planarians

Summary

Summary: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.

Top Publications

  1. Nishimura K, Inoue T, Yoshimoto K, Taniguchi T, Kitamura Y, Agata K. Regeneration of dopaminergic neurons after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion in planarian brain. J Neurochem. 2011;119:1217-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians have robust regenerative ability dependent on X-ray-sensitive pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts...
  2. Farrell M, Gilmore K, Raffa R, Walker E. Behavioral characterization of serotonergic activation in the flatworm Planaria. Behav Pharmacol. 2008;19:177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Planarians were video recorded individually in a clear plastic cube containing drug solution or vehicle...
  3. Rouhana L, Vieira A, Roberts Galbraith R, Newmark P. PRMT5 and the role of symmetrical dimethylarginine in chromatoid bodies of planarian stem cells. Development. 2012;139:1083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal new components of chromatoid bodies and their function in planarian stem cells, and also support emerging studies indicative of sDMA function in stabilization of RNP granules and the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway. ..
  4. Koinuma S, Umesono Y, Watanabe K, Agata K. The expression of planarian brain factor homologs, DjFoxG and DjFoxD. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:21-7 pubmed
    ..We identified a FoxG1 (BF-1) homolog gene in planarians (DjFoxG). We also identified a FoxD class gene, DjFoxD...
  5. Forsthoefel D, Park A, Newmark P. Stem cell-based growth, regeneration, and remodeling of the planarian intestine. Dev Biol. 2011;356:445-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In planarians, pluripotent somatic stem cells called neoblasts supply new cells for growth, replenish tissues in response to ..
  6. Reddien P. Constitutive gene expression and the specification of tissue identity in adult planarian biology. Trends Genet. 2011;27:277-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians are flatworms that constitutively maintain adult tissues through cell turnover and can regenerate entire organisms from tiny body fragments...
  7. Cebria F, Guo T, Jopek J, Newmark P. Regeneration and maintenance of the planarian midline is regulated by a slit orthologue. Dev Biol. 2007;307:394-406 pubmed
    ..The remarkable plasticity of freshwater planarians provides the opportunity to study these molecules in the context of neural regeneration and maintenance...
  8. Solana J, Lasko P, Romero R. Spoltud-1 is a chromatoid body component required for planarian long-term stem cell self-renewal. Dev Biol. 2009;328:410-21 pubmed publisher
    Freshwater planarians exhibit a striking power of regeneration, based on a population of undifferentiated totipotent stem cells, called neoblasts...
  9. Chong T, Stary J, Wang Y, Newmark P. Molecular markers to characterize the hermaphroditic reproductive system of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these cell-type specific markers will enable future efforts to characterize genes that are important for reproductive development in the planarian. ..

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Forsthoefel D, James N, Escobar D, Stary J, Vieira A, Waters F, et al. An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians. Dev Cell. 2012;23:691-704 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians grow and regenerate organs by coordinating proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells with remodeling of postmitotic tissues...
  2. Iglesias M, Gomez Skarmeta J, Salo E, Adell T. Silencing of Smed-betacatenin1 generates radial-like hypercephalized planarians. Development. 2008;135:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we set out to analyze the role of the canonical Wnt pathway in planarians, flatworms renowned for their extraordinary morphological plasticity...
  3. Agata K, Umesono Y. Brain regeneration from pluripotent stem cells in planarian. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008;363:2071-8 pubmed publisher
    How can planarians regenerate their brain? Recently we have identified many genes critical for this process...
  4. Conte M, Deri P, Isolani M, Mannini L, Batistoni R. A mortalin-like gene is crucial for planarian stem cell viability. Dev Biol. 2009;334:109-18 pubmed publisher
    In adult organisms, stem cells are crucial to homeostasis and regeneration of damaged tissues. In planarians, adult stem cells (neoblasts) are endowed with an extraordinary replicative potential that guarantees unlimited replacement of ..
  5. Thatcher E, Patton J. Small RNAs have a big impact on regeneration. RNA Biol. 2010;7:333-8 pubmed
    ..Freshwater planarians are even more amazing, capable of regenerating entire body plans from small amputated fragments...
  6. De Robertis E. Wnt signaling in axial patterning and regeneration: lessons from planaria. Sci Signal. 2010;3:pe21 pubmed publisher
    ..When canonical Wnt signaling is low, heads develop, and when it is high, tails are formed. In planarians, Wnt transcription is activated by wounding in a beta-catenin-independent way...
