morris S, Caron J. Halwaxiids and the early evolution of the lophotrochozoans. Science. 2007;315:1255-8 pubmed
    ..This new fossil defines the monophyletic halwaxiids and indicates that they have a key place in early lophotrochozoan history...
  18. Dmetrichuk J, Carlone R, Jones T, Vesprini N, Spencer G. Detection of endogenous retinoids in the molluscan CNS and characterization of the trophic and tropic actions of 9-cis retinoic acid on isolated neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13014-24 pubmed publisher
  19. Addadi L, Joester D, Nudelman F, Weiner S. Mollusk shell formation: a source of new concepts for understanding biomineralization processes. Chemistry. 2006;12:980-7 pubmed
    ..All this takes place in a highly structured chitinous framework. Here we present ideas on how these disparate components work together to produce the highly structured pearly nacreous layer of the mollusk shell...
  20. Boettiger A, Ermentrout B, Oster G. The neural origins of shell structure and pattern in aquatic mollusks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The model reproduces most known shell shapes and patterns and accurately predicts how the pattern alters in response to environmental disruption and subsequent repair. Finally, we connect the model to a larger class of neural models...
  21. Régnier C, Fontaine B, Bouchet P. Not knowing, not recording, not listing: numerous unnoticed mollusk extinctions. Conserv Biol. 2009;23:1214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that assessment of the conservation status of invertebrate species is neglected in the IUCN Red List and not managed in the same way as for vertebrate species...
  22. Wilson N, Rouse G, Giribet G. Assessing the molluscan hypothesis Serialia (Monoplacophora+Polyplacophora) using novel molecular data. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;54:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..marked seriality of ctenidia, atria, muscles and nephridia and this has been interpreted as plesiomorphic for Mollusca, reflecting a segmented ancestry...
  23. Jolly C, Berland S, Milet C, Borzeix S, Lopez E, Doumenc D. Zona localization of shell matrix proteins in mantle of Haliotis tuberculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2004;6:541-51 pubmed
    ..Our results characterized a topographic and time-dependent zonation of matrix proteins involved in shell biomineralization in the mantle of Haliotis...
  24. Gomez M, Nasi E. On the gating mechanisms of the light-dependent conductance in Pecten hyperpolarizing photoreceptors: does light remove inactivation in voltage-dependent K channels?. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:455-64 pubmed
  25. Mikhailova N, Gracheva Y, Backeljau T, Granovitch A. A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations. Genetica. 2009;137:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa...
  26. Wilson N, Lee M. Molecular phylogeny of Chromodoris (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) and the identification of a planar spawning clade. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;36:722-7 pubmed
  27. Nishida A, Nordi N, Alves R. The lunar-tide cycle viewed by crustacean and mollusc gatherers in the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil and their influence in collection attitudes. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:1 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the gatherers have an accurate comprehension of tidal phenomenon based on their exploitation of natural resources, which perpetuates through generations...
  28. Kourtidis A, Drosopoulou E, Nikolaidis N, Hatzi V, Chintiroglou C, Scouras Z. Identification of several cytoplasmic HSP70 genes from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and their long-term evolution in Mollusca and Metazoa. J Mol Evol. 2006;62:446-59 pubmed
    ..The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan phylum...
  29. Caron J, Scheltema A, Schander C, Rudkin D. A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature. 2006;442:159-63 pubmed
  30. Jablonski D, Hunt G. Larval ecology, geographic range, and species survivorship in Cretaceous mollusks: organismic versus species-level explanations. Am Nat. 2006;168:556-64 pubmed
  31. Takahashi E, Yu Q, Eaglesham G, Connell D, McBroom J, Costanzo S, et al. Occurrence and seasonal variations of algal toxins in water, phytoplankton and shellfish from North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia. Mar Environ Res. 2007;64:429-42 pubmed
    ..The presence of OA and PTX-2s were more frequently seen in the summer, while DA and GD were detected throughout the year and without any obvious seasonal patterns...
  32. Sigwart J, Sutton M. Deep molluscan phylogeny: synthesis of palaeontological and neontological data. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:2413-9 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that crown-group molluscan synapomorphies include serial repetition, the presence of a foot, a mineralized scleritome and a creeping rather than worm-like mode of life...