  7. Iglesias M, Almuedo Castillo M, Aboobaker A, Salo E. Early planarian brain regeneration is independent of blastema polarity mediated by the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Dev Biol. 2011;358:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, no role in AP specification has previously been reported for axin genes in planarians. We show that silencing of Smed-axin genes by RNA interference (RNAi) results in two-tailed planarians, a ..
  8. Fusaoka E, Inoue T, Mineta K, Agata K, Takeuchi K. Structure and function of primitive immunoglobulin superfamily neural cell adhesion molecules: a lesson from studies on planarian. Genes Cells. 2006;11:541-55 pubmed
    ..Functional analyses using RNA interference revealed that DjCAM is partly involved in axon formation, and that DjDSCAM plays crucial roles in neuronal cell migration, axon outgrowth, fasciculation and projection. ..
  9. Molina M, Salo E, Cebria F. Expression pattern of the expanded noggin gene family in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, it has been shown in planarians that the BMP pathway has a conserved function in the maintenance and re-establishment of the dorsoventral axis ..
  10. Wagner D, Ho J, Reddien P. Genetic regulators of a pluripotent adult stem cell system in planarians identified by RNAi and clonal analysis. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:299-311 pubmed publisher
    ..In planarians, regeneration of entire animals from tissue fragments is promoted by the activity of adult pluripotent stem ..
  11. Reddien P. Specialized progenitors and regeneration. Development. 2013;140:951-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating all body parts. Planarian regeneration requires neoblasts, a population of dividing cells that has been studied for over a century...
  12. Palakodeti D, Smielewska M, Lu Y, Yeo G, Graveley B. The PIWI proteins SMEDWI-2 and SMEDWI-3 are required for stem cell function and piRNA expression in planarians. RNA. 2008;14:1174-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, SMEDWI-2 and SMEDWI-3 are required for piRNA expression, regeneration, and neoblast function in S. mediterranea. ..
  13. Zayas R, Hernandez A, Habermann B, Wang Y, Stary J, Newmark P. The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model for epigenetic germ cell specification: analysis of ESTs from the hermaphroditic strain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18491-6 pubmed
    Freshwater planarians have prodigious regenerative abilities that enable them to form complete organisms from tiny body fragments. This plasticity is also exhibited by the planarian germ cell lineage...
  14. González Estévez C, Felix D, Smith M, Paps J, Morley S, James V, et al. SMG-1 and mTORC1 act antagonistically to regulate response to injury and growth in planarians. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002619 pubmed publisher
  15. Fraguas S, Barberán S, Iglesias M, Rodríguez Esteban G, Cebria F. egr-4, a target of EGFR signaling, is required for the formation of the brain primordia and head regeneration in planarians. Development. 2014;141:1835-47 pubmed publisher
    During the regeneration of freshwater planarians, polarity and patterning programs play essential roles in determining whether a head or a tail regenerates at anterior or posterior-facing wounds...
  16. Orii H, Sakurai T, Watanabe K. Distribution of the stem cells (neoblasts) in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:143-57 pubmed
    It has been postulated that the high regeneration ability of planarians is supported by totipotent stem cells, called neoblasts. There have been a few reports showing the distribution of neoblasts in planarians...
  17. Bonuccelli L, Rossi L, Lena A, Scarcelli V, Rainaldi G, Evangelista M, et al. An RbAp48-like gene regulates adult stem cells in planarians. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..homologue of human RBAP48 - expression of which is restricted to the neoblasts, the adult stem cells of planarians. In vivo silencing of DjRbAp48 induces lethality and inability to regenerate, even though neoblasts proliferate ..
  18. Miller C, Newmark P. An insulin-like peptide regulates size and adult stem cells in planarians. Int J Dev Biol. 2012;56:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we have shown that adult organisms can differentially regulate specific cell populations as a result of environmental challenges. ..
  19. Blassberg R, Felix D, Tejada Romero B, Aboobaker A. PBX/extradenticle is required to re-establish axial structures and polarity during planarian regeneration. Development. 2013;140:730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the role of the conserved TALE class protein PBX/Extradenticle in planarians, a representative member of the Lophotrocozoa...
  20. Rowlands A, PAGAN O. Parthenolide prevents the expression of cocaine-induced withdrawal behavior in planarians. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;583:170-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous reports indicate that when planarians are chronically exposed to microM concentrations of cocaine, they display stereotypical withdrawal-like ..
  21. Kreshchenko N. Functions of flatworm neuropeptides NPF, GYIRF and FMRF in course of pharyngeal regeneration of anterior body fragments of planarian, Girardia tigrina. Acta Biol Hung. 2008;59 Suppl:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..the presence of NPF in pharyngeal nervous system, peripheral nerve plexuses, in central nervous system of intact planarians. NPF-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibres were found at the site of regeneration surrounding pharyngeal rudiment...
  22. Chai G, Ma C, Bao K, Zheng L, Wang X, Sun Z, et al. Complete functional segregation of planarian beta-catenin-1 and -2 in mediating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus identify the first two monofunctional beta-catenins in metazoans. ..
  23. Scimone M, Srivastava M, Bell G, Reddien P. A regulatory program for excretory system regeneration in planarians. Development. 2011;138:4387-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians can regenerate any missing body part, requiring mechanisms for the production of organ systems in the adult, including their prominent tubule-based filtration excretory system called protonephridia...
  24. Cowles M, Hubert A, Zayas R. A Lissencephaly-1 homologue is essential for mitotic progression in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:901-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians are renowned for their capacity to replace lost tissues from adult pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts)...
  25. Rawls S, Cavallo F, Capasso A, Ding Z, Raffa R. The beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone inhibits physical dependence and abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and clorazepate in planarians. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..physical dependence and withdrawal from several drugs involve a common - beta-lactam-sensitive - mechanism in planarians. If these findings can be shown to extend to mammals, beta-lactam antibiotics might represent a novel ..
  26. Gaviño M, Reddien P. A Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit controls maintenance and regeneration of dorsal-ventral polarity in planarians. Curr Biol. 2011;21:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An admp ortholog (Smed-admp) is expressed ventrally and laterally in adult Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, opposing the dorsal-pole expression of Smed-bmp4...
  27. Molina M, Salo E, Cebria F. The BMP pathway is essential for re-specification and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis in regenerating and intact planarians. Dev Biol. 2007;311:79-94 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the BMP signaling pathway is conserved in planarians and that it plays a key role in the regeneration and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis.
  28. Guedelhoefer O, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Amputation induces stem cell mobilization to sites of injury during planarian regeneration. Development. 2012;139:3510-20 pubmed publisher
  29. Liu S, Selck C, Friedrich B, Lutz R, Vila Farré M, Dahl A, et al. Reactivating head regrowth in a regeneration-deficient planarian species. Nature. 2013;500:81-4 pubmed publisher
    ..from minute tissue pieces, yet species with limited regeneration abilities have been described even amongst planarians. Here we report the characterization of the regeneration defect in the planarian Dendrocoelum lacteum and its ..
  30. Agata K, Tanaka T, Kobayashi C, Kato K, Saitoh Y. Intercalary regeneration in planarians. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:308-16 pubmed
    ..Here, we propose a new interpretation, i.e., that the blastema may work as a signaling center inducing intercalary regeneration. Also, the roles of molecules and genes involved in intercalary regeneration are discussed. ..
  31. Inoue T, Kumamoto H, Okamoto K, Umesono Y, Sakai M, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A, et al. Morphological and functional recovery of the planarian photosensing system during head regeneration. Zoolog Sci. 2004;21:275-83 pubmed
    When exposed to light, planarians display a distinctive light avoidance behavior known as negative phototaxis...
  32. Newmark P, Wang Y, Chong T. Germ cell specification and regeneration in planarians. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2008;73:573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Freshwater planarians--widely known for their remarkable powers of regeneration--are well suited for studying the mechanisms by which ..
  33. Fraguas S, Barberán S, Cebria F. EGFR signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Dev Biol. 2011;354:87-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Among classical models to study regeneration, freshwater planarians represent an attractive system in which to investigate the signals that regulate cell proliferation and ..
  34. Orii H, Mochii M, Watanabe K. A simple "soaking method" for RNA interference in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:138-41 pubmed
    ..This simple soaking method in combination with expressed sequence tag analysis should be very useful for high-throughput analyses of gene functions in planarian regeneration. ..
  35. Lapan S, Reddien P. Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration. Cell Rep. 2012;2:294-307 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, a conserved, transcription-factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye. ..