  33. Shigeno S, Sasaki T, Haszprunar G. Central nervous system of Chaetoderma japonicum (Caudofoveata, Aplacophora): implications for diversified ganglionic plans in early molluscan evolution. Biol Bull. 2007;213:122-34 pubmed
    ..Based on a comparative scheme in basal molluscan groups, we characterize an independent evolutionary process for the unique characters of the central nervous systems of chaetoderms...
  34. Foote M, Crampton J, Beu A, Marshall B, Cooper R, Maxwell P, et al. Rise and fall of species occupancy in Cenozoic fossil mollusks. Science. 2007;318:1131-4 pubmed
    ..This pattern of protracted rise and fall stands in contrast to that of incumbency, insofar as species show no general tendency to stay near maximal occupancy once established...
  35. Wollesen T, Wanninger A, Klussmann Kolb A. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis. J Morphol. 2008;269:776-89 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, this study provides further evidence for morphological plasticity in gastropod myogenesis and stresses the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns...
  36. Song L, Li T, Yu R, Yan C, Ren S, Zhao Y. Antioxidant activities of hydrolysates of Arca subcrenata prepared with three proteases. Mar Drugs. 2008;6:607-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, alcalase was selected as the optimal enzyme to produce active ingredients since its hydrolysate exhibited the best antioxidant activity among them and possessed large amount of potential active peptides...
  37. Wilson N, Schrödl M, Halanych K. Ocean barriers and glaciation: evidence for explosive radiation of mitochondrial lineages in the Antarctic sea slug Doris kerguelenensis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Mol Ecol. 2009;18:965-984 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether recognised as cryptic species or not, genetic diversity in Antarctic marine invertebrates appears higher than expected from morphological analyses, and supports the Antarctic biodiversity pump phenomenon...
  38. Ituarte S, Dreon M, Ceolin M, Heras H. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae). Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg...
  39. Lopez Vera E, Aguilar M, Heimer de la Cotera E. FMRFamide and related peptides in the phylum mollusca. Peptides. 2008;29:310-7 pubmed publisher
    FMRFamide is one of the well-known peptides studied within the phylum Mollusca. It was first isolated from the clam Macrocallista nimbosa during the end of the 1960s...
  40. Fu G, Valiyaveettil S, Wopenka B, Morse D. CaCO3 biomineralization: acidic 8-kDa proteins isolated from aragonitic abalone shell nacre can specifically modify calcite crystal morphology. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:1289-98 pubmed
  41. Zhukova N. Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of the tropical nudibranch mollusks Chromodoris sp. and Phyllidia coelestis. Lipids. 2007;42:1169-75 pubmed
    ..7 and 34%), which could have originated from the dietary origin or symbiotic bacteria. This is the first report on lipid and FA composition of nudibranchs...
  42. Yokobori S, Iseto T, Asakawa S, Sasaki T, Shimizu N, Yamagishi A, et al. Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genomes of two solitary entoprocts, Loxocorone allax and Loxosomella aloxiata: implications for lophotrochozoan phylogeny. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;47:612-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of the mt gene organization in the lophotrochozoan phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Echiura, Entoprocta, Mollusca, Nemertea, and Phoronida) suggested a close phylogenetic relationship between Brachiopoda, Annelida, and Echiura...
  43. Song L, Ren S, Yu R, Yan C, Li T, Zhao Y. Purification, characterization and in vitro anti-tumor activity of proteins from Arca subcrenata Lischke. Mar Drugs. 2008;6:418-30 pubmed publisher
    ..By MTT assay, the IC(50) values of G-4-2 were 22.9 microg/mL, 46.1 microg/mL and 57.7 microg/mL against Hela, HL-60 and KB cell lines, respectively, and the IC(50) value of G-6 against HL-60 cell line was measured to be 123.2 microg/mL...
  44. Saravanan R, Shanmugam A. Preventive effect of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycan from Amussium pleuronectus (Linne) on oxidative injury and cellular abnormalities in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..LMW-GAG affords considerable protection to the tissues challenged by cardiotoxicity, evidenced by its correction and restoration of serum and tissue indices of injury, to normalcy...