  36. Reddien P, Bermange A, Murfitt K, Jennings J, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Identification of genes needed for regeneration, stem cell function, and tissue homeostasis by systematic gene perturbation in planaria. Dev Cell. 2005;8:635-49 pubmed
    b>Planarians have been a classic model system for the study of regeneration, tissue homeostasis, and stem cell biology for over a century, but they have not historically been accessible to extensive genetic manipulation...
  37. Nishimura K, Unemura K, Tsushima J, Yamauchi Y, Otomo J, Taniguchi T, et al. Identification of a novel planarian G-protein-coupled receptor that responds to serotonin in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:1672-7 pubmed
    b>Planarians are useful animals for regenerative and neuroscience research at the molecular level. Previously, we have reported the distribution and function of neurotransmitter-synthesizing neurons in the planarian central nervous system...
  38. Shomrat T, Levin M. An automated training paradigm reveals long-term memory in planarians and its persistence through head regeneration. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:3799-810 pubmed publisher
    ..training and testing paradigm that avoided the many issues that confounded previous, manual attempts to train planarians. We then used this new system to train flatworms in an environmental familiarization protocol...
  39. Pennisi E. Evolution of developmental diversity meeting. RNAi takes Evo-Devo world by storm. Science. 2004;304:384 pubmed
  40. SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Regeneration and the need for simpler model organisms. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2004;359:759-63 pubmed
    ..Therefore, planarians present us with new, experimentally accessible contexts in which to study the molecular actions guiding cell ..
  41. Nogi T, Yuan Y, Sorocco D, Pérez Tomás R, Levin M. Eye regeneration assay reveals an invariant functional left-right asymmetry in the early bilaterian, Dugesia japonica. Laterality. 2005;10:193-205 pubmed
  42. Handberg Thorsager M, Salo E. The planarian nanos-like gene Smednos is expressed in germline and eye precursor cells during development and regeneration. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:403-11 pubmed
    b>Planarians are highly regenerative organisms with the ability to remake all their cell types, including the germ cells. The germ cells have been suggested to arise from totipotent neoblasts through epigenetic mechanisms...
  43. Cebria F, Kobayashi C, Umesono Y, Nakazawa M, Mineta K, Ikeo K, et al. FGFR-related gene nou-darake restricts brain tissues to the head region of planarians. Nature. 2002;419:620-4 pubmed
    ..The robust regenerative abilities of planarians are based upon a population of totipotent stem cells (neoblasts), and among the organs regenerated by these ..
  44. Saito Y, Koinuma S, Watanabe K, Agata K. Mediolateral intercalation in planarians revealed by grafting experiments. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:334-40 pubmed
    We investigated how planarians organize their left-right axis by using ectopic grafting. Planarians have three body axes: anteroposterior (A-P), dorsoventral (D-V), and left-right (L-R)...
  45. Umesono Y, Agata K. Evolution and regeneration of the planarian central nervous system. Dev Growth Differ. 2009;51:185-95 pubmed publisher
    More than 100 years ago, early workers realized that planarians offer an excellent system for regeneration studies...
  46. Molina M, Neto A, Maeso I, Gomez Skarmeta J, Salo E, Cebria F. Noggin and noggin-like genes control dorsoventral axis regeneration in planarians. Curr Biol. 2011;21:300-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians regenerate a whole animal from a small body piece within a few days. Recent studies have shown that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is required to reestablish the dorsoventral (DV) axis...
  47. Martín Durán J, Monjo F, Romero R. Morphological and molecular development of the eyes during embryogenesis of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Dev Genes Evol. 2012;222:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In planarians, sine oculis, eyes absent and otxA play an essential role during the formation of the eye after decapitation, ..
  48. Wenemoser D, Lapan S, Wilkinson A, Bell G, Reddien P. A molecular wound response program associated with regeneration initiation in planarians. Genes Dev. 2012;26:988-1002 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing body part and present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration initiation...
  49. Zhu S, Pearson B. The Retinoblastoma pathway regulates stem cell proliferation in freshwater planarians. Dev Biol. 2013;373:442-52 pubmed publisher
    Freshwater planarians are flatworms of the Lophotrochozoan superphylum and are well known for their regenerative abilities, which rely on a large population of pluripotent adult stem cells...
  50. Sato Y, Kobayashi K, Matsumoto M, Hoshi M, Negishi S. Comparative study of eye defective worm 'menashi' and regenerating wild-type in planarian, Dugesia ryukyuensis. Pigment Cell Res. 2005;18:86-91 pubmed
    ..The intact eye of wild-type planarians consisted of a few pigment cells and a number of visual cells...
  51. Okamoto K, Takeuchi K, Agata K. Neural projections in planarian brain revealed by fluorescent dye tracing. Zoolog Sci. 2005;22:535-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we report for the first time on neural connections in the planarian central nervous system after overcoming technical difficulties specific to flatworms...
  52. Nogi T, Levin M. Characterization of innexin gene expression and functional roles of gap-junctional communication in planarian regeneration. Dev Biol. 2005;287:314-35 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the expression data and the respecification of the posterior blastema to an anteriorized fate by GJC loss-of-function suggest that innexin-based GJC mediates instructive signaling during regeneration...
  53. Guo T, Peters A, Newmark P. A Bruno-like gene is required for stem cell maintenance in planarians. Dev Cell. 2006;11:159-69 pubmed
    The regenerative abilities of freshwater planarians are based on neoblasts, stem cells maintained throughout the animal's life...
  54. Rawls S, Baron S, Ding Z, Roth C, Zaveri N, Raffa R. Nociceptin attenuates methamphetamine abstinence-induced withdrawal-like behavior in planarians. Neuropeptides. 2008;42:229-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians display a concentration-related reduction in locomotor activity when amphetamine, cocaine, cannabinoid, or benzodiazepine exposure is abruptly discontinued...
  55. Baguna J. The planarian neoblast: the rambling history of its origin and some current black boxes. Int J Dev Biol. 2012;56:19-37 pubmed publisher
    ..of germ cells; and 5) more recent developments that culminate in the report of rescuing lethally irradiated planarians by injection of single neoblasts, which makes of neoblasts an unrivaled toti-, pluripotent somatic stem cell ..
  56. Solana J, Kao D, Mihaylova Y, Jaber Hijazi F, Malla S, Wilson R, et al. Defining the molecular profile of planarian pluripotent stem cells using a combinatorial RNAseq, RNA interference and irradiation approach. Genome Biol. 2012;13:R19 pubmed publisher
    Planarian stem cells, or neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regeneration capacities of freshwater planarians. Neoblasts are traditionally described by their morphological features and by the fact that they are the only proliferative ..
  57. Elliott S, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. The history and enduring contributions of planarians to the study of animal regeneration. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. 2013;2:301-26 pubmed publisher
    Having an almost unlimited capacity to regenerate tissues lost to age and injury, planarians have long fascinated naturalists. In the Western hemisphere alone, their documented history spans more than 200 years...
  58. Ogawa K, Ishihara S, Saito Y, Mineta K, Nakazawa M, Ikeo K, et al. Induction of a noggin-like gene by ectopic DV interaction during planarian regeneration. Dev Biol. 2002;250:59-70 pubmed
    ..Expression of Djnlg was observed only in the proximal region of the branch structures in the brain of intact planarians, suggesting that Djnlg may have a role in pattern formation in the brain...
  59. Salvetti A, Lena A, Rossi L, Deri P, Cecchettini A, Batistoni R, et al. Characterization of DeY1, a novel Y-box gene specifically expressed in differentiating male germ cells of planarians. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:195-200 pubmed
    ..We report the identification of a novel Y-box gene, DeY1, whose transcripts are found in the testes of sexual planarians. DeY1 is expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, while no expression is detected in ..
  60. Rossi L, Deri P, Andreoli I, Gremigni V, Salvetti A, Batistoni R. Expression of DjXnp, a novel member of the SNF2-like ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling genes, in intact and regenerating planarians. Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47:293-8 pubmed
    ..We have identified in planarians, invertebrates well-known for their regenerative capability,the cDNA of a novel gene, DjXnp, which encodes a ..
  61. Takano T, Pulvers J, Inoue T, Tarui H, Sakamoto H, Agata K, et al. Regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) in planarian: demonstration of requirement for Djsnap-25 expression in the brain for negative phototactic behavior. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:383-94 pubmed
    Freshwater planarians have a simple and evolutionarily primitive brain structure...
  62. Abril J, Cebria F, Rodríguez Esteban G, Horn T, Fraguas S, Calvo B, et al. Smed454 dataset: unravelling the transcriptome of Schmidtea mediterranea. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:731 pubmed publisher
    Freshwater planarians are an attractive model for regeneration and stem cell research and have become a promising tool in the field of regenerative medicine...