  45. Franchini A. The distribution of cells containing FMRFamide- and 5-HT-related molecules in the embryonic development of Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Eur J Histochem. 2005;49:301-8 pubmed
  46. Giribet G, Okusu A, Lindgren A, Huff S, Schrödl M, Nishiguchi M. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7723-8 pubmed
    Monoplacophorans are among the rarest members of the phylum Mollusca. Previously only known from fossils since the Cambrian, the first living monoplacophoran was discovered during the famous second Galathea deep-sea expedition...
  47. Kantor Y, Puillandre N, Olivera B, Bouchet P. Morphological proxies for taxonomic decision in turrids (mollusca, neogastropoda): a test of the value of shell and radula characters using molecular data. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:1156-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Iotyrris devoizei n.sp. and I. musivum n.sp. are described from Vanuatu, where they occur sympatrically with I. cingulifera and Xenuroturris legitima ...
  48. Lopata A, O Hehir R, Lehrer S. Shellfish allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:850-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Aguilera M, Navarrete S. Interspecific competition for shelters in territorial and gregarious intertidal grazers: consequences for individual behaviour. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46205 pubmed publisher
    ..Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental conditions in a species-specific as well as an interactive manner within consumers' guilds. ..
  50. Kato M, Yamamori L, Goto R, Tsubaki R, Ohsuga K. A new large tellinid species of the genus Pharaonella from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Zookeys. 2017;:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These rare, large tellinid species are indicators of unspoiled tidal/subtidal sand flats, which should receive the highest priority conservation in the Ryukyu Archipelago...
  51. Naresh K, Sreekumar A, Rajan S. Structural insights into the interaction between molluscan hemocyanins and phenolic substrates: An in silico study using docking and molecular dynamics. J Mol Graph Model. 2015;61:272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..carrier protein that exhibits phenoloxidase-like activity and is found in selected species of arthropoda and mollusca. The phenoloxidase activity in the molluscan hemocyanins can be triggered by the proteolytic removal of the C-..
  52. Hawes T, Worland M, Bale J. Freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna. Cryobiology. 2010;61:128-32 pubmed publisher
  53. Liu X, Liu C, Chen L, Sun J, Zhou Y, Li Q, et al. A new method to extract matrix proteins directly from the secretion of the mollusk mantle and the role of these proteins in shell biomineralization. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2011;13:981-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nanoscale-sized bowl-like aragonites, with heights of ?800 nm, were induced by CSPs in vitro. This method is a successful example of obtaining functional proteins through secretion by animal tissues. ..
  54. Barboza F, Gómez J, Lercari D, Defeo O. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40468 pubmed publisher
  55. Kilcoyne J, Fux E. Strategies for the elimination of matrix effects in the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid and azaspiracid-1 in molluscan shellfish. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:7123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of an alkaline method and a modified acidic method eliminated matrix suppression for AZA1 on the TSQ instrument while an on-line SPE method proved to be effective for matrix enhancement of OA on the QToF...
  56. Telford M. Mollusc evolution: seven shells on the sea shore. Curr Biol. 2013;23:R952-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of seven muscle rows in larvae of both classes suggests that polyplacophoran-like shell rows have been lost in adult Aplacophora...
  57. Martino M, Fasolato L, Montemurro F, Novelli E, Cardazzo B. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?. Environ Microbiol. 2014;16:1005-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats. ..
  58. Wu B, Jin M, Gong J, Du X, Bai Z. Dynamic evolution of CIKS (TRAF3IP2/Act1) in metazoans. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:1186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..During the evolutionary process, the CIKS genes have obtained more and more functions through cooperation with other genes...
  59. Espino S, Dilanyan T, Imperial J, Aguilar M, Teichert R, Bandyopadhyay P, et al. Glycine-rich conotoxins from the Virgiconus clade. Toxicon. 2016;113:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the vi6a sequence, five other homologs were identified. These peptides define a glycine-rich subgroup of the O1-superfamily from the Virgiconus clade, with biological activity in mice. ..