  63. Lázaro E, Harrath A, Stocchino G, Pala M, Baguna J, Riutort M. Schmidtea mediterranea phylogeography: an old species surviving on a few Mediterranean islands?. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:274 pubmed publisher
    ..Using known and new molecular markers and, for the first time in planarians, a molecular clock, we analysed the genetic variability and demographic parameters within the species and ..
  64. Evans D, Owlarn S, Tejada Romero B, Chen C, Aboobaker A. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27927 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new, and then later homeostatic signals in AP axis regeneration...
  65. Zamanian M, Kimber M, McVeigh P, Carlson S, Maule A, Day T. The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:596 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent availability of genomic data for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and analyze GPCRs in this important phylum...
  66. Rompolas P, Azimzadeh J, Marshall W, King S. Analysis of ciliary assembly and function in planaria. Methods Enzymol. 2013;525:245-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Planarians are free-living invertebrates that employ motile cilia for locomotion...
  67. Newmark P, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Not your father's planarian: a classic model enters the era of functional genomics. Nat Rev Genet. 2002;3:210-9 pubmed
    Freshwater planarians were a classic model for studying the problems of development and regeneration...
  68. Cebria F. Regenerating the central nervous system: how easy for planarians!. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:733-48 pubmed
    The regenerative capabilities of freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes) are very difficult to match. A fragment as tiny as 1/279th of the planarian body is able to regenerate a whole animal within very few days [Morgan...
  69. Gurley K, Rink J, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Beta-catenin defines head versus tail identity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Science. 2008;319:323-7 pubmed
    After amputation, freshwater planarians properly regenerate a head or tail from the resulting anterior or posterior wound...
  70. Glazer A, Wilkinson A, Backer C, Lapan S, Gutzman J, Cheeseman I, et al. The Zn finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;337:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion...
  71. Rouhana L, Shibata N, Nishimura O, Agata K. Different requirements for conserved post-transcriptional regulators in planarian regeneration and stem cell maintenance. Dev Biol. 2010;341:429-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that planarian neoblasts maintain pluripotency by employing mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation exhibited in germ cells and early development of most metazoans...
  72. Beane W, Morokuma J, Adams D, Levin M. A chemical genetics approach reveals H,K-ATPase-mediated membrane voltage is required for planarian head regeneration. Chem Biol. 2011;18:77-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest well-characterized drugs (already approved for human use) might be exploited to control adult stem cell-driven pattern formation during the regeneration of complex structures...
  73. Isolani M, Pietra D, Balestrini L, Borghini A, Deri P, Imbriani M, et al. The in vivo effect of chelidonine on the stem cell system of planarians. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;686:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of molecular markers specific for stem or differentiated cells were compared in chelidonine-treated and control planarians. The use of these markers demonstrates that chelidonine produces in vivo a significant anti-proliferative effect ..
  74. Zeng A, Li Y, Wang C, Han X, Li G, Wang J, et al. Heterochromatin protein 1 promotes self-renewal and triggers regenerative proliferation in adult stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:409-25 pubmed publisher
    ..screen against 205 chromatin regulators identified 12 proteins essential for ASC function and regeneration in planarians. Surprisingly, the HP1-like protein SMED-HP1-1 (HP1-1) specifically marked self-renewing, pluripotent ASCs, and ..
  75. Ribeiro P, El Shehabi F, Patocka N. Classical transmitters and their receptors in flatworms. Parasitology. 2005;131 Suppl:S19-40 pubmed
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of these distinctive properties, and developing new, more specific receptor agonists and antagonists will undoubtedly become a major challenge in future research...
  76. Wang Y, Zayas R, Guo T, Newmark P. nanos function is essential for development and regeneration of planarian germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5901-6 pubmed
    ..Freshwater planarians serve as fascinating models for studying these questions...
  77. Kang H, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Flow cytometry methods for the study of cell-cycle parameters of planarian stem cells. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods expand on the growing toolkit being developed to study stem cell biology in planarians, and open the door to detailed cytometric studies of a collectively totipotent population of adult stem cells in ..
  78. Pellettieri J, Fitzgerald P, Watanabe S, Mancuso J, Green D, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. Cell death and tissue remodeling in planarian regeneration. Dev Biol. 2010;338:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report results from initial mechanistic studies of apoptosis in planarians, which revealed that a S...
  79. Wang Y, Stary J, Wilhelm J, Newmark P. A functional genomic screen in planarians identifies novel regulators of germ cell development. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2081-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used functional genomic approaches in planarians to identify genes required for proper germ cell development...
  80. Lapan S, Reddien P. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002226 pubmed publisher
  81. Peiris T, Weckerle F, Ozamoto E, Ramirez D, Davidian D, Garcia Ojeda M, et al. TOR signaling regulates planarian stem cells and controls localized and organismal growth. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1657-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal novel roles for TOR signaling in controlling adult stem cells at a systemic level and suggest a new paradigm for studying TOR function during physiological turnover and regeneration...
  82. Aboobaker A, Kao D. A lack of commitment for over 500 million years: conserved animal stem cell pluripotency. EMBO J. 2012;31:2747-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Their analyses suggest that molecular pluripotency mechanisms may be conserved, and tantalisingly that pluripotency in germ stem cells (GSCs) and somatic stem cells (SSCs) may have had shared common evolutionary origins...
  83. Pineda D, Rossi L, Batistoni R, Salvetti A, Marsal M, Gremigni V, et al. The genetic network of prototypic planarian eye regeneration is Pax6 independent. Development. 2002;129:1423-34 pubmed
    ..Pax6A is expressed in the central nervous system of intact planarians, labeling a subset of cells of both cephalic ganglia and nerve cords, and is activated during cephalic ..
  84. Shagin D, Barsova E, Bogdanova E, Britanova O, Gurskaya N, Lukyanov K, et al. Identification and characterization of a new family of C-type lectin-like genes from planaria Girardia tigrina. Glycobiology. 2002;12:463-72 pubmed
    ..These genes are expressed in specifically differentiated gland cells of planaria and the corresponding proteins are excreted as components of the planarian body surface mucus...
  85. Agata K. Regeneration and gene regulation in planarians. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003;13:492-6 pubmed
    b>Planarians can regenerate using a pluripotent stem cell system. This phenomenon provides a unique opportunity to understand gene regulation in the process of differentiation from pluripotent stem cells...
  86. Reddien P, Bermange A, Kicza A, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. BMP signaling regulates the dorsal planarian midline and is needed for asymmetric regeneration. Development. 2007;134:4043-51 pubmed
    b>Planarians can be cut into irregularly shaped fragments capable of regenerating new and complete organisms. Such regenerative capacities involve a robust ability to restore bilateral symmetry...
  87. Yoshida Kashikawa M, Shibata N, Takechi K, Agata K. DjCBC-1, a conserved DEAD box RNA helicase of the RCK/p54/Me31B family, is a component of RNA-protein complexes in planarian stem cells and neurons. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3436-50 pubmed
    The stem cells of planarians, known as neoblasts, can give rise to all cell types in planarians...
  88. González Estévez C. Autophagy meets planarians. Autophagy. 2009;5:290-7 pubmed
    This review aims to demonstrate the importance of freshwater planarians as model organisms, particularly emphasizing those characteristics of the animal that make them a good model to study autophagy...
  89. Oviedo N, Morokuma J, Walentek P, Kema I, Gu M, Ahn J, et al. Long-range neural and gap junction protein-mediated cues control polarity during planarian regeneration. Dev Biol. 2010;339:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..nervous system and 3 innexin proteins, which determine the fate and axial polarity of regenerated tissue in planarians. Modulation of gap junction-dependent and neural signals specifically induces ectopic anterior regeneration ..
  90. Adell T, Cebria F, Salo E. Gradients in planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2:a000505 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss whether the actions of these molecules could be based on morphogenetic gradients...
  91. Wenemoser D, Reddien P. Planarian regeneration involves distinct stem cell responses to wounds and tissue absence. Dev Biol. 2010;344:979-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Wound signals and tissue responses to wounds that elicit regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarians are able to regenerate from essentially any type of injury and present a novel system for the study of wound ..
  92. Tu K, Pearson B, SANCHEZ ALVARADO A. TORC1 is required to balance cell proliferation and cell death in planarians. Dev Biol. 2012;365:458-69 pubmed publisher
    ..enable them to replace differentiated cells lost to normal physiological turnover, injury, and for some such as planarians, even amputation...